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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Foreign Assistance to Iran's Nuclear and Missile Programs

References

1. Kenneth R. Timmerman, Weapons of Mass Destruction: the Cases of Iran, Syria,and Libya, Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1992, p. 41

2. Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East: National Efforts, Warfighting Capabilities, Weapons Lethality, Terrorism, and Arms Control Implications, Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 1988

Anthony H. Cordesman, The Iranian and Iraqi Military Balance: Key Trends, Center for Strategic and International Studies, January 1988

Anthony H. Cordesman, Military Developments in Iran: Military Spending, Arms Transfers, Force Strength, and Proliferation, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 21, 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction In Iran: Delivery Systems and Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Programs, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 28, 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Iran in Transition: Uncertain Hostility, Uncertain Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Testimony to the Foreign Relations Committee, May 6, 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Trends in the Arab-Israeli Military Balance: Analytic Overview, Part III, Center for Strategic and International Studies, July 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Military Balance in the Middle East Vol. VIII: Weapons of Mass Destruction, Center for Strategic and International Studies, September 1998

3. Scott Peterson, Iran's Revolution Still Shapes the Middle East, The Christian Science Monitor, August 6, 1997

4. Country Briefing - Iran, Jane's Defense Weekly, October 15, 1997

5. SIPRI Military Expenditure Database, Iran, Military Expenditure 1987-96

6. Scott Peterson, Iran Eyes 'The Bomb,' West Watches, The Christian Science Monitor, February 2, 1998

7. Shahram Chubin, Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Persian Gulf Case, The Henry L. Stimson Center, March 1997

8. Caroline Faraj, Troubled Economy May Crimp Iran's Defense Budget, Defense News, February 3, 1998

9. Steven Erlanger, Clinton Hesitates to Punish Nations for Iran Oil Deals, New York Times, March 21, 1998

Text: Fact Sheet On Nonproliferation and Counterterrorism, USIS Washington File, May 18, 1998

10. Douglaus Davis, Report: Iran Using Britain as Center of Its Weapons Network, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Inc. January 19, 1998

11. France: US Technologies May Help Develop Iranian Weapons Via Russia, Paris Le Point, November 8, 1997

12. Rudlof Lambrecht, A Roaring Trade With Tehran, Hamburg Stern, April 17, 1997

13. Iran Seeks M-Tool Production, Mednews, December 21, 1992

14. Iran Holds Machine-Tool Fair, Iran Brief, July 1, 1996

15. Tehran to Buy German M-Tool Maker, Iran Brief, January 6, 1997

16. Kenneth Timmerman, Shipments Blocked in UAE, Japan, The Iran Brief, May 4, 1998

17. Schmidbauer Warns of "Quantum Leap" in Missiles, Iran Brief, August 1, 1997

18. Iran to Close Diplomatic Missions, The Washington Post, August 6, 1998

19. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, (Four Walls Eight Windows), 1993

20. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, (Four Walls Eight Windows), 1993

21. Full details of China's nuclear relationship with Iran is contained in the following reports from the Monterey Institute of International Studies:

a. China's Nuclear Exports and Assistance to Iran, June 1998

b. China's Nuclear Exports and Assistance to Iran - Statements and Developments, June 1998

22. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, (Four Walls Eight Windows), 1993

23. Peter Slevin, US, China Advance on Nuclear Trade, Bicker Over Rights, The Seattle Times, November 21, 1996

US Protests China Trade Policy, The Iran Brief July 3, 1997

24. China Tells Israel - No More Nuclear Support to Iran, Arabic News, August 25, 1997

Bill Gertz, US Offers Deal to Stop China's Iran Nuke Sales; Beijing Could Buy US Reactors, The Washington Times, October 14, 1997

R. Jeffrey Smith, China Arms Deal Opens Way for US to Export Reactors, Washington Post, October 25, 1997

25. Elaine Sciolino, CIA Report Says Chinese Sent Iran Arms Components, New York Times, June 22, 1995

26. Bill Gertz, China in New Nuclear Sales Effort; White House Plays Down Finding, The Washington Times, March 13, 1998

27. Barry Schweid, CIA: China Gives Technology to Iran, The Washington Post, July 22, 1998

28. Anoushiravan Ehteshani, Iran, Israel and the Asian Triangle, Jane's Intelligence Review Pointer, February 1998

29. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, (Four Walls Eight Windows), 1993

