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Issues the time: 2003-8-11
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East Is Red satellite legend

The special piece "East Is Red Satellite Legend" was full and accurate, vividly introduced how our country scientific researcher is "East Is Red" the satellite will develop successfully and sends in the outer space, narrated has occurred in among many rarely known stories.
South the Beijing Zhongguan Village avenue 31, in between an ordinary exhibition room, stand erect to have 72 counter- refacings the special spheroids. It is only 11 the spare star which the satellite simultaneously produce with "East Is Red".
Decided in the Chinese history a secondary load wants the event the conference, spring was even in 1958 geostationary has begun the prologue.
On May 17, in the Communist Party of China eight big two conferences conference sites is extremely sultry, the representatives often undulate the fan which begins to hit. Under the meeting, the representatives animatedly are discussing the topic which the while ago former Soviet Union and the American satellite ascends the sky. Mao Zedong perceived representatives discussed in private, but he has not certainly expressed own opinion. Afternoon, a representative mentioned in the speech China should do the satellite the question. Mao Zedong has a little unabled to sit still, first time indicated in the presence of the everyone, we also must do the orbiting vehicle. After the representatives warm applause, he smiles also was saying that, certainly, the satellite should since childhood do, but likes the American egg that big spot, we do not put, must put us to put its 20,000 kilogram. US launches the first satellite calls "explorer", its weight is only equal to the former Soviet Union first satellite 1,/10, general launch satellite heavier, the showing country astronautics level is higher.
On October 4, 1957, in a former Soviet Union history legendary quarter, appeared is leaving Moscow more than 2,000 kilometer "^萨.<-坦. Also has 32 minutes when to the midnight, along with a great sound, humanity's first orbiting vehicle is launched lifts off. The former Soviet Union scientists' already extended the exploration trail outside the atmosphere. This event, makes the Chinese people to feel dances with joy, the people gain ground, first time goes to the outer space the vision which not measured, seeks this to belong to the socialist camp the satellite. But this time China, let alone the satellite, including all does not have the satellite orbital injection tool - rocket. On sends out "we also must do the orbiting vehicle" the summons after Mao Zedong soon, the duty has given when is appointed State Council Vice-Premier Nie Rongzhen.
In 1956, China used two sanatoriums and hospital former sites which already discontinued, in addition more than 30 technical experts which reassigned from the department concerned, more than 100 university students, have formed the earliest missile development troop - Department of Defense fifth research institute. By the American was thought "1 personally arrives at 5 teachers" Qian Xuesen, takes the post of chief. Five courtyards although have established, but the Chinese development missile must walk an any type path, Qian Xuesen leads everybody also only to be able to try to find out in the practice.
China strove for the missile foreign aid the hope vision to throw on the former Soviet Union elder brother body. In carries on the negotiations after former Soviet Union, stemming from the national interest consideration, former Soviet Union only agreed receives 50 Chinese rocket specialized foreign student to train, and provides the R2 dummy missile which two round teaching uses. In 1957, the Eastern European several countries had the civil strife, former Soviet Union hoped strengthened with China's relations, stable socialist camp. They in provide in the technical assistance question to China the manner, starts to transform. On October 15, the Chinese delegation and former Soviet Union signed the new technology to reach an agreement that, called "on October 15 To reach an agreement". This agreement former Soviet Union the content which aids to China is greatly rich, they agreed supplies the Chinese several kind of missiles samples and the related technical material, the dispatch technical expert helps China to carry on the missile the imitation work, and provides the missile development, the launching base engineering design, simultaneously increases the Chinese rocket specialized foreign student's quota of people.
The missile development had the feature. Is following closely, in 1958, the Chinese Academy of Science will organize Qian Xuesen, Zhao Jiu Zhang, expert and so on Guo Yonghuai to formulate the Chinese orbiting vehicle development plan. Proposed the satellite development three steps: First step, launch rocketsonde; The second step, launches 1,200 kilogram heavy satellite; Third step, re-radiation several metric ton heavy satellite.
