DEPARTMENT-OF-DEFENSE RESPONSE AGENCIES
In response to a validated RFA that could originate from a LFA (i.e., FEMA), the established military chain-of-command can authorize subordinate DOD commanders to respond to requests from civil authorities.
2. Response Agencies
This appendix lists example military and other government agencies that could be tasked to respond to a request for CM support.
This list is not all-inclusive.
a. Operations Center (OC), DTRA.
(1) Mission. The DTRA OC enables first responders and warfighters to deal with CBRNE threats through on-line assistance and provides a wide-band infrastructure for user support.
(2) Capabilities. As part of the Combat Support Directorate in DTRA, the OC is manned 24/7 and has the requisite communication links to act as the single point of contact for on-line assistance and dispatching of other Agency resources, as required.
b. CM Advisory Team (CMAT), DTRA.
(1) Mission. The CMAT deploys to provide joint technical support to the supported CINC with expertise in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) response procedures, requirements, resources, C2, health physics, PA, legal affairs, and specialized technical information. The CMAT coordinates technical information flow by controlling and resourcing requirements passed to the CINC's TAC.
(2) Capabilities. The CMAT is able to task-organize and deploy to support CINC/JTF commanders in the technical aspects of NBC accidents or incidents. The CMAT's incident-tailored force brings with it secure communications, trained technical experts, hazard-prediction modeling, and rapid reach-back capability.
c. WMD Assessment and Analysis Center (WMDAAC), DTRA.
(1) Mission. The WMDAAC provides on-line support and crisis action planning through scenario development and wargame and exercise participation.
(2) Capabilities. The DTRA WMDAAC enables warfighters and domestic first responders through network-centric support to—
Access computer modules for CBRNE analysis and consequence prediction.
Access high-resolution weather data.
Access data files on CBRNE materials.
Access teleconferencing capabilities and access national experts.
Perform on-line collaborative computing.
d. Joint Nuclear-Accident Coordination Center (JNACC), DTRA.
(1) Mission. The JNACC is operated in coordination with the DOE. The JNACC provides a centralized center for maintaining and exchanging information with those agencies that possess radiological-assistance capabilities and for coordinating that assistance in response to an accident or incident involving radioactive materials.
(2) Capabilities. The JNACC maintains current information on the location and capabilities of specialized DOD and DOE teams, organizations, and individuals capable of responding to accidents or incidents involving radioactive materials.
e. US Army SBCCOM Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC).
(1) Mission. The Chemical Support Division (CSD) serves as the ECBC point of contact for operations associated with chemical surety materiel (CSM)-related remediation and restoration at the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and formerly used defense sites. The CSD also manages and maintains support services and capabilities associated with materiel, facilities, and equipment vital to the ECBC's mission. The CSD provides technical and program management support to the DOD and other governmental agencies associated with processing chemical facilities, equipment, and ammunition.
(2) Capabilities. The CSD has the capability to provide a full range of CSM-related air, water, and soil analysis in support of the ECBC, DOD, and other governmental agency operations and remediation efforts. The CSD also provides and maintains a repository of chemical-agent standard analytical reference materials in support of the DOD chemical-defense mission. The CSD maintains specialized equipment to accomplish its assigned mission and a detailed unit equipment listing.
(3) Components. The CSD possesses the capability to provide low-level monitoring using the real-time analytical platform (RTAP), a vehicle containing a fully functional chemical analysis system. In its current configuration, the RTAP can automatically sample ambient air to detect the presence of specific CW agents (nerve and mustard agents). The RTAP uses a gas chromatograph (GC) miniature chemical-agent monitor system (MINICAMS) equipped with an automatic, continuous air-sampling system. The GC is equipped with a flame photometric detector (FPD) and uses ultrapure laboratory air, hydrogen, and nitrogen supplied via a built in generator. The analysis process allows for the detection of the toxic-chemical agents GB, soman (GD), mustard gas (HD), and o-ethyl s-diisopropylaminomethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), in the same sample. The CSD also has available the mobile environmental analytical platform (MEAP) that provides accurate and legally defendable determinations of CW material (especially CSM), agent degradation products, World War I CW agents, and other compounds of military significance in environmental samples. The MEAP is designed as a fully functional trailer-mounted laboratory able to perform critical on-site chemical analysis and monitoring.
f. US Army SBCCOM CB-RRT.
(1) Mission. The mission of the CB-RRT is to, on order, deploy and establish a robust and integrated capability to coordinate and synchronize DOD's technical assistance (medical and nonmedical) to support the Lead Federal Agency in both crisis management and CM of a CBRNE incident or a designated National Security Special Event. The CB-RRT's focus is on domestic events, but it can also respond worldwide.