30. AEC Denies Iran Tried to Obtain Nuclear Technology, FBIS-TAC-97-238

The Riddle of SA-Iran Nuclear Talks, Weekly Mail & Guardian, August 15, 1997

Iran Denies Press Report on Nuclear Shopping List, Iran Weekly Press Digest, August 28, 1997

31. James Adams, US Fears South Africa Will Sell Nuclear Technology to Iran, Sunday Times, April 23, 1995

32. David Makovsky, South African 'Source' On Nuclear Aid to Tehran, Jerusalem Post, September 14, 1995

33. Marina Bidoli, Atomic Energy Corp in Danger of Being Vaporized, Financial Mail, August 15, 1997

34. Indigo Gilmore, Daily on Iranian Nuclear 'Shopping List' In South Africa, Times (london), August 18, 1997

Mathew Campbell and Uzi Mahnami, Iran's Mullahs On Brink of a Nuclear Bomb, London Sunday Times, December 21, 1997

35. G.N. Markov, V.N. Lokhman and E. Ronanader, Multiple Photoionization of 169Yb in a Three-Level Atomic Medium by the Collinear Propagation of Laser Pulses, Journal of Physics, Section B, 1995, Vol. 28, p. 215-220

36. Ann MacLachlan and Michael Knapik, South Africa to End MIS SWU Project, Nuclear Fuel, December 12, 1997

37. US Confident S. Africa Not Aiding Iran, Reuters, December 4, 1997

Program Summary - Jerusalem Qol Yisra'el Persian, Qol Yisra'el International Service (Jerusalem), December 5, 1997

38. David A. Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons?, National Resources Defense Council, September 7, 1995

39. Michael Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, The Washington Institute for Near east Policy, Policy Papers Number 42

40. Michael Eisenstadt, Iran Under Khatami: Weapons of Mass Destruction, Terrorism, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Statement Before the United States Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Near East and South Asian Affairs, May 14, 1988

41. Michael Eisenstadt and Azriel Lorber, Iran's Recent Missile Test: Assessment and Implications, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy watch Number 330, August 5, 1998

42. Michael Eisenstadt, Iran's Revolutionary Guard Commander Sends a Warning, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Watch Number 314, May 7, 1998

43. Iran Khatami Tells Military to Avoid Politics, MSNBC, August 1, 1998

44. Testimony of Steven Emerson, Before the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Near East and South Asian Affairs, Tehran and Terrorism: Iran Under President Muhammad Khatami, May 14, 1998

45. James Phillips, Maintain International Pressure and Sanctions on Iran, Roe Backgrounder No. 1135, The Heritage Foundation, September 5, 1997

Ariel Cohen and James Phillips, Russia's Dangerous Missile Game in Iran, Executive Memorandum No. 503, The Heritage Foundation, November 13, 1997

46. Arthur L. Lowrie, United States Policy in the Persian Gulf: Domestic Bias of Containment of Iran, University of South Florida, December 22, 1997

47. Kenneth Katzman, Iran: Current Developments and US Policy, Congressional Research Service Issue Brief 93033, Updated January 2, 1997

Kenneth Katzman, Iran, Russia and the New Muslim States, Caspian Crossroads Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1995

48. Beyond Dual Containment, Voice of America, April 14, 1998

49. Frederick R. Strain, Iran's Nuclear Strategy: Discerning Motivations, Strategic Culture, and Rationality, Institute for National Strategic Studies, Essays on Strategy XIV, 1997

50. W. Seth Carus, Iran's Weapons of Mass Destruction: Implications and Responses, Presentation Before the Iran Study Group of the Nixon Center for Peace and Freedom, February 20, 1997

51.John J. Deyermond, Iran's Growing Nuclear Weapons Program: A Catalyst for Regional Instability in the Middle East, Army War College, March 10, 1993, NTIS Report No. ADA263838

David A. Schantz, Emerging Iran: Implications for United States Foreign Policy, Army War College, February 15, 1993, NTIS Report No. ADA263913