Makes the orbiting vehicle, natural became the Chinese Academy of Science 1958 the first key duty. In 1958, satellite group's vice- Leader Zhao Jiu Zhang and other four people composed to visit Soviet "the aerological ascent" the delegation, went to Moscow. How are they trip of true goals study to former Soviet Union develop the satellite. As scientist's Zhao Jiu Zhang, has not certainly realized between China and Soviet Union already to start to appear the fissure. The Soviets arranged them to visit many '"T institutes, Zhao Jiu Zhang have been certainly unsatisfied, he most wanted to look is develops the satellite the geophysics institute.
Make does the development rocketsonde base in where? After Academia Sinica passes through a comparison, went to an industry foundation better Shanghai the trust vision.
Is responsible for the orbiting vehicle and the rocket system design Academia Sinica first design institute, very quickly on moves to the technical personnel from Beijing Shanghai, has established the Shanghai mechanical and electrical design institute. In the Chinese Academy of Science and under Shanghai's dual leadership, rapidly started to the rocketsonde development.
Year only 37 year-old Shanghai Jiaotong University strength department Assistant Director Wang Xiji, is appointed as mechanical and electrical design institute's chief engineer. His crack troops capable general, only was sends in several hundred from various universities the student which read, the average age was only having 21 years old. If said Wang Xiji is a chief engineer, but also was inferior to regards as him is a principal. The detachment condition limit, emerges one after another incessantly the question, causes the rocket size which Wang Xiji develops more and more slightly, but develops the pressure more and more to be actually big. Is going against the huge pressure and the intense quarrel, Wang Xiji decided starts to develop the simplest T7M rocket. 1 year after in 1960, the Great Leap Forward enthusiasm has been hungrily substituted. Hungry belly Wang Xiji finally this T7M rocket, is standing erect on the Shanghai Nanhui County old port town 20 meter high discharger.
After 1 month, Mao Zedong comes to Shanghai, visits the Shanghai new technology exposition. He as soon as entered the hall on directly to arrive nearby the T7M rocketsonde model, after carefully watched this rocket side, he asked guide: "This fellow can fly high?" "8 kilometers". Mao Zedong gently "oh", but also said immediately: "Great, 8 kilometers are also great, we must like this, 8 kilometers, 20 kilometer, 200 kilometer places do, does its earth-shaking."
After 6 months, the rocket launched has highly already achieved 60 to 80 kilometers. Is following closely, its advanced version rocket highly will enhance to 100 to 130 kilometers, Wang Xiji felt, Chinese and the outer space distance will be reducing day by day.
In 1964, was an unforgettable year. This year on June 29, our country develop the first ballistic missile launches successfully. After more than three months on October 16, Xinjiang's Lop Nor crack China's first atomic bomb. The scientists keen note, two balls successes, meant our country in new aspect and so on material, instrument measuring appliance, precision machinery had the recent development. The missile success, has solved the launch satellite tool problem in the certain degree, causes to launch own satellite possibly to become.
Carries on in December three session of National People's Congress conference period, the satellite destiny has had the transformation. The conference has written a letter on behalf of Zhao Jiu Zhang to Premier Zhou, he believed, missile, after atomic bomb success, stresses the satellite work now is the time. In January, 1965, Zhou Enlai made written comments the academy of science to propose the concrete plan, the excited satellite design institute's technical personnel, have not decided as the Chinese first satellite contour 72 hedron the spheres. Everybody hope satellite can broadcast the East Is Red music, lets the world the people all can hear. Overall group He Zhenghua proposed names the first satellite as "East Is Red".