(2) Capabilities. The CB-RRT's role is to provide a technical support package specifically tailored for a CBRNE incident response (see Figure D-1). The CB-RRT offers a highly deployable, independent operations center that synchronizes DOD's CBRNE technical expertise. The CB-RRT is composed of members of the Armed Forces and employees of DOD with specialized chemical, biological, medical, and explosive ordnance disposal expertise who are capable of providing technical assistance to aid federal, state, and local officials in the response to and mitigation of incidents involving CBRNEs containing chemical or biological materials (or related hazardous materials). The CB-RRT can be under the operational control of a geographic CINC, JSOTF, or another designated JTF or in direct support of a Lead Federal Agency. The unit is collocated with the SBCCOM's 24-hour Operations Center.
Figure D-1. CB-RRT Capabilities
(3) Support. The CB-RRT is designed to provide forward elements to assist the Lead Federal Agencies (FBI, FEMA, EPA, US Secret Service, US Public Health Service, and others) with technical expertise and contingency development options during times of crisis. In addition, through the state-of-the-art SBCCOM Operations Center, the CB-RRT brings together some of the nation's leading chemical and biological technical experts without the need for the experts to be deployed to an incident site.
(4) Coordination. Technical elements that are managed and coordinated by the CB-RRT include, but are not limited to, the US Army TEU, US Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), US Army ECBC Forensic Analytical Center (FAC), US Army MEDCOM Special Medical Augmentation Response Teams (SMARTs) and regional medical commands (RMC), USAMRICD, USAMRIID, US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventative Medicine (CHPPM), US Navy Medical Research Center (NMRC), US Navy Environmental Health Center (NEHC), US Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Units (NEPMU), and US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL).
(5) Planning and Communication Tools. These tools are essential to successfully minimize the impact of actual or potential terrorist attacks. The heart of the CB-RRT's concept of operations is an integrated, self-contained, and deployable command, control, communications, computer, and information (C4I) infrastructure that allows for integrated, structured, and controlled planning and incident response. The CB-RRT deploys with two primary communications systems—the Deployable Communications System (DCS) and the Deployable Response and Graphics Operations Network (DRAGON) System—that are the heart of this C4I infrastructure.
The DCS is a wireless to wire-line communications gateway system offering increased simplicity, mobility, operational flexibility, and rapid deployment. The DCS is a self-sustaining mobile satellite-communications system which supports the forward-deployed elements with telephone (secure and nonsecure) interface, video teleconference interface, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET) (dial up), and digital, cellular telephone service that is separate from local networks. The CB-RRT's communications system uses the T1 satellite reach-back capability to link command and control nodes with the SBCCOM's Operations Center and other operations and technical centers.
The DRAGON system is a communications suite of computers and ancillary hardware that seamlessly integrates all aspects of communication and emergency planning/response software (see Figure D-2). The DRAGON is a local-area/wide-area computer network (LAN/WAN) designed for multiple users who gain access either by hard wire, satellite, or Internet access. The system is used to provide situational awareness to users and also serves as the main information-management tool for the CB-RRT staff.
Figure D-2. DRAGON System
(6) Additional assets. Additional assets that may support, or be supported by, the CB-RRT include but are not limited to the DTRA, USMC CBIRF, National Guard WMD-CSTs, US Army 52nd Ordnance Group (EOD), and National Capitol Render Safe Organization (NCRSO).
(7) Deployment. The CB-RRT can deploy using US Army SBCCOM organic air assets, US Army Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) assets, or commercial air transportation. The CB-RRT is self-sustaining for 72 hours.
g. US Army TEU.
(1) Mission. The unit provides worldwide, no-notice capability to conduct field sampling, identification, and verification of chemical agents and to monitor, recover, decontaminate, escort, and mitigate hazards associated with CB materials in compliance with international, federal, state, and local laws.
(2) Capabilities. The capabilities of the TEU are multifaceted to include the following:
Providing technical escort of CB munitions and material.
Rendering safe and/or disposing of weaponized CB munitions and material.
Conducting technical intelligence exploitation of foreign CB munitions and material.
Providing CB response teams to government agencies as required to support national and/or international counterproliferation policies.
Operating in hazardous environments.
(3) The TEU's basic operational element is the Chemical-Biological Response Team (CBRT). The unit can deploy CBRTs from Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland; Dugway Proving Ground, Utah; and Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. In general, each CBRT is comprised of CB and explosives ordnance disposal specialists, but the team composition can be tailored to the mission. The CBRT can be deployed to suspect or actual incidents involving CB agents, munitions, and other HAZMATs to transport the suspected samples to the appropriate labs. The TEU's CBRTs maintain a rapid-response capability in detection, decontamination (neutralization), containment (packaging), dismantlement (render safe), and disposal (transport and escort only) of WMD containing CB agents or related materials. The CBRT also maintains an information "reach-back" capability to TEU's EOC for communications with CB-agent, explosive-ordnance, and disaster-response SMEs.
h. US Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal Group (EOD).
