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Homeland Security

Chapter II

COMMAND AND CONTROL

1. Background

Effective C2 is essential to fully use available assets in accomplishing CM missions. C2 relationships in CM may be tailored to a particular situation whether domestic or foreign. Unity of effort focuses on the commander's intent and in maintaining coordination with the LFA. In summary, an effective C2 system supports the synchronization of military and civilian-agency operations to ensure an effective and efficient response to CM operations.

2. Domestic Operations

a. The USJFCOM established the JTF-CS as a C2 HQ responsible for the planning and execution of military support to civil authorities (MSCA) for CM of WMD incidents within the 48 contiguous states. The principles that guide a JTF-CS operation include the following:

(1) The JTF-CS will always operate in support of a LFA and will participate as a follow-on CM force behind first responders and local/state assets.

(2) The JTF-CS will respond when the President issues a federal emergency/disaster declaration and the NCA approves an execution order (EXORD) through the Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES) for their assistance.

(3) The JTF-CS will operate within the guidelines of current plans and procedures used by the LFA, such as the FRP that FEMA uses.

(4) FEMA is the LFA for domestic CM. The FBI is the LFA for domestic crisis management. Subject to SECDEF's approval, the JTF-CS may provide support to other LFAs in certain circumstances.

(5) The JTF-CS does not duplicate the technical response capabilities that currently exist throughout DOD and the federal government.

(6) The JTF-CS is organized and trained to rapidly tailor the scale and character of its response to the requirements of the LFA.

(7) The JTF-CS's relationship to the LFA in a WMD CM mission will parallel the lines of coordination and cooperation that currently exist for any disaster-response mission involving a DOD response. The JTF-CS will generally assume OPCON over designated DOD forces as well as the DCO and his staff.

(8) The JTF-CS establishes effective administrative controls for documenting approval/disapproval of expenditures from the Disaster Emergency Relief Fund. After initial-response operations begin, the JTF-CS submits an estimate of the total funding requirements for the duration of the disaster operations. The JTF-CS responds only to validated requests for assistance (RFA) , captures all costs for support provided, and requests timely and suitable reimbursement from the LFA according to the FRP or other appropriate authorities.

(9) The technical augmentation cell (TAC) serves as the JTF-CS special staff for coordinating and managing chemical-biological (CB) defense response support for an incident. The TAC consists of technical personnel from agencies such as the Chemical-Biological-Rapid-Response Team (CB-RRT) , the Defense Threat-Reduction Agency, and the USMC Chemical-Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) . This cell provides technical advice and assessments to the technical response assets to address CM operations at an incident, as necessary.

b. The JTF-CS will be the USJFCOM standing JTF HQ for all WMD CM within the US and its territories and possessions. In this role, when directed by the SECDEF through USCINCJFCOM, the JTF-CS will assume OPCON of allocated DOD forces (less United States Special Operations Command [USSOCOM] elements and USACE assets) responding to WMD incidents in support of the LFA.

(1) The JTF-CS is organized on a functional basis, as defined in JP 0-2. The USJFCOM exercises COCOM over the JTF-CS. The USJFCOM organizes the JTF-CS, as necessary, to perform CM WMD missions and may elect to assign other forces, over which it exercises COCOM, to the JTF-CS. The SECDEF, through the CJCS, apportions forces (not currently assigned to the COCOM) to the USJFCOM for CM planning and operations.

(2) When delegated OPCON of DOD forces, the JTF-CS will coordinate with the USJFCOM to ensure that adequate C2 elements are requested and established to handle the potentially large numbers of DOD forces provided for CM responses. Additionally, other task force (TF) HQ could be subordinate to the JTF-CS for planning and execution of CM operations (see Figure II-1) . When the JTF-CS conducts a CM operation, another TF HQ may be employed, operating either as an integral part of the JTF-CS or as a separate HQ. As with other designated DOD forces, the commander of the JTF-CS is designated by the appropriate authority to command this TF.

Figure II-1.  JTF-CS C² Structure

Figure II-1. JTF-CS C2 Structure

(3) For CM operations conducted in the 48 contiguous states, the USJFCOM is the supported combatant commander for all DOD forces except USSOCOM and USACE assets. For operations in these areas, the JTF-CS, if employed, operates under the OPCON of the USJFCOM.

(4) For CM operations conducted in Puerto Rico or the US Virgin Islands, Commander in Chief, US Southern Command (USCINCSO) is the supported combatant commander for all DOD forces except USSOCOM and USACE assets. For operations in these areas, the JTF-CS, if employed, operates under the OPCON of the USCINCSO.

(5) For CM operations conducted in Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, American Samoa, or any of the US possessions or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific area of responsibility, the US Pacific Command (USPACOM) is the supported combatant commander for all DOD forces except USSOCOM and USACE assets. For operations in these areas, the JTF-CS, if employed, operates under the OPCON of the USPACOM.

(6) During an incident, the JTF-CS exercises OPCON over the DCO and the DCE. The DCO continues to operate in the DFO in close coordination with the FCO, the senior FEMA authority on the scene.

(7) As required, the JTF-CS establishes liaison with the state's adjutant general and direct liaison with NG assets such as the WMD-CSTs. For example, WMD-CSTs are Title 32 NG assets employed by the state/territorial governor to assess the size and the specific nature of the situation. Further, other coordination (see Figure II-1) occurs through the DFO. This office serves as a focal point for coordination between the state and defense coordination officers for receipt of actions such as validated RFAs.

(8) Examples of implied operational tasks for the JTF-CS could include identifying contaminated areas, conducting surveys of and identifying NBC hazards, supporting medical operations, and providing logistics support.

