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Space

Iranian satellites Fajr, Nahid and Zafar to be launched on schedule

IRNA - Islamic Republic News Agency

Rio de Janeiro, June 23, IRNA -- Head of IRI Aerospace Organization said here Friday launching of Sharif Science and Technology University’s satellites Fajr, Nahid and Zafar would take place on schedule, soon.
1391/04/03 - 11:08

Hamid Fazeli who is in the Brazilian capital city to take part at the UN sponsored Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development added in an interview with the IRNA presidential affairs reporter, “Today, despite the unjustly imposed sanctions for over three decades by the west against Iran, the responsible and specialist Iranian scientists have achieved the technical and scientific know-how of designing, manufacturing and launching various types of research satellites.”

Pointing out that so far a noticeable number of fully Iranian designed and manufactured satellites have been successfully launched to space and are in their scheduled orbits now.

He added, “Navid was the last satellite launched successfully into space and it has thus far accomplished its entire scheduled missions.”

Fazeli said, “The IRI Aerospace Organization intends to dispatch more biological parcels to space in Iranian satellite carriers to survey the status of living species in the space.”

The head of the country’s aerospace organization then focused on Fajr satellite, informing, “This is a spectacular technological achievement for our country which taking advantage of a cold gas propeller would begin it maneuver in its scheduled orbit at some 370 to 400 kilometers distance from the earth.”

Fazeli reiterate, “Taking advantage of this cold gas propeller would increase the useful lifespan of this precise image taker satellite up to 18 months.”

** Significant importance of space in sustainable development

The Head of Islamic Republic of Iran Aerospace Organization pointing out that space plays a very significant role in sustainable development of a country, reiterated, “The sciences related to this field are in fact in a way very valuable parts and parcels for the infrastructure apparatus needed for sustainable development.”

Fazeli added, “Any country that would like the Islamic Republic of Iran achieve mastership in this field has in fact got access the required precious bases which are applicable in entire scientific and technological fields.”

He further emphasized that these technologies and achievements leading to manufacturing space products contribute greatly to achieving sustainable development, and for instance, taking proper advantage of a measuring satellite and the territorial conditions, the existing resources of the country can be viewed and evaluated from the space, after which they would be evaluate with open eyes and then they would be properly taken advantage of.

Fazeli noted, “Taking advantage of remote research and measurement satellites the researchers and scientists are enabled to asses the meteorological conditions, draught assessment, the territorial status and existing resources of the country, and the issues related to environment and environment protection matters, natural disasters management, and many other issues related to the wellbeing and security of the people.

He referred to the role of the satellites in remote training, offering remote Medicare services and many other affairs related to sustainable development, adding, “Today the satellites are valuable means at the service of sustainable development at the service of any country that can achieve this technology and take proper advantage of it.”

Iran is an active participant in the Asian space race and became an orbital-launch-capable nation in 2009. Iran is one of the 24 founding members of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, which was set up in 1958.

ISA was established on 1 February 2004 according to the Article 9 of the Law for Tasks and Authorizations of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology passed on 10 December 2003 by the Parliament of Iran. Based on the approved statute ISA mandated to cover and support all the activities in Iran concerning the peaceful applications of space science and technology under the leadership of a Supreme Council of Space chaired by Iran’s President.

The Council’s main goals included policy making for the application of space technologies aiming peaceful uses of outer space, manufacturing, launching and use of the national research satellites, approving the space related state and private sector programs, promoting the partnership of the private and cooperative sectors in efficient uses of space, identifying guidelines concerning the regional and international cooperation in space issues.

To follow and implement the strategies set by the Council, ISA affiliated with the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology in the form of an autonomous organization, was organized. The President of ISA held the position of the Vice-Minister of Communications and Information Technology and the secretariat of Supreme Council of Space at the same time.

After the year 2000 Iran had acquired the necessary skills to begin initial production of the Shahab-3 rocket.

Iran has developed an expendable satellite launch vehicle named Safir SLV. Measuring 22 meters in height with a core diameter of 1.25 m, with two liquid propellant stages, a single thrust chambered first stage and a two-thrust chambered, step-throttled second stage, the SLV has a lift off mass exceeding 26 tons. The first stage consists of a lengthened up-rated Shahab-3C. According to the technical documentation presented in the annual meeting of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs it is two-stage rocket with all liquid propellant engines. The first stage is capable of carrying the payload to the maximum altitude of 68 kilometer. It is designed to place a lightweight (50–100 kg) payload into a 500 km LEO. The lighter sub-orbital all-liquid two-stage version is known as Kavoshgar. It is the civilian version derived from one of at least four known military ASAT systems still in development, thus the Safir SLV is 40% taller.

