Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Kamra

Air Weapon Complex (AWC)
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC)

The Wah Cantonment Ordnance Complex consists of three nearby armament facilities in Wah (Pakistan Ordnance Factories - POF), Kamra (Air Weapon Complex - AWC), and Taxilia (Heavy Industries Taxila -HIT). One or more of these facilities is probably associated with the weaponization of Pakistan's nuclear devices. According to some reports, the main storage and maintenance site of the Pakistani nuclear weapons, particularly the weapons at a 'screwdriver level', is located at the 'ordnance complex' in Wah. The Taxilia facility is devoted to land combat systems, and is an unlikely candidate for nuclear weapons development work. The Air Weapon Complex at Kamra is devoted to air-to-surface munitions, among other activities, and would probably have at least some connection with the development of air-delivered nuclear weapons.

Air Weapon Complex

    E5 Officers Colony,
    Kamra, Wah Cantonment, 47040,
    Tel  +92 51 563447
    Fax  +92 51 524233
    

The Air Weapon Complex, located in Wah/Kamra, is involved in developing and manufacturing different kinds of air and ground weapons. AWC is one of the leading organisations in Pakistan in the field of Air Delivered Weapons/Systems. The Air Weapons Complex manufactures a variety of air delivered weapons, including extended range bombs, Target penetration bombs and Infra-Red Search and Track Systems. The AWC product range includes: HAFR-1: Anti Runway Weapon; IRST: Infra Red Search and Track System; 250 kg Pre-fragmented Bomb; 250 kg MK-82 Steel Bomb; 500 kg MK-83 Steel Bomb; 1000 kg MK-84 Steel Bomb; Air Burst Electronic Fuses (Impact and Detonating); Low/High Drag Tail Units; 25 lbs and 6 kg Practice Bombs; GPS: Global Positioning System; and the Mushbak Trainer Aircraft. Technical expertise also includes: Electronic system design and production, Mechanical components precision manufacturing, Prototyping and production of specialised mechanical assemblies, TQM practices, Mil-Spec Qualifications, CAD/CAM support.

The Air Weapons Complex embarked on a project for the indigenous development of UAV's in the middle of 1998. The Sky Tracker and Sky Navigator suite of software were developed for the ground-based tracking of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV's) / unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). The software gets the UAV's GPS positional data from a radio data link. This data is used to show the position of the UAV as a 2D plot along with essential UAV data like, speed, altitude, heading etc. This plot can be overlaid onto area maps also. This information is used by the pilot for flying the UAV beyond visual range.

Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC)

The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) encompasses four Factories: F-6 Rebuild Factory, Mirage Rebuild Factory, Aircraft Manufacturing Factory and Kamra Avionics and Radar Factory. All the factories of PAC Kamra are ISO-9002 certified including the factories manufacturing drones, Griffo M-7 Radar, and electronic equipment.

The F-6 Rebuild Factory started in 1972 with overhaul of Chinese F-6 aircraft. The factory has come a long way and, in addition to F-6 aircraft, is overhauling FT-5 A-5 and F-7 aircraft. The factory is now fully supporting PAF in overhauling all Chinese origin aircraft.

In 1974 the Mirage Rebuild Factory (MRF) emerged to undertake the overhaul of Mirage III & V fighter aircraft and its engine. The factory facilities are modern and technically advanced and have thus proved extremely useful in supporting Mirage fleet of the PAF. Due to its versatility and elaborate facilities the factory was later easily able to undertake overhaul of F-100 engine powering F-16 aircraft. It is highlighted that MRF has not only overhauled PAF aircraft but has also overhauled Mirages of the United Arab Emirates. MRF has the distinction of being the first defence establishment to achieve ISO-9002 certified.

The Aircraft Manufacturing Factory (AMF) was established in 1975 with the primary role of assembling Mushshak (MFI-17) aircraft from knockdown kits received from abroad. However in 1981, AMF also started manufacturing many parts of Mushshak aircraft. The Factory bought the sole worldwide manufacturing rights from Sweden and went on to build 185 aircraft for Pakistan Defence Services and for export to Iran. Oman and Syria. AMF also developed Super Mushshak, a variant of existing Mushshak, that has more powerful engine, new instruments and facility of cockpit air-conditioning. The Factory is trying to sell the Super Mushshak to potential customers abroad, while continuing its support to the existing MF1-17 fleet worldwide. Later in 1993, AMF began co-production of K-8 jet trainer in collaboration with China. The aircraft development and production is a major achievement in the field of aviation. AMF is also manufacturing drones for aerial target practicing. The Center of excellence at AMF, equipped with latest CAD/CAM and Silicon Graphics facilities, is poised to design and manufacture complicated aircraft parts.

The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) was almost certainly responsible for the modification of Pakistani aircraft, proabably including F-16 fighters, to a configuration capable of delivering air-dropped nuclear weapons.

Photographic Evaluation Report

High resolution imagery is available from two sources, including declassified CORONA imagery. As of 04 June 2000 Russian 2-meter resolution KVR-1000 imagery coverage was not available via the SPIN-2 service on TerraServer. As of 04 June 2000 archival Space Imaging IKONOS 1-meter imagery available on the CARTERRAT Archive included two cloud-free scenes acquired on 12 March 2000. The location of these scenes is almost certainly consistent with the Wah/Kamra/Taxila area of interest, although the metadata appears corrupt, and thus the orientation of the browse images is uncertain. Consequently, it is not possible to correlate the three entities in this area with the several large complexes that are evident in the images.





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