3. Foreign Operations

a. Based on the size and the nature of a response to a foreign WMD incident, a geographic combatant commander may designate a JTF to conduct the operation. This brief section provides an overview of a typical JTF HQ staff. The geographic combatant commander develops the mission statement and concept of operations (CONOPS) based upon the direction of the NCA. Input-including requests from the DOS, situational factors, and the time military forces enter the area-affects the mission statement. The geographic combatant commander develops a list of requisite capabilities and tasks his components to identify capable forces. The components establish the force list (e.g., personnel, equipment, and supplies) and movement requirements. The geographic combatant commander approves or disapproves the components' force lists, establishes the JTF HQ, assigns approved forces to the JTF, and determines the command relationships.

b. The geographic combatant commander establishes the JTF when the mission has a specified, limited objective and does not require centralized control of logistics. The mission assigned to a JTF requires the execution of responsibilities and the close integration of effort involving two or more services. The JTF is dissolved when the purpose for which it was created is achieved. JP 3-0 provides general guidance relating to joint operations and JP 5-00.2 provides information on the JTF. JP 4-0 provides general guidance for logistics support of joint operations.

c. The JTF organization resembles traditional military organizations with a commander, command element, and forces required to execute the mission. The primary purpose of the JTF HQ is command, control, and administration of the JTF. During operations, the JTF HQ provides the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. See Figure II-2 for an example of a JTF staff organization.

Figure II-2.  Notional CM JTF

Figure II-2. Notional CM JTF

4. Other Command Considerations

a. The ICS is a FEMA-supported civilian system used to manage operations at a domestic incident site. The ICS is commonly used by civilian local and state organizations that respond to hazardous-material (HAZMAT) (i.e., WMD, etc.) incidents, and its use is becoming standardized in all civilian emergency operations. The principles of the ICS include the following:

(1) Modular Organization. DOD personnel must understand how and where they "plug into" the existing ICS structure when they arrive on scene.

(2) Integrated Communications. The incident commander should have an established, integrated communications plan and standing operating procedures to ensure that information distribution and active frequency management is enforced. An effective communications plan supports functions such as the conduct of liaison and the coordination of mitigation plans.

(3) Unity of Command. Responders report to one designated person.

(4) Unified-Command (UC) Structure. All responding agencies must have a common set of incident objectives and strategy.

(5) Consolidated Incident Action Plans. The incident commander and his planning section should have a clear view of the future action plan to support the end state of the operation.

(6) Use of Common Terminology. Use of common terminology helps to ensure a coordinated response action and also supports standardization and consistency.

(7) Span of Control. Safety as well as sound management influence and dictate span-of-control considerations. Within the ICS, the span of control of an individual with emergency management responsibility should range from three to seven subordinates.

b. The ICS is a modular system that uses common terminology and implements incident action plans in five component (functional) areas: command, operations, logistics, planning, and finance/administration (see Figure II-3) .

Figure II-3.  Components of the ICS

Figure II-3. Components of the ICS

c. Further, there will generally be a need for the civilian incident commander's staff to coordinate with a supporting JTF staff on technical, operational, or logistics issues. The coordination points between the ICS and a JTF staff could be conducted through staff-to-staff interaction or could be through a CMOC.

(1) Staff-to-Staff Coordination. As the ICS terms in Figure II-3 imply, Table II-1 represents what could be the focal points for staff interaction between ICS and JTF staff organizations (see Appendix A for more information on incident management system [IMS] command and staff functions and responsibilities) .

Table II-1. ICS and JTF Staff Counterparts

ICS JTF
Command Commander
Operations J3
Logistics J4
Planning J3/J5
Communications J6
Finance J4 or J1
Law Enforcement J2

(2) Civil-Military Operations Center. The JTF could form a CMOC to coordinate military actions for support of the LFA. The CMOC is an ad hoc organization that is normally established by a geographic combatant commander or subordinate JFC to assist in coordinating with other military forces, other US-government agencies, international organizations (IOs) , or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) . Its specific size and composition are situation dependent. The CMOC can provide a structure for establishing coordination and cooperation with primarily nonmilitary groups. For example, the CMOC could serve as a focal point for interaction with IOs, NGOs, or civil authorities on topics such as civil defense warning and reporting procedures, response capabilities, medical assistance, and other actions to mitigate the effects of NBC use or other toxic-material contamination. If civil-affairs units are available, they could perform many of the liaison duties. Additionally, during foreign operations, a CMOC could be formed to receive direct taskings direct from the chief of mission's country team to support such actions as receiving validated LFA requests, assigning project numbers, preparing project numbers, and submitting requests to the JTF operations center.

NOTE:

See FM 100-23-1/Fleet Marine Force Reference Publication (FMFRP) , 7-16/Naval Doctrine Command Tactical Note (TACNOTE) , 3-076. 6/Air Combat Command Publication (ACCP) , 50-56/Pacific Air Force Publication (PACAFP) , 50-56/US Air Force Europe Publication (USAFEP) , 50-56 for more information on the CMOC.

5. Reporting Requirements

a. Reports. Reports will be submitted per JTF guidance as described in the OPLAN/operation order (OPORD) . Additional reporting requirements may include service-specific reports, but such reports will be routed with the concurrence of the JTF commander.

b. Unit Records. Unit record keeping and reporting are critical. Unit records include data on personnel according to applicable theater medical-surveillance directives. The accuracy of unit record keeping will enable the tracking of a required audit trail to monitor postincident information for key areas such as long-term health effects on personnel that were exposed to HAZMAT. Detailed accounts could support multiple tasking that could occur following an incident (i.e., tracking individual exposure and key events) . As a part of the record keeping, after-action reports (AAR) will also be prepared.



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