The Safir-2B (Which in some news sources is mistakenly called Safir-1B) is the second generation of Safir SLV and can carry a satellite weighing 50 kilograms into an elliptical orbit of 300 to 450 kilometers. The thrust of the Safir-1B rocket engine has been increased from 32 to 37 tons.

In 2010 a more powerful rocket named Simorgh was built. Its mission is to carry heavier satellites into orbit. The Simorgh rocket is 27 meters (89 ft) long, and has a mass of 77 tonnes (85 tons).[4] Its first stage is powered by four main engines, each generating up to 29,000 kilograms (64,000 lb) of thrust, plus a fifth which will be used for attitude control, which provides an additional 13,600 kilograms (30,000 lb). At liftoff, these engines will generate a total of 130,000 kilograms (290,000 lb) of thrust. Simorgh is capable of putting a 60-kilogram (130 lb) payload into a 500-kilometer (310 mi) low Earth orbit. The first flight of the Simorgh rocket is scheduled to occur by 2013.

On February 25, 2007, the Iranian state-run television announced that a rocket, created by the ministries of science and defense and which carried an unspecified cargo, was successfully launched. This could have been the maiden test flight of the three staged Safir SLV which ended in a failure. Later on it was noted by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that the failure was due to a technical problem in the last stage of the SLV. On February 4, 2008, Iran successfully launched a two-stage all solid-fuel sub-orbital sounding rocket Kavoshgar-1 (Explorer-1), for a maiden sub-orbital test flight from Shahroud, its newly inaugurated domestic space launch complex. The first stage of the rocket detached after 90 seconds and returned to earth with the help of a parachute while the second stage reached a 200 km altitude before reentering the Earth's atmosphere after 300 seconds. The third section of the rocket, containing an atmospheric probe, climbed to 250 km while successfully transmitting scientific data on the atmosphere and the electromagnetic waves on its path back to Earth. It deployed a parachute after six minutes at a lower altitude. The second Kavoshgar (Kavoshgar-2), which carried a space-lab and a restoration system, was launched in November 2008.

On February 3, 2010, ISA launched the Kavoshgar-3 (Explorer-3) rocket with one rodent, two turtles, and several worms into sub-orbital space and returned them to Earth alive. The rocket was enabled to transfer electronic data and live footage back to Earth. The Iranian Aerospace Organization (IAO) showed live video transmission of mini-environmental lab to enable further studies on the biological capsule. This was the first biological payload launched by Iran. Iran is the sixth country to send animals in space.

On March 15, 2011, the ISA launched the Kavoshgar-4 (Explorer-4) rocket carrying a test capsule designed to carry a monkey but without living creatures on board. Kavoshgar-5 (Explorer-5) carrying a live monkey was launched for a 20-minute sub-orbital flight in September 2011, however the mission failed. On October 3, Iran indefinitely postponed further plans while scientists reviewed readiness for future missions. In May 2012, Iran announced that it will send more living creatures into the space by the summer.

On August 17, 2008, Iran proceeded with the second test launch of a two-stage Safir SLV from a site south of Semnan in the northern part of the Dasht-e-Kavir desert. Reza Taghizadeh, head of the Iranian Aerospace Organization at the time, told the state television 'The Safir (Ambassador) satellite carrier was launched today and, for the first time, we successfully launched a dummy satellite into orbit'. On February 2, 2009, Iranian state television reported that Iran's first domestically made satellite Omid (Hope) had been successfully launched into LEO by a version of Iran's Safir rocket, the Safir-2 and therefore Iran became the 9th country to put a domestically built satellite into orbit. The operation was made to coincide with the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. In February 2011, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that there will be many launches of indigenously produced orbiters in 2011-2012 period.

Iran plans to send one-ton satellites into an orbit of 1,000 kilometers and is setting up a new launch base for this purpose. Iran is also planning to launch satellites into orbits weighing up to 36,000 kilometers in 2016.

Courtesy: The open source Wikipedia encyclopedia for the background

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