Experts Disagree on Military Significance of China's Manned Space Program
12 October 2005
Two Chinese astronauts are orbiting Earth for five days in the Shenzhou-6 spacecraft, exactly two years after Beijing launched its first human into space aboard the Shenzhou-5. Experts consider the successful 2003 mission to have been, China's entry into the small club of world-class space powers. But they are divided over how much China's manned space efforts will help it militarily.
China has been mastering space technology since the 1950s and launched its first satellite in 1970. Since then, it has been developing a space program with growing military capabilities, including long- and short-range nuclear missiles and communications, navigation, and reconnaissance satellites.
"The Chinese space program is an outgrowth of their missile-technology development effort," said Dean Cheng, an Asian affairs specialist at the Center for Naval Analysis, a government-funded policy research organization near Washington.
"Mao Zedong pushed for [missile] development in the 1950s," he continued. "Once [China] had constructed a missile, it began to devote more significant resources towards developing satellites and set a series of markers, including being only the fifth country to launch its own satellite into orbit and the third country to develop a space-based reconnaissance system."
Why has Beijing been so aggressive in its space program? A retired U.S. Air Force expert on China's armed forces, Lieutenant Colonel Mark Stokes, says a major incentive is its desire for military superiority against Taiwan.
"Space assets, as well as countering for example the U.S. use of space or other countries' use of space, are important force multipliers that can help to even the playing field when you are going up against a technologically superior adversary," said Colonel Stokes. "Space assets, I believe, will play a major role in any future use of force against Taiwan and preventing foreign intervention in a Taiwan scenario."
But does China's manned space program enhance its military prowess? Experts agree that it does, but they differ on how much.
Mr. Stokes says an unmanned Shenzhou capsule launched in 2002 had a significant electronic intelligence capability. In addition, he says the manned program will lead to more sophisticated spacecraft with military potential, such as a space shuttle, a space station, and an airplane that can reach orbital altitudes - an aerospace plane.
"China is serious in investing in these things," he added. "The space shuttle in particular and the aerospace plane in particular have significant military applications in the future. So one has to look at this simply as a stepping stone for a longer-range program to make them a significant player in military space in the future."
Military applications for manned Chinese spacecraft could include the in-orbit launch and repair of military spacecraft. The U.S. space shuttle has deployed an undisclosed number of secret military satellites, and astronauts' maintenance of the orbiting Hubble telescope is a model for fixing things in space.
But one expert believes that Beijing's manned space program would provide only marginally better military capabilities than the other space hardware it has. He is Larry Wortzel of the Heritage Foundation, another Washington policy analysis group.
"They already have so many other programs to weaponize and militarize space that would be more effective in a shorter time," said Mr. Wortzel. "I would rather see them go ahead with the manned space program and use the money on that because I think in the near term, it makes the United States, Taiwan, and Japan safer."
Dean Cheng of the Center for Naval Analysis agrees that the Shenzhou spacecraft series has limited military utility. He argues that its main purpose is not for war.
"A manned program, as we saw with [the U.S. space shuttle] Columbia, holds the potential for tragedy and is a remarkably fragile capability for arguably a marginal benefit," he said. "I think that the primary considerations are instead prestige and economics. It says to the world that 'we are now an advanced nation'."
As Mr. Cheng puts it, the space frontier is now the realm of dragons.
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