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Issues the time: 2003-9-24
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One of United States Air Force's reforming astronautics plans - "day base radar" plan

"The day base radar" (SBR) plans is the United States Air Force for implements it to have the transition (transformational) a spatial strength enhancement strategy concrete content. This plan duty is constructs the constellation which is composed by 8 ~ 10 radars imageries satellite, on the star the main payload for the synthetic aperture radar and the activity target designator (MTI), is for the purpose of distributing for US in the global armed force provides solid now and then the real-time tactic and the battlefield information. It with spatial base (aircraft-borne) E - 8 unions surveillance goal attack radar system (JSTARS) and nobody machine (UAV) joint operation, becomes spatial, the day, the integrated information, the surveillance and the reconnaissance (ISR) the system important constituent.
"The day base radar" the plan is evolves by the original discovery - 2 plans comes. The discovery - 2 plans were the national defense advanced research plan bureau (DARPA) support named "the surveillance, the goal aiming and the reconnaissance satellite" in 1998 (Starlite) plan, its duty was completes 2 in 2010 "the day base radar" the imagery demonstration confirmation satellite, then the again consideration next step of application, deployed was composed the usable constellation by 24 satellites.
In 1998 the DARPA investment has developed "the day base radar" satellite essential technology - many 模态 driving electronic scanning, by has develops X frequency band launch/receiving device experience 诺斯 Rope Grumann and the thunder 锡恩 system company undertakes the development. In 1999, Lockheed-Martin, the spectrum astronautics (Spectrum Astro) and the TRW three companies obtain a contract from DARPA, develops 2 demonstrations confirmations satellite the design, the cycle is 18 months.
But, in 2000 the United States Congress when examines 2,001 wealth years Department of Defense budget, thought the discovery - 2 plans the demands are unclear, with national reconnaissance bureau (NRO)"the future will form image the system" (FIA) the duty division of labor will be unclear, not yet will develop, the funds budget will rise from initial 3.5 billion US dollars to 6.5 billion ~ 12 billion US dollars. Moreover, how this plan lacks transits from the demonstration confirmation to the practical application plan or the tentative plan. Therefore, the United States Congress has cancelled the discovery - 2 plans, but still allocated funds to NRO 30 million US dollars, uses in essential technology which developed "the day base radar" to need.
In order to continue to develop "the day base radar" the imagery reconnaissance satellite, the United States Air Force proposed "the day base radar" in 2001 the plan. This plan plans the constellation satellite quantity which completes is 8 ~ 10, - 2 reduced compared to the discovery approximately 2/3. Two most important differences lie in, "the day base radar" the plan does not need to pass through the demonstration confirmation, reaches one's goal instantly, direct establishment practical constellation. The United States Air Force believed that, in recent years in the satellite essential technology has made the considerable progress in "the day base radar". Therefore, entire "the day base radar" the system entire life cost large scale will drop.
The American military stated that, US had may attack on the Earth any quoin weapon, but lacks the whole world target and its the accurate position information, therefore the urgent need one kind is advanced, the collection information, the surveillance and the reconnaissance to a body platform. This kind of platform not only can provide the strategic target the information, moreover can provide tactical and the battlefield goal information; Not only can provide the stationary target the information, moreover can provide the ground and the air activity goal information. To moves the goal the track and the surveillance not only may use in to distinguish active goal itself, moreover may discover certain fixed targets through it the nature and the use. For example carries on the long-term surveillance to the import and export some building truck, may judge this building is the weapon factory or the milk processing factory.
Future terrestrial weapon equipment and army personnel's mobility more and more strong, the hiding is more and more high. Looked like in US that, as a result of the missile technology proliferation, its use scope is expanding; At the same time, the counter- reconnaissance technical level is enhancing, the visible light reconnaissance surveillance method potency comes under the suppression, thus needs to have faster, covers global the information, monitors and reconnoiters the platform, provides the guarantee for the space military force enhancement, provides the stronger adaptiveness for the support war and a higher efficiency.
