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Future Perils Call for Allied Effort 
By Linda D. Kozaryn
American Forces Press Service
        VIENNA, Austria -- Lacking resources to confront allied 
forces on the battlefield, future foes are likely to resort 
to more devious means, John Hamre warned NATO allies and 
Partnership for Peace members here. 
        Rogue states and terrorist groups will turn to computer 
viruses, poison gas and even nuclear weapons, the deputy 
defense secretary said June 22 at the 15th NATO Workshop. 
Hamre addressed about 200 representatives of allies and 
partners from throughout Europe, the United States and 
Canada during the workshop, a four-day meeting on 
confronting security challenges facing NATO. 
        "Our opponents of the future, be they nation-states, 
substate or transnational actors, will seek our Achilles 
heels [using] unconventional ways to attack our 
vulnerabilities," Hamre told the group. "Unfortunately, 
modern, post-industrial society provides many targets for 
future adversaries."
        Their new "tools of terror," which can be used against 
civilian as well as military targets, include chemical, 
biological and nuclear weapons, and cyberattacks against 
vital information systems, the deputy secretary said. "The 
United States firmly believes the threat from these weapons 
of mass destruction and terrorism is very real and is 
increasing." 
        Hamre's warning about unconventional weapons came the 
same day international news sources reported the United 
Nations had confirmed Iraq put VX nerve agent on missile 
warheads prior to the Gulf War in 1991. Army laboratory 
officials at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., detected the 
deadly agent on Iraqi missile fragments collected by U.N. 
officials.
        The United States is taking steps to counter such 
nontraditional threats, Hamre said. U.S. officials are 
expanding the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program aimed at 
reducing and eliminating nuclear weapons in Russia, he said, 
and, "We would like to extend that program to help eliminate 
chemical weapons."
        In an effort to consolidate treaty and threat reduction 
efforts, Pentagon officials created a new defense threat 
reduction agency, combining more than a dozen treaty and 
threat reduction programs into a single agency. "This new 
agency will be our focal point for our efforts to reduce 
nuclear, chemical and biological threats," Hamre said.
        Defense officials are also earmarking $5 billion in 
defense dollars over the next six years for chemical and 
biological protection and counterproliferation. Emphasis is 
on developing remote detection systems and diagnostic 
techniques.
        To protect individual American service members, 
Pentagon leaders have started giving the entire U.S. 
military mandatory vaccinations against anthrax. In his 
speech, Hamre predicted that eventually, the United States 
will offer voluntary vaccinations for all Americans.
        Defense officials have also launched a new program 
dubbed "homebase defense" to protect citizens at home from 
these deadly weapons. National Guard teams are being trained 
to identify, diagnose and contain chemical and biological 
weapon attacks, Hamre said. 
        "A terrorist incident using chemical or biological 
agents will quickly outstrip the ability of local emergency 
authorities to deal with these threats," he said.
        Just as U.S. leaders are acknowledging and planning for 
unconventional attacks, Hamre said, NATO, too, must begin to 
plan for such possibilities. Although the alliance has taken 
some important first steps, more needs to be done, he said. 
        In early June, NATO's newly created senior defense 
group on proliferation issued a report recommending ways the 
alliance can improve its defense posture. It highlighted the 
need to plan for possible attacks against civilian targets 
and the need for strong theater missile defense systems.
        "The report made clear that much more needs to be done 
to prepare our forces and protect our citizens," Hamre 
concluded.
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