Raymond J. Leisner, Analyzing Reports of Recent Iranian Weapons Acquisition From Open Literature Sources, Air War College, April 19, 1993, NTIS Report No. ADA283232

Frank R. Jordan, Iran and Iraq - The Proliferation Challenge, Army War College, April 15, 1996, NTIS Report No. ADA309049

Scott Jasper, The Iranian Threat: Key Concerns for the Combatant Commander in response, Naval War College, March 5, 1996, NTIS Report No. ADA311682

John I. Kittle, Iranian Strategic and Operational Planning Against the United States, Naval war College, February 1997, NTIS Report No. ADA325133

Edward C. Cardon, Iranian Considerations for War Gaming From the Iranian Perspective, Naval War College, June 17, 1994, NTIS Report No. ADA278637

Nikloa B. Schahgaldian, Iran and the Postwar Security in the Persian Gulf, Rand Corp., 1994, NTIS Report No. ADA282391

Trudy H. Clark, Foreign Policies and National Interests of Iran: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, Air War College, April 19, 1993, NTIS Report No. ADA283148

Charles E. Orck, Iran: A Study in Strategic Importance, Air war College, April 1993, NTIS Report No. ADA283175

52. Harold Muller (ed.), A European Non-Proliferation Policy, Prospects and Policy, 1987, Section 7 (Iran)

53. Neutron Flux Measurement in Bent Air Ducts Through Water, Report No. EIR-78, 1965

Penetration of Neutrons in Cylindrical Air Ducts in Diffusing Media, Proceedings of the International Conference of Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, 3rd Geneva, 1964, Vol. 2, p.118-26, 1965

Fast-Neutron Inelastic Scattering in the Energy Range 2 to 4.5 MeV, Nuclear Data for Reactors, 2nd International Conference, 1970, Vol. 2, p.349-55

54. Harold Muller (ed.), A European Non-Proliferation Policy, Prospects and Policy, 1987, Section 7 (Iran)

55. Independent Iran Observer: Islamic Republic of Iran Cabinet Members, September 3, 1997

56. Iran Defends Its Pursuit of Nuclear Technology, Christian Science Monitor, February 18, 1993, p. 7

57. Iran Trains Nuclear Engineers in Pakistan, MEDNEWS, December 5, 1988

Secret Agreement with Pakistan Revealed, Nuclear Developments, July 13, 1988, p. 19

58. Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program, MEDNEWS, June 8, 1992, p.1-5, 7

59. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, (Four Walls Eight Windows), 1993, p. 249

60. Yossef Bodansky, Pakistan's Islamic Bomb, Freeman Center, 1998

61. Independent Iran Observer: Islamic Republic of Iran Cabinet Members, September 3, 1997

62. Independent Iran Observer - Documentary, Cabinet Members Section, 1998

63. Andrew Koch and Jeanette Wolf, Iran's Nuclear Facilities: A Profile, Monterey Institute of International Studies, 1998

64. Kenneth R. Timmerman, Weapons of Mass Destruction: the Cases of Iran, Syria,and Libya, Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1992, p. 41

65. Michael Z. Wise, Atomic Team Reports on Iran Probe, The Washington Post, February 15, 1992, p. A29, A30

66. Kenneth R. Timmerman, Weapons of Mass Destruction: the Cases of Iran, Syria,and Libya, Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1992, p. 42

67. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, (Four Walls Eight Windows), 1993, p. 27

68. Kenneth R. Timmerman, Weapons of Mass Destruction: the Cases of Iran, Syria,and Libya, Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1992, p. 42

69. Iranian Scholars Scientific Information Network - News Bulletin

This project may have connections to Alavi Foundation. This foundation is believed to be associated with Iran's covert efforts to obtain dual-related technology. Details on the Alavi Foundation can be found in: Kenneth R. Timmerman, Islamic Iran's American Base, The American Spectator, December 1995

Timmerman reports that in 1996 two former members of the Alavi foundation were under investigation by the FBI for nuclear smuggling. Iran Brief, March 4, 1996

Whether this smuggling incident is related to revelations about members of bin Laden's group attempting to acquire nuclear material is not known at the present time.