In the recent years local war, US has massively used "the spatial base radar" the system, specially E - 8 "union surveillance goal attack radar system". They have played the huge role, was prompt for the United States military, fast has provided tactical, the battlefield information which the combat needed. "The spatial base radar" the system has nimble mobile, the fast turnover battlefield and the hot spot area superiority, but has the range short, the terrain change and the vegetation cover influence big, the flight scope and is easy the territorial airspace limit to receive weakness and so on attack.
"The day base radar" the system exactly can make up "the spatial base radar" insufficiency. It has when the entire day, the global cover merit, can continuous monitoring whole world attention any area, specially be able freely to pass in and out behind the enemy. "The day base radar" the system has a higher resolution, can the real-time gain static state and the dynamic 2 kind of goals information. The gain target information already may for national head institution and so on reconnaissance bureau and national territory safety department serves, also may directly distribute for the navigation in the airplane, the ships, the combat tank as well as the front officer uses.
"The day base radar" the system also is helpful successively in the war has appeared to the solution certain puzzled questions. For example, it provides the goal picture information may distinguish the crowd which the ground builds up is the oneself armed force, the allied force, the enemy troop or the common people, avoids the accidental injury which occurs repeatedly. "The day base radar" the system most advanced "the imagery reconnaissance" the satellite 技高一筹 compared to at present, it can provide the target area or the battlefield terrain altitude figure, draws up the precise three dimensional map, greatly facilitates the ground forces to march, the attack and the search (for example, possibly seeks in the Afghan mountainous area to hide Tarry class member cavern) and so on the motion.
But, "the day base radar" the system application has a bigger technical difficulty, this is from the outer space discovered and the track goal must solve the earth background clutter and the background influence, clearly separates the target information. This is precisely the star carries the activity target designator the essential technology, also is the data processing technical key is at. This work initial period definitely must carry on in the ground, then gradually shifts to the star on processes, in order to reduces the information processing and the distribution time.
"The day base radar" the plan radar satellite system performance data has not seen the announcement. According to the Teal group company's estimate, this satellite heavy approximately 2000kg, the design working life 10 years, the satellite payload for the aperture is 40 ~ 50m synthetic aperture radar/activity target designator (SAR/MTI). It possibly moves in leaves ground 770km 圆轨道 on, its picture ground resolution is 1m. The satellite will use Lockheed-Martin company 宇宙神 - 5 or the Boeing Company 德尔他 -4 launch vehicle launch, the data processing and the transmission completes by the existing ground station.
"The day base radar" the system main contractor designated in 2005 ago. At present, 诺斯 Rope Grumann, Harris and the Lockheed-Martin 3 companies accepts DARPA the request, is developing "the day base radar" related the plan research - "the innovation 性天 base radar antenna technology", develops the light quality the day base radar antenna. At the same time, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln laboratory undertakes this system track plan research, determined uses the low track or center the high track.
"The day base radar" the plan also will have the recent years US military astronautics esteem so-called "screw type" the development pattern (namely to advance gradually type development). Therefore, "the day base radar" the satellite system performance is not reaches one's goal instantly, but adopts "the overall planning, gradually implements" the way. This system first several satellites only have the partial functions, its following satellite function can gradually increase, finally achieves the entire function (full function). This development way is advantageous to the arrangement budgets and obtains the funds support. But, the worth noting is, this plan and the national reconnaissance bureau are developing the FIA plan there seems to was the repetition place, possibly needs to coordinate balances.
In 2,004 wealth years, the USA Department of Defense is "the day base radar" the plan application budget is 299 million US dollars, is 2,003 wealth years gives 6 times which "the day base radar" allocates funds. If "the day base radar" the plan carries out smoothly, then it will put into the use in 2,012 ~ in 2013.

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--- Beijing space science and technology information research institute * network information room ---

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