EDUCATION AND TRAINING
JP 3-07 outlines a two-pronged approach of general professional military education for all officers and noncommissioned officers. Education and training should encompass general awareness and specific functional AORs. Competency is developed through institutional education, training, practical exercises, and simulations. Training should be conducted with other organizations and civilian agencies that would be involved in CM operations.
CM operations need to be emphasized in appropriate programs of instruction. For those military units without experience in civilian CM exercises on a local, state, regional, or national basis, limited opportunities exist to incorporate lessons learned from these events into the training environment such as institutional education, simulations, and exercises. Commanders should educate all personnel in basic CM awareness, with more specific operational instruction for personnel assigned CM tasks and responsibilities. Numerous courses and training opportunities are available from various government and private sources. A compendium of these resources is available from FEMA. Some of the educational opportunities available are in the following areas:
a. General Awareness.
(1) Force Protection/Antiterrorism. One component of combating terrorism includes defensive measures against terrorist attacks. All personnel train on the fundamentals necessary to defend installations, units, and individuals against terrorist attacks. AT is a FP measure and is the responsibility of commanders at every level.
(2) Overview of CM Operations. Based on the roles and responsibilities of the audience, this may include the fundamentals of the FRP, the ICS, and service-specific issues.
b. Specific Operational Education.
(1) Command and Staff.
The role of the action agency and LFAs.
Legal authorities, constraints, and limitations.
Logistics and support requirements, including fiscal reimbursement issues.
The role and function of the DCO and other DOD liaisons.
An example of this type of training is the DOD Emergency Preparedness Course. This course prepares emergency preparedness liaison officers (EPLOs), DCOs, and staffs to plan and execute joint military operations that support civil authorities responding to domestic emergencies and disasters. The US Forces Command offers the course eight times a year at the FEMA Mount Weather Emergency Assistance Center, Berryville, Virginia, and conducts mobile training teams within the USPACOM's and the US Southern Command's (USSOUTHCOM's) AORs each year. This training is authorized by DODD 3025.1.
(2) Technical and functional areas.
Reconnaissance and survey.
Examples of functional-area courses are the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Emergency Response to HAZMAT Incidents; the National Fire Academy (NFA) HAZMAT Operating Site Practices; and US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD)/US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) Field Management of Chemical and Biological Casualties and the Medical Management of Chemical and Biological Casualties.
(3) Disaster Assistance. FEMA and other government agencies provide numerous resident and nonresident training courses related to disaster-assistance operations. Personnel assigned duties such as EPLOs or SCOs benefit from familiarity with such training.
Training opportunities exist both internally and externally and should include—
a. Individual, collective, and unit training.
b. Initial and sustainment training.
c. Intraagency and Interagency training.
Exercises provide the opportunity to interact with other units or services and federal, state, or local agencies. Exercises developed by non-DOD agencies provide an opportunity to improve military capabilities for support of CM operations with minimal resources. These exercises emphasize interoperability requirements and stress staff coordination. They also serve to identify shortfalls in communications or other capabilities that must be corrected.
5. Simulation and Modeling
Distributed simulations provide training technology that permits multiple organizations or agencies to participate in the same simulation exercise from remote locations. JTFs and other units involved with CM operations can use simulations such as the hazard prediction and assessment capability (HPAC) to help portray various scenarios. This includes training in the organization and processes of supported civilian agencies.
6. Rules of Engagement
Situational-training exercises provide deploying forces with training on events and circumstances they can expect to encounter during CM operations. By reviewing lessons learned and AARs of similar operations, leaders can identify likely situations that their units can expect. Unit leaders prepare the proper response based on the rules of engagement (ROE), applicable lessons learned, policy directives, instructions, regulations, doctrine, tactics, and legal advice for each situation and train personnel accordingly. This response becomes an immediate action drill and should be published and well rehearsed by members of the deploying force. Standing ROE should be published as part of the CM training process.
7. Public Affairs
Personnel in units conducting CM operations benefit from familiarity with PA principles and procedures. CM operations are of great interest to the news media, and units are aware that PA releases are conducted through the JIC. Commanders accomplish their mission under close scrutiny of the media. They have to react rapidly to developing issues and changing perceptions while simultaneously fulfilling the information needs of their troops. An additional training resource is the National Response Team (NRT) JIC Manual. The NRT JIC Manual provides guidance for establishing and organizing a JIC.
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