(1) Mission. The unit provides EOD bomb-squad units to defeat or mitigate the hazards from conventional, nuclear, or chemical military munitions and WMD throughout CONUS as requested by local, state, and federal law-enforcement or military authorities.
(2) Capabilities. The capabilities of the US Army EOD Group are multifaceted to include the following:
Identifying and rendering safe foreign and US military munitions (chemical, conventional, and nuclear).
Disposing of munitions encountered and rendering safe terrorist improvised explosive devices (IED) (i.e., pipe bombs, booby traps).
Responding to WMD incidents.
Conducting training in military munitions and IED to LEAs.
Providing support to the US Secret Service (USSS) and DOS.
(3) Components. There are EOD companies that are configured to respond to a WMD incident. These designated companies receive specific training on WMD. They possess unique equipment to counter booby traps and are trained to operate specialized equipment (provided by the DOE) used for diagnostics and for rendering safe/mitigating a WMD nuclear initiation.
i. US Army Biodetection Company (Corps).
(1) Mission. This unit conducts biodetection to provide rapid detection and presumptive identification of large-area biological aerosol attacks.
(2) Capabilities. The Biological Integrated Detection System (BIDS) was developed in response to the biological warfare (BW) agent vulnerability of US forces during Operation Desert Storm. The BIDS is a multicomponent system that provides monitoring, sampling, detection, and presumptive identification of BW agents.
j. US Army Madigan Army Medical Center Disaster-Assistance Response Team (DART).
(1) Mission. The team provides a rapid-deployment unit with triage, ambulatory/litter, and advanced medical/trauma stabilization capabilities for the US Army needs related to NBC incidents in the western US.
(2) Capabilities. The DART's capabilities include triage, decontamination, and stabilization of contaminated and multiple injured casualties. The team has 24-hour access to board-certified toxicologists. Team members have received substantial training in basic and advanced life support, trauma life support, HAZMAT, confined-space medicine, crush-injury medicine, and emergency medical response to terrorism.
k. US Army Response TF East (RTF-E)/Response TF West (RTF-W).
(1) Mission. When directed, a RTF supports the LFA during an incident. The RTF commander may assume OPCON of committed DOD elements (less Special Operations Command [SOCOM] and USACE), coordinates military support of CM operations, and redeploys units when DOD disengagement criteria are met.
(2) Capabilities. The RTF commander establishes a fully functional CP in the vicinity of the incident within 24 hours of notification. He exercises OPCON of all federal DOD resources committed to providing MSCA, provides liaison officers to appropriate civil agencies, and receives liaison officers from appropriate military commands and agencies.
(3) Components. The RTFs are composed of members of the US First and Fifth Army HQ staff. The initial response team establishes initial liaison with the supported civil agencies and coordinates support for the follow-on personnel. The predesignated DCO and DCE serve as special staff augmenting the RTFs.
l. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Medical Radiobiology Advisory Team (MRAT).
(1) Mission. The MRAT responds as part of the DTRA's CMAT and is available at all times. The MRAT can provide on-site training to health professionals on the management of nuclear or radiological casualties. The team provides state-of-the-art expertise and advice to commanders and primary-care providers following a nuclear or radiological accident (nuclear weapons, reactor, or radiological material). The MRAT provides access to biodosimetry and bioassay support to incident responders and local health authorities.
(2) Capabilities: The MRAT is a primary source of medical and radiological health information dealing with the management of casualties from nuclear warfare weapons and radiological dispersal-device accidents. Senior medical experts provide on-site advice to physicians on—
Resuscitative techniques for radiation injury and radionuclide contamination therapy.
Use of investigative chelation therapy for internal contamination by radioactive material.
Therapeutic drug combinations for acute radiation injury, infection, and protection against late-occurring diseases (such as cancer).
Radiation-injury interventional therapy and dose-estimate bioassay.
(3) Components. The MRAT is in contact with other SMEs at the AFRRI for additional information. The MRAT is led by a physician and is normally comprised of three individuals for initial deployment; additional team members may deploy if the situation dictates. Team members are on call 24 hours a day by either telephone or a pager. The team is equipped with PPE to perform its intended mission, related general-purpose equipment, and supplies.
m. USAMRICD. Medical Chemical Biological Advisory Team (MCBAT).