70. Steve Feldman, Villanova Speaker Under Investigation by Federal Agencies, Jewish Exponent, May 2, 1996

71. Center for the Simulation of Advanced Rockets, March 25, 1997, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Details of the ASCI research being funded at American Universities are found in: M.G. McKinzie, T.B. Cochran, C.E. Paine, Explosive Alliances, Nuclear Weapons Simulation Research at American Universities, January 1998, Natural Resources Defense Council

72. Short Term ASCI Alliances Platform Access Policy, November 11, 1997

73. Elaine Johanson, US/Iran Exchanges, VOA Broadcast, April 1, 1998

74. Iranian Sources Reveal: Iraqi Nuclear Scientist Sharistani Alive, Residing in Tehran, Sawt al-Kuwait, FBIS-NES-92-100, May 22, 1992

75. Yossef Bodansky, Pakistan's Nuclear Brinkmanship, 1995

76. Scientist Views Iraq's, Iran's Nuclear Programs, Al-Majallah, FBIS-TAC-96-002, February 12, 1996

77. Libya and Iran Seek Ex-Soviet Scientists, Science , Volume 271, March 15, 1996, p. 1485

78. Yevgeniy Bovkun, Nuclear Scientists Leaving CIS, IZVESTIYA, October 22, 1992, p. 7

79. Jossef Bodansky, Iran Acquires Nuclear Weapons and Moves to Provide Cover to Syria, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, February 1992

80. Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program, MEDNEWS, June 8, 1992, p.1-5, 7

81. Nuclear Experts Leave for Libya, Iran, DER SPIEGEL, February 24, 1992

82. G.L. Pavlova, Yu. K. Kubov, Electrochemical Deburring, Stanki Instrum., 1972, Vol. 7, p. 43

83. B.E. Semenov, V.S. Zotikov, N.L. Trofimov, etal., Phase Transformations, of Corrosion Products Forming on Steels in Nitrogen Tetroxide, Korroziy Materialov v Khim Pr-vakh L, 1982, p. 71-5

84. Proliferation: Cut-Off System to Hide Project, Intelligence Newsletter, October 12, 1995, p. 7

85. Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program, MEDNEWS, June 8, 1992, p.1-5, 7

86. Proliferation: Cut-Off System to Hide Project, Intelligence Newsletter, October 12, 1995, p. 7

87. R. Adam Moody, Armageddon for Hire, Jane's International Defense Review, February 1997, p. 21-23

88. R. Adam Moody, Armageddon for Hire, Jane's International Defense Review, February 1997, p. 21-23

89. Fighting Brain and Knowhow Drain, Intelligence Newsletter, February 2, 1995, No. 257, p. 6

R. Adam Moody, Armageddon for Hire, Jane's International Defense Review, February 1997, p. 21-23

90. Nuclear Experts Leave for Libya, Iran, DER SPIEGEL, February 24, 1992

91. Iran, Confronting Internal Chaos, Strengthens Defenses and Forges New Strategic Links, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, July-August 1995

92. Kenneth Timmerman, Rev Guards General Defects, The Iran Brief, June 1, 1995, p. 11

93. Anthony H. Cordesman, Iran in Transition: Uncertain Hostility, Uncertain Threat, Testimony to the Foreign Relations Committee, May 6, 1998

Kenneth M. Pollack, Iran: Shaking Up the High Command, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Watch Number 269, October 1, 1997

Safa Haeri, Removal of General Rezai is Seen as Heralding Possible Reforms, Iran Press Service, September 11, 1997

94. Son of Revolutionary Guard Commander Says Iran Sponsors Terror, CNN Interactive News, July 7, 1998

95. Kenneth R. Timmerman, Weapons of Mass Destruction: the Cases of Iran, Syria,and Libya, Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1992, p. 45

96. Marko Milivjevic, Nuclear Deal, Middle East International, January 20, 1995, p. 14

97. Russia - Iran Protocol Provides Evidence of Discussions, But No Firm Agreement on Sale of Centrifuge Plant for Uranium Enrichment, Natural Resources Defense Council News Release, May 10, 1995

