Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Defence Research Complex
Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad

DRDO Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group [ANRA or ANURAG]

    Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad 500 058 / 500 258 

Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group [ANURAG] was formed to support aeronautical design work. In 1987, India decided to launch a national initiative in supercomputing to design, develop and deliver a supercomputer in the gigaflops range. Simultaneously, several other complementary projects were initiated to develop high-performance parallel computers at the National Aerospace Laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Center for Development of Telematics (C-DOT), Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), and the Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) of Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). India's first generation parallel computers were delivered starting from 1991.

PACE (Processor for Aerodynamic Computations and Evaluation), developed by ANURAG, is a loosely coupled, message-passing parallel processing system, originally designed to cater to the CFD needs in aircraft design. ANURAG delivered the more powerful super computer `Pace Plus 32' by the end of 1998. The `Pace Plus 32' super computer is 15 times more powerful than the existing computers in the country, and can be used to support missile development, as well as applicatons in various fields such as automobiles, molecular design, building big structures like bridges and meteorology.

Indian newspaper reported in June 1998 that A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the head of India's Defense Research and Development Organization, said that a PACE supercomputer was used to design the country's nuclear bombs that were tested in May 1998. Kalam's office later said that the reports were incorrect and denied that any PACE supercomputers were used in the Indian nuclear program.

Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory [DMRL]

    P.O. Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad - 500 058 / 500 258

According to some sources the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory [DMRL] and the DRDL in Hyderabad helped fabricate and weaponize the nuclear devices tested by India in 1998. DMRL not only conducts research on metallurgy, but is the materials research laboratory for all of the Indian Ministry of Defense. DMRL's work has included contributions to the Agni Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM), and maraging steel motor casings for the Polar Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV). DMRL has close ties with the US materials community, due to the fact that many of their scientists were trained at some of the best US universities. A large amount of the research conducted in the Metallic Division, supports maintenance and upgrades to their aircraft inventory of Soviet MIG fighters. Therefore, there is some advanced development work on conventional titanium and nickel based alloys. Some of this work is in support of indigenous Indian alloys.

DMRL, due at least in part to the relative immaturity of its aerospace industry, carries out the majority of defense related materials research up through advanced development, prototype and sometimes even production. While much of the historical work of DMRL has centered around support of existing or imported hardware, there is an increased emphasis on indigenous research, development, and production. Perhaps the most visible examples of this are India's efforts in missiles and rockets, although there are also projects underway to develop an indigenous trainer, jet engine, and a turboprop powered small transport which has both civilian and military projected uses.

The fledgling titanium industry in India is a good example of the governments attempts to encourage and promote aerospace industry in India. DMRL has conducted research on sponge production for several decades, and by the early 1990s operated a pilot plant, where the size and technology appear to be world class. This technology is available for commercialization by Indian industry. Examples of DMRL's other facilities are it's 2000 ton isothermal forging press, VAR furnace, state-of-the-art materials characterization facility, and pioneering electro-chemical slag remelting facility.

The Non-ferrous Materials Technology Development Centre (NFTDC) is a consortium with the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory acting as a nodal laboratory and four leading public sector enterprises, namely, National Aluminium Co. (NALCO), Bharat Aluminium Co. (BALCO), Hindustan Zinc Ltd. (HZL) and Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL), functioning as industry members of the consortium. While the nodal laboratory, DMRL, provides extensive facilities and R&D support, the industry members contribute by way of corpus fund, deputation of industry personnel and, most importantly, defining the market-oriented product development.

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