The JL-1 [CSS-N-3] is a two-stage solid-propellant submarine-launched ballistic missile deployed on the Type-092 Xia class submarines. The Ju Lang-1 [or "Giant Wave-1"] missile is a sea-based variant of the land-based ground-mobile DF-21. JL-1 is ejected from a submerged submarine with the first-stage engine igniting after the missile has emerged from the water. The first successful test of the 1.4m-diameter solid-rocket engine for the JL-1 came in early 1978. The first test launch of the two stage CSS-NX-3 missile took place on 30 April, 1982 from submerged pontoon near Huludao (Yellow Sea). The first successful launch of the JL-1 was achieved on 12 October 1982, from a Golf Class trials submarine, marking a major milestone in a development program that had been initiated in March 1967. The second was launched on 12 October 1982.
The first firing from Xia was in 1985 and was unsuccessful and it was not until 27 September 1988 that a satisfactory launch took place. Although the missile put to sea as early as 1983, it did not become fully operational until the successful test firing from submerged Xia in September 1988.
China was expected to deploy a medium-range SLBM aboard the XIA SSBN before the end of 2002. The DF-31 follow-on SLBM will be deployed on a new, more capable submarine by the end of the decade.
|Contractor||Academy of Rocket Motors Technology - ARMT|
|First Flight||12 October 1982|
|Re-entry Vehicle Mass (kg)||600|
|Warhead Yield||200-300 KT|
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