This time France lifted off own only weight 42 kilograms satellites launches, sits the human astronautics third position in a hierarchy. The right people all fill with self-confidently were looking forward to "East Is Red satellite" when glorious future, the history actually slowed down in 1966 the footsteps. Launches for 9 years after the American first satellite, "Apollo" the airship already started to prepare to carry on lands Moon's first performance flight. But this time China, gigantic "the Great Cultural Revolution" started.
Made the East Is Red musical note installment the duty to issue for the Chinese Academy of Science automation institute. A group is going against the huge political pressure, is responsible for development which installs. First, they must consider that, simulates "East Is Red" with any type method the music. This time, the higher authority already authorized, only let the satellite broadcast "East Is Red, the sun rises, China left Mao Zedong" this first 8 sections. The group decided continuously broadcasts two these 8 sections in 40 seconds, then the transmitter cuts the telesignalization, may realize with a transmitter transmits the music and the telesignalization goal in turn. When the right musical note group is busy at "East Is Red" the music installment design, the satellite design institute already started to consider, how could China's first satellite orbital injection? The satellite proposed to the launch vehicle request, but in the estimate launch time, certainly not ready-made led the resilience to reequip ships the satellite the rocket. The experts proposed "two unions" the plan, uses the liquid fuel the missile to take first level and the second level, develops use solid fuel by the solid rocket researcher the missile to take the third level. Two unions, have famously composed famously "Long March" the rocket. Likes in the track and field competition "the relay match" to be same, after rocket three sticks transmissions, satellite orbital injection. This is a rocketsonde technology and the missile technology unifies the innovation plan which, the liquid rocket and the solid rocket unifies. The plan is very quick can execute, in order to confirm in the rocket upper air the engine ignition reliability, the technical personnel has added on level of solid rockets on the T7A rocket, has composed a simulation "Long March" the engineering research rocket, has finally obtained the success.
"East Is Red" the musical note installment developed successfully. But, is responsible for the entire satellite development chief designer, actually while "Great Cultural Revolution" the ceaselessness "is thorough", "falls from a horse" in abundance. Zhao Jiu Zhang and money thoroughbred horse because variously do not talk clearly the reason, leaves the satellite system design. This time, appeared "915" and "916" two school of struggles in astronautics domain, the satellite design work shortly must fall into the paralysis. How sets up the satellite system design department which two schools all agreed? This difficult problem fell on year only 37 year-old overall department Director Sun Jiadong on the body. He already was fourth "the East Is Red satellite" chief designer. He has used two month-long time, in detail inspected various departments to have the special skill the technical backbone, then chose 18 individual, because the technology stood up to the most rigorous test, this 18 personally is called "the astronautics 18 brave warriors".
In 1969, the musical note installment has been put in satellite equipment capsule. "East Is Red" the satellite after has developed for 12 years, finally presents by the straight dignified posture in front of the common people. Everybody is excited exceptionally, the Chinese nation several millenniums come "the flying apsaras" the dream, after soon must realize. This time, in the satellite design initial expectations are inferior to the question, suddenly exposes in the development final time, it will be unable to cause the world people to see with one's own eyes this to belong to Chinese the satellite. (On) (
In 1969, "East Is Red" the satellite has completed the system design, smoothly enters the plant production together with the rocket.
This time, in the satellite design initial expectations are inferior to the question, suddenly exposes in the development final time: It will be unable to cause the world people to see this belongs to Chinese the satellite. Originally, finished until the design, the people only then surprised note, East Is Red satellite superficial reflection rate very low, brightness is only equal in the sky brightness is extremely low six and so on the star. This brightness, on Earth's person is impossible with the naked eye to see clearly the satellite. Says from politics, if the world people cannot use own eye, sees Chinese satellite which in the outer space soars, greatly will harm Chinese the image. How can let in the ground the people, can see to delimit the sky "East Is Red" the satellite? This question is pestering everybody, lets the people sleeping and eating be difficult to be peaceful.