(1) Mission. The team provides input in the development of operating procedures and training in the management of chemical-agent casualties. The MCBAT also provides clinical advice and consultation in matters related to the initial and long-term management of chemical-agent casualties at the incident site. The experts on this team are from the USAMRICD and the USAMRIID. They provide essential medical information during the recovery phase of the operation for the safe return to normal activities. The MCBAT also provides on-site training to medical professionals on the management of chemical and biological casualties.
(2) Capabilities. The MCBAT is the primary source of medical information dealing with the management of CW-agent casualties for the federal government. Through the FBI or agencies within the DHHS, the MCBAT provides consultation to state, city, or local agencies. As necessary, the MCBAT supervises the collection of biological samples (bodily fluids) for subsequent verification of chemical-agent exposure that can be used to facilitate the confirmation, diagnosis, and treatment.
(1) Mission. The institute conducts research to develop strategies, products, information, procedures, and training programs for medical defense against BW threats and infectious diseases. It develops products—such as vaccines, drugs, diagnostic tests, and medical management procedures—to protect military personnel against biological attack or against endemic infectious diseases. It supplies medical and scientific SMEs who provide technical expertise and guidance to commanders and senior leaders on the prevention and treatment of hazardous diseases and the management of biological casualties. It serves as the DOD reference center for identification of biological agents from clinical specimens and other sources.
(2) Capabilities. The USAMRIID has many capabilities that can be employed for assessing and evaluating a biological terrorist incident, from initial communication of the threat through incident resolution. The primary capabilities that the USAMRIID provides are intellectual capability (consulting), extensive fixed confirmatory and reference laboratory facilities, and the Aeromedical Isolation Team (AIT).
o. USMC CBIRF.
(1) Mission. When directed, the CBIRF forward deploys to a domestic or foreign area in order to provide FP and/or mitigation in the event of a WMD incident. The CBIRF is prepared to respond to no-notice WMD incidents with a rapidly deployable Initial Response Force (IRF) and a follow-on force if required. The CBIRF also conducts FP training for fleet units.
(2) Organizational Structure. The CBIRF is composed of 350 to 375 USMC and USN personnel and consists of three elements depicted in Figure D-3. In garrison, the CBIRF is under the OPCON and administrative control (ADCON) of the 4th Marine Expeditionary Brigade Antiterrorism, II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF), and Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic (MARFORLANT). The CBIRF is an incident-response force that executes CM operations in support of a CINC or an LFA. The CBIRF has limited organic-equipment decontamination capability but does not conduct detailed equipment decontamination (DED) or area decontamination operations. Furthermore, the majority of CBIRF personnel are trained in Level A and B operations. TIC and TIM are potential threats to US forces, even outside the continental US (OCONUS), since littoral areas include port and industrial complexes where storage and manufacture of these materials are common. The CBIRF also has state-of-the-art monitoring and detection equipment used to identify, sample, and analyze NBC hazards, including TIC and TIM as well as oxygen (O2) and lower explosive levels (LEL).
Figure D-3. CBIRF Organizational Structure
(a) The CBIRF provides C2 liaison teams to other agencies or commands; interfaces with local and military commanders; coordinates all on-site CBIRF operations; establishes data/voice reach back to scientific and medical advisors; and prepares chemical, biological, or radiological plume models.
(b) Reaction-force-company capabilities may include—
Conducting agent detection and identification.
Performing sampling and collection.
Monitoring concentration and exposure levels.
Providing decontamination support for unit personnel and first responders.
Conducting casualty decontamination on scene.
Conducting victim searches.
Performing technical rescue and casualty extraction.
(c) Medical-element capabilities include—
Conducting emergency medical care in contaminated area.
Performing casualty triage and stabilization.
(d) Initial response-force capabilities include—
Providing 80 personnel on one-hour alert status.
Conducting decon for 35 to 50 ambulatory casualties per hour.
Conducting decon for 20 to 35 nonambulatory casualties per hour.
(e) Follow-on force capabilities of the CBRIF include—
Conducting decon for 125 to 150 ambulatory casualties per hour.
Conducting decon for 50 to 75 nonambulatory casualties per hour.
Providing mobile lab services.
(4) A sample CBIRF organization at an incident site is depicted in Figure D-4.
Figure D-4. CBIRF Incident-Site Organization
p. USN Naval Medical Research Center (NMRC).
(1) Mission. The NMRC's mission is to defend members of the armed forces against a biological threat in a theater of operations; therefore, rapid biological-detection methods are essential for prompt medical intervention and successful mission accomplishment. To provide for such needs, the NMRC (Biological Defense Research Program [BDRP]) has formed a scientific research program for the development of rapid detection and identification methods for BW agents.
(2) Capabilities. The BDRP has a transportable biological field laboratory.
