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Hard.Copy - 20 March 1998

HNSC To Mark Up $147 Million TMD Enhancement Bill Today. 
Aerospace Daily, Mar 17, 1998, pp 395, 396B
The House National Security Committee is slated to mark up the Iranian
Missile Protection Act of 1998 (IMPACT '98) today, putting $147m in new
funding into key TMD programs. The main purpose is to combat an emerging
ballistic missile threat from Iran. 
HNSC Passes Bill To Beef Up TMD Efforts. 
Aerospace Daily, Mar 18, 1998, p 405
The HNSC passed the Theater Missile Defense Improvement Act of 1998,
which adds $147m to a number of TMD programs to bolster defenses against
an Iranian ballistic missile threat. The committee passed the bill in a
unanimous vote. The legislation will add $41m for PAC-3 and Navy Area
Defense against missiles, $35m for a Joint Composite Tracking Network,
$15m for a PAC-3 remote launch capability and $10m to improve Arrow
Dangerous Directions. 
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Apr 01, 1998, pp 26-31
This article discusses how after several rounds of nuclear reductions
and a decade of declared peace, the US nuclear arsenal has been enhanced
rather than diminished. According to the author, the answer is Russia's
inability to maintain a high level of alert. This is because Russia's
current weapons are at the end of their service life and they are unable
to modernize their nuclear forces. The inability of Russia to maintain a
high level of alert has created more instability because of the
imbalance in power, therefore making the US more concerned about a weak
Russian command and control structure. 
GAO: Weapons Will Not Meet Goals Unless DoD Makes Changes. 
Defense Daily. Sheila Foote, Mar 19, 1998, pp 5-6
Louis Rodrigues, the GAO's director of defense acquisition issues, told
the Senate Armed Services Committee's Acquisition and Technology panel
that he supports the DoD's latest acquisition reform efforts, which are
intended to lead to the "better, faster, cheaper" development of
weapons. However, he predicted that DoD will fail to achieve its
acquisition reform goals unless it changes the incentives in the
acquisition system that lead the services to underplay risk and accept
many technical unknowns when they commit to weapons production. 
House Panel To Mark-Up. 
Defense Daily. Sheila Foote, Mar 17, 1998, p 6
The House National Security Committee (HNSC) will mark up a bill
authorizing $147m in FY98 funds to speed testing and development of
several US theater missile defense (TMD) systems in response to the
rapid development of medium-range ballistic missiles by Iran. 
Raytheon: Anti-Radar Missile Could Be Low-Cost Cruise Missile. 
Defense Daily. Greg Caires, Mar 19, 1998, pp 1-2
According to Raytheon, the prime contractor for HARM, the Defense
Department's High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) could easily and
inexpensively be modified for use as a low-cost, low-risk supersonic
cruise missile. Raytheon's Russell Haas said, "We call this concept the
Advanced Strike Weapon (ASW). And it could be used to attack highly
mobile or time critical targets from standoff ranges without needing to
put a manned aircraft at risk." 
Cohen Establishes Office To Respond To Domestic Terrorism. 
Defense Daily. Frank Wolfe, Mar 19, 1998, p 4
To increase the military's ability to respond to incidents of domestic
terrorism, SecDef Cohen announced the establishment of a Consequence
Management Program Integration Office. The office will oversee the
integration of Reserve units into domestic preparation for responding to
incidents involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD). 
Japanese Plans To Work With US On BMD Research.
Defense Week. David Ruppe, Mar 16, 1998, pp 1, 7
After years of US prodding, the Japanese government has decided to
contribute a small amount of funding to US ballistic missile defense
(BMD) research efforts. The Japanese government has included in its
fiscal 1998 defense budget a modest $650,000 request for BMD research
and development study, according to Japanese embassy press spokesman
Kaori Yamamoto. 
Critics Say Chem-Bio Loses Influence In Shakeup. 
Defense Week. Colin Clark, Mar 16, 1998, pp 1, 9
As part of its Defense Reform Initiative (DRI), the military plans to
eliminate the main office charged with chemical and biological weapons
and create a new body, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), with
a much wider set of responsibilities. Bill Richardson, deputy assistant
for chemical and biological weapons under former Defense Secretary
Richard Cheney, said the reorganization proposal falls "somewhere
between absurd and horrible." 
A Look At The Proposed Threat Reduction Agency. 
Defense Week. David Ruppe, Mar 16, 1998, p 13
The Pentagon plans to create a new, broad-ranging agency responsible for
its arms export and control enforcement policy to meet 21st century
threats. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) would consolidate
the functions of three existing agencies: the On-Site Inspection Agency,
the Defense Special Weapons Agency, and the Defense Technology Security
Agency, according to a draft DoD directive establishing the agency. 
Absence Of US Leadership Poses Plutonium Problem. 
Defense Week. George Lobsenz, Mar 16, 1998, p 14
In a report issued by the Center for Strategic and International
Studies, the expert panel said the Clinton administration must take the
plutonium disposal threat "far more seriously," especially in regard to
accelerating the processing of plutonium warhead pits now stored in
classified, weapons-usable shapes. The report said that despite urgent
national security risks, disposal of surplus US and Russian weapons
plutonium is dangerously lagging because the White House has not shown
the leadership needed to tackle tough political and financial obstacles.
China's Arms Require Better US Military Ties With Taiwan. 
Heritage Foundation Backgrounder. Richard D. Fischer, Jr., Mar 11, 1998, p 3
This article discusses the need for the US to upgrade military contacts
with Taiwan in order to deter China from attempting to subdue or coerce
German Officials Warn Of Consequences If DoD Ends MEADS Involvement.