Must move out this block "the stumbling obstacle", will design the personnel to face a huge difficulty - to have in not to change the satellite and under the rocket technology condition premise designs. The reason was "East Is Red" the satellite and the rocket already starts to go into production. The satellite design overall department proposed the request is extremely harsh, no matter designs any installment, cannot surpass 17.5 kilograms in the weight.
Which specific energy undertakes develops this posthaste duty? A satellite system design department comrade suddenly remembered has done the chute 508 research institutes.
After soon, the group basis folds the umbrella the principle, manufactured an equipment, and gave a name to it calls "to observe the skirt". It likes the skirt to be same, when ascends the sky along with the satellite, first is closes, when needs to open, it can depend upon the satellite revolving equally to open like the umbrella, the ground people if saw "to observe the skirt", was equal to saw the satellite. Under the conventional condition experiment is satisfying, but once enters the vacuum state, "observes the skirt" to stick to on the picture by the paste is same, how also can'topen.
After several months, the design group diligently sought causes the design to appear the favourable turn, they looked up the communication satellite material in the library which a US launched. The pleasantly surprised after thorough research, causes their hope to be disillusioned once more. This time, launches the first satellite to China the time to be more and more near, the group reconsiders the initial plan, decided "will observe the skirt" to change "the observation ball".
Front "the observation ball" ascends the sky in the orbital rocket, does not gasify for it, lightly causes it also to be flat. The rocket when the heaven, the use last level of rockets spin produces the centrifugal force, for "the observation ball" the gasification, causes it to launch into an area is 40 square meters spheroids, guaranteed in ground the people can see space this greatly shines ball.
This plan in theoretically is feasible, whether is the key found manufactures this kind of ball the special material.
Many units all because of request too Gao Er to refuse to develop this kind of special material. The material group's young Huang day and night travels at double speed rushes Shanghai's, because he knew had a factory to develop one kind of new silk cloth, needed the material basically with "the observation ball" same, but the raw material was virulent. But unexpectedly, this family factory "Great Cultural Revolution" just as soon as started to suspend production, he had found factory manager, the explanation purpose in coming and the request help development.
After had known the special silk cloth use, the workers put the big-character poster in abundance which started to hit, has abandoned battle between faction's, cherished the enormous enthusiasm to invest to the silk cloth development. From this time on, regardless of the outside slogan shouted how resoundingly, the silk cloth development throughout has not stopped. After 11 months, the special material finally develops successfully. The experiment finally obtains successfully, but completes the task the scientific researcher, actually is pulled in April, 1969 one day by a row train Heilongjiang, responds the central summons, started to open up wasteland the great northern wilderness the land reclamation by the military life.
On March 18, 1969, renowned rocket chief engineer let the new people, with the rocket which used for the firing trial together, was confident arrived the Jiuquan satellite launch center. Continuously closely pays attention to the Chinese East Is Red satellite Japan, also intensely is gazing at China's every action and every movement.
On November 16 afternoon 5 o'clock 45 minute, the rocket smooth ignition lift off. Because the second cascade control system procedure distributor midway broke down, the launch is defeated.
After two months, the Jiuquan satellite launch center organizes immediately the second inflight firing obtains successfully. At this moment, on February 11, 1970, Japan's first orbiting vehicle "the big corner" the launch lifted off. Said to China's astronautics people that, this is a serious attack.
Nearly carries on the experiment while the rocket, in 1970, the Beijing satellite general equipment department factory started to the first East Is Red satellite to carry on the rigorous careful installation work. After half month-long tight work, the satellite has smoothly completed 15 working procedures assemblies, on March 21, completely completes the general equipment department task.
In April, 1970 1 circumzenithal arc had "Long March" the rocket and two "East Is Red" the satellite special train, passed through 4 days 4 night of secret journeys, transported Gansu's Jiuquan satellite launch center. After two days, the technical personnel starts to the rocket and the satellite carries on the subsystem test basically, the system is normal.