(3) Components. The field lab is comprised primarily of commercially available scientific lab equipment except for the hand-held chromatographic assays (i.e., tickets). The field lab can process approximately 50 samples (4 to 5 samples a day for a period of approximately two weeks) before replenishment of supplies is required.
q. USN EOD Units.
(1) Mission. The mission of the unit is to eliminate hazards from ordnance that jeopardize operations conducted in support of the national military strategy by providing specially trained, combat-ready, highly mobile forces. Navy EOD units are employed in a variety of operations, across a wide spectrum of warfare areas, in the execution of this mission.
(2) Capabilities. Navy EOD units are structured for a relatively small footprint and rapid response. EOD units can split into smaller units to respond to multiple EOD incidents/tasks, which are within the capabilities of a smaller force. Each unit is trained in a variety of mobility and survivability skills enabling it to operate in a variety of environments both afloat and ashore. EOD units are capable of responding to underwater and surface ordnance and NBC threats. They can also provide support for diving and demolition, intelligence collection, aircraft and ordnance recovery, range and underwater clearance, riverine operations, Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) projects, Special Warfare (SPECWAR) operations, and other special operations.
r. USAF Radioanalytical Assessment Team (RAT).
(1) Mission. The RAT is a globally responsive specialty asset team that responds to radiation incidents/accidents, providing health physics and radiological support.
(2) Capabilities. The RAT provides field radioanalytical support to the assigned theater medical authority. It measures, analyzes, and interprets environmental and occupational samples for their content of radioactivity, providing expert guidance on the type and degree of radiological hazard that face deployed forces. The RAT can deploy on short notice to assess radiological hazards following a nuclear or radiological incident/accident. The RAT will perform radioanalytical analysis on environmental samples such as swipes, soil, water, air, and foodstuffs and occupational samples such as the whole body, breath, urine, and feces. Analyses results are interpreted for the impact on deployed forces and noncombatants. The information is compiled for use by the medical authority for dose avoidance, dose reduction, dose assessment, risk communication, and additional requirements for effective CM. The team has expertise in areas of health physics, environmental monitoring, radiation measurement, and medical laboratory operations.
s. US Army/USAF WMD-CST (Army/Air Force NG).
(1) Mission. The mission of the WMD-CST is to deploy to an area of operations to assess a suspected incident involving a biological, chemical, or radiological device in support of a local IC; advise civilian responders regarding appropriate action; facilitate requests for assistance to expedite the arrival of additional state and federal assets to help save lives; prevent human suffering; and mitigate great property damage.
(2) Capabilities. The WMD-CST is designed to support local ICs and local emergency responders, as well as mutual support to other WMD-CST elements (see Figure D-5). The WMD-CST is neither designed nor intended to replace functions carried out under the ICS nor to replace those functions normally performed by the emergency first responder community. Prior coordination with emergency first responders in the geographic coverage area facilitates WMD-CST integration into the ICS response planning. The WMD-CST maintains a level of readiness that allows for a response within 4 hours. It has the means to facilitate a rapid recall, permitting expeditious responses to RFAs (from local or state responders) validated by the Adjutant General (or his representative).
Figure D-5. WMD-CST Organization
|NOTE:||WMD-CSTs remain as a state response asset; they will not be federalized.|
(3) Major Equipment (Detection). The WMD-CST is equipped with a GC/mass spectrometer to identify CB agents. The van-mounted system consists of a Hewlett-Packard 6890 GC and a 5973 Mass Selective Detector (MSD). Detectors that are presently configured for incorporation into the system include the Flame Ionization Detector (FID), the Dual Wavelength Flame Photometric Detector (DWFPD), the Pulse Flame Photometric Detector (PFPD), and the Halogen Selective Detector (HSD). The lab is outfitted with a roof-mounted air conditioner/heater, instrument benches, gas-cylinder storage, and a tool kit. The laboratory configuration incorporates all the utilities necessary to conduct on-site laboratory-based operations. Electrical power is provided by an internal 7-kilowatt diesel generator, and compressed gases are supplied by gas generators.
t. SMARTs. These teams are organized and equipped to respond to disasters to include NBC incidents. Three SMARTs are designed such that their response to NBC events can provide critical medical support activities. Each US Army Regional Medical Command has a Chemical/Biological SMART (identified as SMART-CB). The US Army Veterinary Command has four Food Safety, Veterinary Preventive Medicine, and Animal Health Care SMARTs (identified as SMART-V). The US Army Center for Health Promotion and PVNTMED has three PVNTMED Threat-Assessment SMARTs (identified as SMART-PM). Additional types of SMARTs are also organized and equipped for a rapid response. For additional information on SMARTs, see FM 8-42.
(1) Mission. The mission of the SMART-PM is to provide initial disease and environmental health threat assessments. This is accomplished before or in the initial stages of a contingency operation or during the early or continuing assistance stages of a disaster.