98. Yablokov: Nuclear Technology Sale to Iran 'Dangerous', FBIS-SOV-95-091, May 5, 1995

99. Yablokov: Nuclear Technology Sale to Iran 'Dangerous', FBIS-SOV-95-091, May 5, 1995

100. Russia May Call Off Training Iranian Physicists, Interfax (Moscow), May 10, 1995

101. Eugene V. Levin and Chuntong Ying, Diffusion Transport Vector for Multicomponent Gas Separation in Ultracentrifuge, Separation Science and Technology, 1995, Vol. 30, p. 3441-3454

102. Jim Anderson, Iran Doesn't Need Reactor Deals to Get Nuclear Know-How, May 17, 1995, p. A15

103. Michael Mihalka, Russia to Continue Nuclear Cooperation With Iran, Omri Daily Digest, May 23, 1995, Vol. 1, No. 99

104. Aleksandr Korzun, etal. , Russian Nuclear Specialists Not to Be Recalled From Iran, JPRS-TAC-95-002, May 25, 1995

105. Deep Dark Secrets, U.S. News and World Report, December 2, 1996, p. 27

106. Proliferation: Cut-Off System to Hide Project, Intelligence Newsletter, October 12, 1995, p. 7

107. Atomic Ministry to Train Iran Nuclear Specialists, FBIS-SOV-95-207, October 25, 1995

108. Russia: Specialists to Train Iranians for Bushehr Nuclear Plant, FBIS-SOV-96-057, March 21, 1996

109. Iran: Russia to Train Iranian Engineers in Nuclear Science, FBIS-NES-96-064, March 24, 1996

110. International Nuclear Safety Program - Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Station

111. It Is Possible That 700 Iranian Nuclear Specialists Will be Trained in Russia, Interfax (Moscow), April 20, 1996

112. 2nd Russian Advanced Technologies Exhibitions Opens, Tehran Times, May 11, 1997

113. Michael R. Gordon, Russians Order Expulsion of Iranian for Missile Spying, New York Times, November 18, 1997

In a note of irony, Russia's SVR Intelligence Service is reported to be training Iranian intelligence agents. For details see: Russia Reform Monitor, No. 47, September 12, 1995

114. Ed Blanche, Israel Stops Gas Deal in Russia-Iran Missile Row, Jane's Defense Weekly, September 17, 1997

115. Michael R. Gordon, Defying Pressure Over Iran Deal, Russians Spurn U.S. Loan Pact, New York Times, December 18, 1997

116. B. Mavko, NPP Systems PWR, Training Course in Nuclear Engineering for Junior Iranian Engineers, November 5 - December 3, 1993, Tehran, Iran, IAEA Training Course Material

B. Mavko, Graduate Training Course in Nuclear Engineering for Junior Iranian Engineers, 1994

117. B. Mavko, Special Problems in Nuclear Engineering, Part 1, IAEA Training Course on Nuclear Material, Tehran, Iran, November 1993

K. Sepanloo, IAEA Fellowship Project, Preparation of AEOI Staff for NPP Construction, 1995

118. Iran Has 3000-Tonnes of Surface Reserves of Uranium, Nuclear News, February 1989, p. 90

119. Iran Plans Exploration of Uranium Deposits, Nuclear Engineering International, March 1989, p. 6

120. Iran Plans Exploration of Uranium Deposits, Nuclear Engineering International, March 1989, p. 6

121. S.R. Hashemi-Nezhad, S.A. Durrani and R.K. Bull, Determination of U-Content of Uranium-Bearing Veins and Inclusions, 11th International Conference on Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors, Bristol, UK, 7-12 September 1981

122. Over 5,000 Tons of Uranium Reserves Discovered, JPRS-TND-85-004, February 26, 1985, p. 68

Cited in Andrew Koch, Jeanette Wolf, Iran's Nuclear Procurement Program: How Close to the Bomb?, The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1997, p. 123-135

123. Iran's Nuclear Network, The Risk Report, September 1995, Vol. 1, No. 7

124. FAS Nuclear Forces Guide: Iran, Special Weapons Facilities

125. U.S. Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Testimony of Dr. Gary Milhollin before the Subcommittee on Near East and South Asian Affairs, May 6, 1997, p. 4