At the same time, with satellite launch related cooperation unit, also is carrying on the final wrap-up work. Because the laboratory use communication lines all depend on the air wire which the telephone pole pulls up middle, once is destroyed by the person or is had no intention by the common people "-, the entire experimental system communication can sever. Thereupon, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication and the Headquarters of the General Staff of the CCPLA correspondence department has specially made the thorough arrangement, has organized the huge communication network. Moreover in along the route up to ten thousand kilometers journeys, regardless of the daytime or the dark night, under each telephone pole all is standing a militiaman perhaps the populace.
On April 9, 1970, this span 29.46 meters, the most large diameter 2.25 meters rockets and the satellite are transported together the launch site. The rocket starts under the strict organization to carry on docking. The first level of rocket vertical stands through four centers of resistance in the transmitting station. The bumper missile depends on 16 bolts and level of rockets is connected. When separation, depends on under the bumper missile 8 explosive bolts circular telegram to explode, causes one, the bumper missile separation. Finally hoists up is uses the solid fuel the three-stage rocket, it depends on 4 explosive bolts and two level of connected. The star arrow docks, after has solved the satellite ultrashort wave beacon machine signal not steady problem, launch site all prepare to be ready.
On April 24, 1970, inside the launch site technical personnel duplicated is inspecting on the star telesignalization was whether normal. Afternoon past 3 o'clock, Zhou Enlai makes the phone call to tell national defense science committee Assistant Director Luo at the beginning of Shun, said Chairman Mao already authorized this secondary emission, hoped everybody worked up full zeal, meticulous did the work, took a time of success, brought honor for the motherland. The rocket fuel replenishment from the before dawn 5 o'clock 40 minute starts, finished to the afternoon 1 o'clock 35 minute complete replenishment. The entire launch site was waiting for the firing time arrival, everybody silently prayed in the heart, the hope God can in this final time, for glorious weather fine day.
After "象室 discretely has made evening 9 o'clock, the cloud layer starts the forecast which abates.
Evening 7 o'clock, the launch site still the dark cloud was densely covered, likes giant black cloth to cover in people's heart. Evening 8 o'clock, launch site sky cloud layer also very low, cannot see the star, because the visibility is low, directly will affect the optical measurement, several light measuring points unceasingly will give Jiuquan the satellite launch center to make the phone call. But "象室 definitely replied that, the cloud layer is very quick can pass.
Nearly 9 o'clock, launched director Yang Huan to leave the launch level ground, arrived the underground control room. 21 o'clock 35 minute, the rocket punctual ignition take off.
"East Is Red" the satellite is sent in the perigee 439 kilometers, the apogee 2,384 kilometers outer space tracks, after causes our country becomes continues former Soviet Union, US, France, Japan, world fifth launch satellite country. "East Is Red" the satellite weight 173 kilograms, also must be bigger than the four national first satellite sum of weight. The 9 PM of 48 minute, the launch site live broadcast "has launched successfully" the good news, everybody cheers jumps for joy. Is following closely, the people held the celebration meeting on the launch level ground, warmly congratulates our country first launch vehicle to launch successfully.
The western Hunan, the Hainan two control stations, will receive the satellite broadcast "East Is Red" the musical note signal will transcribe the magnetic tape, will escort to Beijing by the special plane, for central people broadcasting station to world broadcast.
The East Is Red satellite launches successful after second days, Guangzhou is participating in "three countries four directions" conference Zhou Enlai, just walked into the conference site excitedly to announce to the representatives the Chinese satellite launched the successful news. Chinese first excitedly is looking up to the outer space, carefully seeks that to belong to Chinese the satellite, on the face brims with is taking Chinese's be proud of and arrogant. Many in April 24 this day birth baby, all by the oneself excited parents, as if by prior agreement did not get up to have the commemoration significance the name, is called - "the satellite".

[ Information origin: CCTV international ]


--- Beijing space science and technology information research institute * network information room ---

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