(2) Capabilities. Although the basic SMART-PM is standardized, it may be tailored to the requirements of the specific mission if the Commander, US Army Medical Command (USAMEDCOM) determines additional specialties are needed. It can—
Perform on-site initial medical threat assessments, limited and rapid hazard sampling, monitoring and analysis, health-risk characterization, and needs assessment for follow-on PVNTMED specialties or other medical treatment support in the incident site or AO.
Prepare PVNTMED estimates.
Perform analysis of, but not limited to, endemic and epidemic disease indicators within the incident site or AO; environmental toxins related to laboratories; production and manufacturing facilities, nuclear reactors, or other industrial operations; and potential NBC hazards.
Provide medical threat information and characterize the health risk to deployed forces or civilian populations.
Provide guidance to local health authorities on surveying, monitoring, evaluating, and controlling health hazards relative to naturally occurring and man-made disasters.
Assist local health authorities in surveying, monitoring, evaluating, and controlling health hazards relative to naturally occurring and man-made disasters.
(1) Mission. The SMART-CB consists of trained medical teams that can deploy in response to a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. Examples of incidents that may require a rapid response include—
An accident involving the transport or storage of weapons.
The release of CW or BW agents or radiological material.
A leak of an industrial chemical, infectious material, or radioactive material.
(2) Capabilities. The SMART-CB can provide medical advice and consultation to commanders or local medical and political authorities for preparation of a response to a threat or actual incident. It can also provide medical advice to commanders or local authorities on the protection of first responders and other health-care personnel, casualty decontamination procedures, first aid (for nonmedical personnel) and initial medical treatment, and casualty handling. The initial advice includes signs, symptoms, first aid (self-aid, buddy aid, and combat lifesaver aid for military personnel), and initial treatment when an incident has occurred. It also assists in facilitating the procurement of needed resources. During an incident response, all response personnel must first protect themselves from the agent/material and then provide response assistance to victims. The SMART-CB will conduct the initial response. Upon arriving at the incident site or AO, it will determine the types and number of other responders required. The SMART-CB may, after initial assessment of the situation, elect to use telemedicine reach back or call in domestic or foreign response assets organized at the national level.
(1) Mission. The mission of the SMART-V is to assess the degree of existing destruction and/or impending risk and to determine recommended follow-on actions relative to animal health and food safety. The SMART-V also advises local first responders on food safety/veterinary PVNTMED issues as well as triage and treatment of injured animals; provides limited triage and emergency treatment of injured animals including lifesaving emergency procedures, or when appropriate, euthanasia to prevent undue suffering of those cases encountered during the assessment process; and provides veterinary care for military search and rescue dogs. When authorized, it also provides care to other governmental and nongovernmental agencies' animals participating in the operation.
(2) Capabilities. The SMART-V can assess food contamination and the potential for food-borne illness outbreaks, determine the magnitude of animal involvement in public health and zoonotic disease threats, make initial assessments and recommend corrective actions, provide liaison with follow-up relief organizations/agencies, assist in establishing control for the incident site or AO, and coordinate with all known animal-medicine/food-safety agencies and organizations in the incident site or AO.
x. USAF Theater Epidemiology Team (TET).
(1) Mission. The TET provides threat assessments of environmental and occupational factors, evaluates infectious disease risks and disease/nonbattle injury (DNBI) rates from all sources, and recommends interventions to minimize degradation of mission staff. These tasks are accomplished as part of the initial site/theatre assessment and during ongoing operations and disease and environmental health-threat assessments.
(2) Capabilities. The TET is a light, mobile, multidisciplinary team with limited environmental/occupational sampling equipment. It uses a portable high-end computing capability. It uses a communication infrastructure that allows for theatre-wide data collection; coordination with JTF, AFFOR, and combatant command surgeon general staffs; linkage with other PVNTMED teams (e.g., an AF Preventive Aerospace Medicine Team, a US Army SMART-PM); and an immediate reach back to SMEs at the Air Force Institute for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health Risk Analysis (AFIERA).
(3) Components. The TET has a standardized, 5-person team that consists of a PVNTMED physician, a public-health officer and supporting technician, and a bioenvironmental engineer and supporting technician. The composition can be tailored to include other specialties (e.g., tropical medicine, laboratory officer, entomologist). The basic allowance standard includes basic bioenvironmental sampling equipment and supplies. The Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (RAPID) with selected probes and primers is available to assist with biological-agent identification during outbreak investigations (because the RAPID is not a stand-alone biological detector, it requires laboratory personnel to operate it).
y. US Army Reserve Component (RC) Decontamination-Capable Companies (US Army Reserve [USAR] and US Army National Guard [ARNG]).