126. Mysterious Disappearances, Intelligence News Letter, June 23, 1994, p. 5

Iran's Uranium Programs, Iran Brief, June 1, 1995, p. 11

127. Uranium Exploration With China, Iran Brief, May 6, 1996

128. Russian Visitors to Iran on Nuclear, Uranium, Proliferation Issues, November 12, 1992, p. 22

129. Deep Dark Secrets, U.S. News and World Report, December 2, 1996, p. 27

Michael R. Gordon, Russians Order Expulsion of Iranian for Missile Spying, New York Times, November 18, 1997

130. R. Jeffery Smith, Administration Concerned About Russia's Nuclear Cooperation With Iran, The Washington Post, July 7, 1997, p. A07

131. Shyam Bhatia, Nuclear Rivals in the Middle East, (New York, NY, Routledge Press), 1988, p. 83

132. Galina A. Gonevchuk was born in Tebriz, Iran. received a Doctorate in Geological-Mineralogical Sciences in 1981 from the Scientific Council of Geological Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science in Vladivostok.

133. Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program, MEDNEWS, June 8, 1992, p.1-5, 7

134. I. Bayat, M. Etehadian, and M. Ansar, Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Liquid Wastes from Mining and Milling, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, Berlin, Germany, 1995, Vol. 2, p. 951-3

135. I. Bayat, M. Etehadian, and M. Ansar, Determination of Trace Elements in Food Stuffs and Biological Materials by Destructive Neutron Activation Analysis, Nutrition, 1195, Vol. 11 (%, Suppl.), p. 535-7

136. Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1993

137. Iran's Phantom Bomb, Risk Report, September 1995, Vol. 1, No. 7, p. 1, 3-4

138. Mark Gorwitz, Second Tier Nuclear Nations, Laser Isotope Separation Programs, January 1996

139. Uranium Exploration With China, Iran Brief, May 6, 1996

140. US Protests Chinese Trade Policy, Iran Brief, July 3, 1997

141. Harold Muller (ed.), A European Non-Proliferation Policy, Prospects and Policy, 1987, Section 7 (Iran)

142. Mark Hibbs, Sharif University Activity Continues Despite IAEA Visit, Nuclear Fuel, March 28, 1994, p. 10-11

143. Russian Industry May Be Key to Iran's Reactor Prospects, Nucleonics Week, September 17, 1992, p. 3,4

144. Iran Goes Shopping for Nuclear Technology, November 1992, p. 2

145. Objections to Iran AES Plan Reported, Proliferation Issues, March 22, 1993, p. 49

146. Mark Hibbs, Iran Would Return Nuclear Spent Fuel, Accept Stringent Safeguards, Nuclear Fuel, October 12, 1992, p. 5

147. Harold Muller (ed.), A European Non-Proliferation Policy, Prospects and Policy, 1987, Section 7 (Iran)

Andrew Koch and Jeanette Wolf, Iran's Nuclear Procurement Program: How Close to the Bomb, The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1997, p. 123-135

148. Penny Morvant, Officials Say Reactors Are Capable of Producing Plutonium, OMRI Daily Report No. 38, Part I, February 22, 1995

Further details of ecological concerns are presented in: The Economic and Ecological Assessment of the Iranian-Russian Nuclear Technology Trade

149. Anatoly Yurkin, Loborev: Iran Reactor Waste Not Weapons-Grade, FBIS-SOV-95-086, May 4, 1995

150. Marko Milivojevic, Nuclear Deal, Middle East International, January 20, 1995, p. 14

151. Mark Hibbs, Iran May Keep Russian Spent Fuel or Take Plutonium, Nuclear Fuel, December 12, 1995, p. 1, 10

152. Carey Schofield, All We Need - Mad Mullahs With Nukes, Sunday Telegraph (London), September 24, 1995

153. Russia-US-Iran, Yaderniy Kontrol, March 1996, p. 8

154. Reactor Sale to Iran: A Plan to Bar Weapons Use, The Current Digest of the Soviet Press, Vol. XLVII, Nol. 17, 1995, p. 6