Inside Missile Defense. Daniel Dupont and George Cahlink, Mar 18, 1998,
pp 1, 10 
At an early March meeting, German industry representatives involved with
the MEADS program warned top DoD officials of the consequences should
DoD end its MEADS involvement. However, DepSecDef John Hamre informed
the German representatives that the US cannot afford to fund MEADS and
will end its commitment to the international arrangement once the
current program definition-validation phase ends in fiscal year 1999. 
Draft Guidance Say POM Funds Exist For Only One Upper Tier TMD System.
Inside Missile Defense. Daniel Dupont, Mar 18, 1998, pp 4-5
A draft Defense Planning Guidance circulating in the Pentagon indicates
the BMDO will have to choose one of two upper tier missile defense
systems for development in the 2000-2005 program objective memorandum
period. If this guidance is handed down officially, the army's THAAD
system would get the nod in an unofficial competition between THAAD and
the Navy Theater Wide system that has been going on for several years,
according to officials familiar with both efforts. 
DOT&E Concerned With Air Force's Ability To Develop Airborne Laser.
Inside Missile Defense. Jim Snyder, Mar 18, 1998, p 6
According to a report summarizing DOT&E efforts for FY97, the Pentagon's
director of operational test and evaluation has "several concerns about
significant technical challenges" in the Airborne Laser program. "DOT&E
considers ABL a high-risk, $6.2b program that is revolutionary in
nature," the report states. The summary also notes that despite DOT&E's
concern, the ABL program has been basically well run. 
House Panel Votes To Add $147 Million For Missile Defense In '98. 
Inside Missile Defense. Daniel G. Dupont, Mar 18, 1998, pp 1, 8-9
The HNSC is expected to approve legislation that would add $147m to the
fiscal year 1998 defense budget for several missile defense programs
considered key to defending against missile threats around the world.
"The Theater Missile Defense Improvement Act of 1998" was offered as a
substitute to legislation introduced last year to specifically address
the threat of Iran's burgeoning missile program. Rep Weldon's (R-PA)
bill is included with this article. 
BMDO Cautious About Expediting Navy Theater Wide Program. 
Inside Missile Defense. Thomas Duffy, Mar 18, 1998, p 13
While senior Navy officials have recently told Congress the service
could accelerate the fielding date for its Theater Wide missile defense
system by as much as four years, from 2006 to 2002, officials within
BMDO are taking a more cautious approach. BrigGen Davis, BMDO's deputy
director for theater air and missile defense, said the concern BMDO has
is the risk introduced into the Theater Wide program if a decision to
push up its fielding date is made. 
BMDO To Craft Plan To Ensure Navy, Army TBMD Cooperation, Integration.
Inside Missile Defense. Thomas Duffy, Mar 18, 1998, p 23
As the Navy and Army move their fledgling missile defense systems
through development and toward deployment, BMDO is looking ahead to when
those weapons will be in use on the battlefield and is studying the
question of how well they will work together. 
Interview: LtGen Lester Lyles. 
Jane's Defence Weekly. Lester Lyles, Barbara Starr, Mar 18, 1998, p 32
LtGen Lyles is also turning the BMDO's attention to the next generation
of missile defense requirements and capabilities. Although there are
significant national policy constraints from a technical point of view,
Gen Lyles says that the "best way" to defend against future missile
attacks is by using space based laser weapons. Other options could
include lethal unmanned aerial vehicles. However, Gen Lyles adds, "we
will always need ground based systems." He suggests that in that realm
there are improvements still to be made in kill vehicles and enhanced
seekers as well as technologies to attack ballistic missile
Norms And Nuclear Proliferation: Sweden's Lessons For Assessing Iran.
Nonproliferation Review. Eric Arnett, Feb 01, 1998, pp 32-43
The author argues that security concerns alone do not determine whether
or not a state will acquire nuclear weapons. Instead, Arnett uses Sweden
as an example to prove that bureaucratic politics and domestic
institutions and norms play a major role in nuclear weapons decision
making. This article examines the specific case of proliferation concern
with Iran to support the idea that constitutive norms play a larger part
than once believed. 
Viewpoint: China's Strategic Missile Programs: Limited Arms, Not
"Limited Deterrence". 
Nonproliferation Review. Hongxun Hua, Feb 01, 1998, pp 60-67
The purpose of this essay is to provide a history and general outline of
China's strategic missile program and its underlying strategic rationale
and its changes over time. The author argues that a more comprehensive
analysis of China's strategic missile programs is needed and must
include both the economic and technological capabilities of China.
Nuclear And Missile-Related Trade And Developments For Selected
Countries, July-October 1997. 
Nonproliferation Review. Michael Barletta;
Clay Bowen; Kimber Cramer; R. Adam Moody, Feb 01, 1998, pp 132-145
This article is an overview of the transactions of nuclear and missile
technologies, parts, and materials that have been developed or traded
between July and October 1997. 
The Disposition Of Excess Weapons Plutonium: A Comparison Of Three
Narrative Contexts. 
Nonproliferation Review. Alexandra von Meier;
Jennifer L. Miller; Ann C. Keller, Feb 01, 1998, pp 20-31
This article examines the more prominent positions with regard to
plutonium disposal. The three narrative texts are analyzed in an effort
to discover the logic and assumptions that set them apart and to explore
the positions that scientists, policymakers and political activists take
about the dual track controversy. 

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