(1) Mission. The domestic response mission of these units is to provide casualty decontamination in support of CM operations.
(2) Capabilities. These units, while designed for overseas deployment, have also been tasked by the SECDEF to provide domestic-response casualty decontamination (DRCD) in support of CM. These units are neither designed nor intended to replace functions carried out under the ICS nor to replace those functions normally performed by the emergency first-responder community. Instead, these units provide additional capability as needed to support the nation. Using the formal military assistance to civil authorities system is how these assets are formally requested for support. The best use of these units is for them to be pre-positioned in preparation for a high-threat, high-visibility event, such as the Olympic Games. These units are not designed for a rapid response but can be mobilized and deployed within days.
(3) Components. These units are equipped with a platoon set of domestic-response-style equipment to decontaminate both ambulatory and nonambulatory casualties. The set includes a quickly erectable tent with runoff containment included for the actual decontamination, two other tents for sun protection for the workers and victims, showers for washing and rinsing, and rollers for decontaminating nonambulatory victims.
z. US Army RC Chemical-Reconnaissance-Capable Companies (USAR and ARNG).
(1) Mission. The domestic-response mission of these units is to provide dismounted NBC reconnaissance.
(2) Capabilities. The standard Chemical Reconnaissance Companies or elements smaller than companies, while designed for overseas deployment, have also been tasked by the SECDEF to provide dismounted NBC reconnaissance. These units are neither designed nor intended to replace functions carried out under the ICS nor to replace those functions normally performed by the emergency first-responder community. Instead, these units provide additional capabilities as needed to support the nation. Using the formal military assistance to civil authorities system is how these assets are formally requested for support. The best use of these units is for them to be pre-positioned in preparation for a high-threat, high-visibility event, such as the Olympic Games. These units are not designed for a rapid response but can be mobilized and deployed within days.
(3) Components. These units are equipped with enhanced chemical and radiological detection equipment (multigas detectors, commercial chemical-detection equipment, and AN/PDR-77 radiacmeters) and Commercial OSHA Level A equipment (i.e., suits, SCBA, and decontamination capability) to allow them to operate with local first responders throughout the nation. These units also have the capability to work soldiers in all OSHA protection levels.
aa. Other Federal Response Assets.
AFRRI. This is DOD's sole laboratory for conducting biomedical research to address military medical operational requirements for dealing with the prompt and delayed effects of radiation exposure. AFRRI is currently assigned to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS).
Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). AFTAC (located at Patrick AFB, Florida) provides postdetonation plume trajectory prediction, meteorological modeling, complete plume analysis/characterization, and leading-edge technology development for monitoring of CB activities.
US Army Radiological Advisory Medical Team (RAMT). Specially trained in radiological health matters, this team can provide assistance and guidance. Teams are located at the Walter Reed Army Hospital, District of Columbia, and at the US Army CHPPM, Europe, Landstuhl, Germany.
US Army Radiological-Control (RADCON) Team. This team is organized to provide radiological monitoring support and advice to the Centralized Recovery and Treatment Facility (CRTF). The team is capable of deploying within several hours from Fort Monmouth, New Jersey.
Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). The CSEPP is a joint FEMA and Army program in which local assets are supplemented to respond to incidents/accidents at each of the eight chemical-agent stockpile locations. Through this program, the Army provides technical assistance and required resources in developing and implementing emergency-response plans and related preparedness capabilities, integrating the on- and off-post planning process.
Defense Technical Response Group (DTRG). The DTRG is a deployable team of civilian DOD scientists that provides specialized one-of-a-kind equipment and on-scene technical advice to EOD operations during the access to and disruption phases of a WMD incident. The DTRG has a 4-hour mission-response time and an Air Force airlift mission in place.
Air Force and Navy Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC) agencies. Global, regional, and tactical METOC units are available worldwide to provide meteorological operations in support of WMD incidents. The DOD METOC agencies are available to provide worldwide meteorological support when required.
The Mortuary Affairs Center, Fort Lee Virginia, provides expert advice and assistance, in conjunction with the medical and medical examiners' offices, on managing, treating, and handling contaminated casualties.
USCG Federal On-Scene Coordinators (FOSCs). Under the authority of the NCP, USCG FOSCs coordinate all federal containment, removal, and disposal efforts and resources during an incident in the coastal zone.
National Strike Force (NSF). The USCG NSF provides 24-hour access to special decontamination equipment for chemical releases and advice to the OSC in hazard evaluation, risk assessment, multimedia sampling and analysis, on-site safety, clean-up techniques, and more. The NSF has portable chemical-agent instrumentation that is capable of detection and identification, as well as entry-level capabilities using Levels A through C PPE. Other NSF capabilities include pumping, cost documentation support, and contractor monitoring oversights.
Urban Search and Rescue Team (USRT). The USRTs save lives and protect property from both natural and man-made catastrophic urban disasters. The USRTs have a limited HAZMAT capability.
Rapid-Response Information System (RRIS). The RRIS is a database containing information on federal NBC response capabilities, NBC agents and munitions characteristics, and safety precautions.
Metropolitan Medical Strike Team (MMST). The MMSTs operate as a specially organized team. Their capabilities include agent detection and identification, patient decontamination, triage and medical treatment, patient transportation to hospitals, and coordination with local law-enforcement activities. Twenty-seven teams have been initiated. The federal government's goal is to develop MMSTs for the 100 most populous cities in the US.
National Medical-Response Team (NMRT). The NMRTs are comprised of medical personnel. These teams are capable of agent identification, patient decontamination, triage, and medical treatment in support of local health systems. There are three NMRTs.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC's capabilities are epidemiological surveillance, biological-agent identification, and public-health consultation and response.
Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The ATSDR provides consultation and advice on issues relating to the release or threatened release of hazardous substances.
Federal Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA provides regional laboratory support and surveillance assistance in support of public health.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The SAMHSA provides mental-health support and crisis counseling during emergencies.
Hazardous-Materials Response Unit (HMRU). The HMRU has specialized sampling, detection, and identification capabilities of NBC agents. It is also equipped with a variety of personal protective (OSHA Levels A through C) and rescue equipment.
Evidence Response Teams (ERTs). The ERTs main functions are crime-scene documentation and evidence collection in support of criminal investigations. Some ERTs are HAZMAT trained.
Critical-Incident Response Group (CIRG). These teams are specially assembled to conduct tactical and crisis-management efforts.
Intelligence Collection and Analysis. The FBI has experts that contribute to and coordinate detailed interagency threat-assessment activities.
OSCs. Under the authority of the NCP, EPA OSCs coordinate all federal containment, removal, and disposal efforts and resources during an incident.
Environmental Response Team (ERT). The EPA's ERT provides 24-hour access to special decontamination equipment for chemical releases and advice to the OSC in hazard evaluation, risk assessment, multimedia sampling and analysis, on-site safety, clean-up techniques, and more. The ERT has portable chemical-agent instrumentation that is capable of detection and identification in the low and sub parts per million, as well as entry-level capabilities using Levels A through C PPE.
Radiological Emergency-Response Team (RERT). The EPA's RERT provides on-site monitoring and mobile laboratories for field analysis of samples, along with expertise in radiation health physics and risk assessment. The RERT is accessible 24 hours per day.
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). The EPA operates the ERAMS for monitoring radioactivity in samples of precipitation, air, surface water, drinking water, and milk. In the event of a radiological emergency, sampling at the approximately 260 monitoring sites can be increased to provide information on the spread of contamination.
Radiation Environmental Laboratories. The EPA has two state-of-the-art radiological laboratories in Montgomery, Alabama, and Las Vegas, Nevada. By quickly characterizing radiation sources, they can offer advice on how best to protect public health in emergency situations.
EPA Research Laboratories. The EPA's 12 research laboratories offer programs in field monitoring, analytical support, and other technical support to quality-assurance programs related to air, water, wastewater, and solid waste. Five of these laboratories are capable of deploying mobile units to a contaminated site for CB analysis.
National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC). The EPA's NEIC offers expertise in environmental forensic evidence collection, sampling, and analysis; computer forensic and information management; and enforcement related analysis.
Radiological Assistance Program (RAP). The RAP provides the initial DOE radiological emergency response. Under the RAP, there are several RATs to assist in identifying the presence of radioactive contamination on personnel, equipment, and property at the incident or accident scene. These teams also provide advice on personnel monitoring and decontamination and material recovery.
Radiation Emergency-Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). The REAC/TS provides 24-hour medical consultation on health problems associated with radiation accidents. It also provides training programs for emergency-response teams comprised of health professionals.
Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST). The NEST provides technical responses to the resolution of incidents involving improvised nuclear and radiological dispersal devices. The team is able to search, locate, and identify devices or material.
Joint Technical Operations Team (JTOT). The JTOT is a combined DOD and DOE team that provides technical advice and assistance to the DOD.
Aerial Measuring System (AMS). The AMS can be mounted on helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft to respond to radiological emergencies. Its capabilities include aerial radiation surveys and search (gamma spectroscopy), real-time radiological aerial sampling, aerial photography survey, and aerial multispectra scanning surveys.
Atmospheric-Release Advisory Capability (ARAC). The ARAC provides real-time computer predictions of the atmospheric transport of radioactivity from a nuclear incident or accident.
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