155. Considers More Control Over Plant, FBIS-SOV-95-087, May 4, 1995

156. Iran Rejects US Monitoring Its Atomic Plant, Russia Today, September 24, 1997

157. Tehran Hopes to Conclude Nuclear Deal With Russia "Early", Proliferation Issues, August 2, 1993, p. 7

158. Russia Helps Build Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, FBIS-NES-94-079, p. 82

159. Russian Source on Iran's Nuclear Plant Project, FBIS-CHI-95-245, December 21, 1995

160. Russia: Moscow Begins Fulfilling Iran Nuclear Contract, FBIS-SOV-96-026

161. Bushehr Project Starts Next Stage, Nuclear Engineering International, May 1997, p. 6

162. Russian-Iranian Nuclear Cooperation, FBIS-TAC-97-189, July 8, 1997

Russia Accelerates NPP Construction at Bushehr, Bellona, June 26, 1998

163. Russia-German Hybrid for Bushehr?, Nuclear Engineering International, November 1994

164. Mark Hibbs, Russia-Iran Bushehr PWR Project Shows Little Concrete Progress, Nucleonics Week, September 26, 1996, p. 3, 4

165. C.F. Carson, Design Issues Concerning Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant VVER-1000 Conversion, American Nuclear Society and the European Nuclear Society 1996 International Conference on the Global Benefits of Nuclear Technology and the Embedded Topical Meetings

166. Continuation of Plans for Bushehr Power Plant, Iranshahr, September 16, 1997

167. Russian Committee to Ensure Safety at Bushehr Nuclear Plant, FBIS-TAC-97-275, October 2, 1997

168. M.R. Eskandari, A.A. Harms, Intrinsic Reactor Safety With Temperature Sensitive Isotope Triggers, Hezi Kexue (Nuclear Science Journal), 1992, Vol. 29, p. 81-87

M.R. Eskandari, The Effect of Interferences Between the Resonances of Uranium-238 for Thermal Lattices, Hezi Kexue (Nuclear Science Journal), 1990, Vol. 27, p. 308-14

169. Aleksandr Bezmenov, Russian Plant Share the Bushehr Project, Kommersant-Daily, March 26, 1996

170. World: Europe, Russia Agrees, Ukraine Cancels Nuclear Deal With Iran, BBC News, March 6, 1998

Michael R. Gordon, Ukraine Decides Not to Supply Key Parts for Iranian Reactor, New York Times, April 15, 1997, p. A6

171. Ukrainian Firm to Supply Turbine for Iranian Nuclear Plant, FBIS-SOV-97-207, July 26, 1997

Ukraine May Supply Turbine to Iran, The Ukrainian Weekly, August 24, 1997, p. 2

In early October of this year one of Ukraine VVER-1000 reactors at the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant was stopped due to a turbine malfunction. See the following article for further details:

Ukraine Nuke Reactor Malfunctions, The Washington Post, October 2, 1998

172. Iran/Ukraine/Belarus - VOA News Report, March 7, 1998, VOA

173. Mark Hibbs, Iran May Keep Spent Fuel or Take Plutonium, Nuclear Fuel, December 12, 1995, p. 1, 10

174. Albert A. Shishkin, Russian Nuclear Industry: Insider's Information, The Monitor, Winter 1997, p. 18-20

175. Seyed Mohammad R. Nejat, Preliminary Neutronics Calculations for Conversion of the Tehran Research Reactor Core From HEU to LEU Fuel, Nuclear Technology, 1993, Vol. 103, p. 187-198

176. David A. Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons?, National Resources Defense Council, September 7, 1995

177. Gamini Seneviratne, IAEA Approves Argentine Fuel for Tehran Research Reactor, Nuclear Fuel, October 3, 1988, p. 13

178. M.R. Eskandari, A. Ashrafi, Calculations of the Critical Mass for a Pool Type Reactor Using Multireflectors, Hezi Kexue (Nuclear Science Journal), 1982, Vol. 19, p. 194-200

179. A. Pazirandeh, G. Bartsch, Neutronic Analysis of the Conversion of HEU to LEU for a 5-MW MTR Core, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 1987, Vol. 55, p. 191-2

A.Pazirandeh, G. Bartsch, Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel for the TRR Core, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 1988, Vol. 56, p. 583-584

180. A. Pazirandeh, G. Bartsch, Study on the Conversion of the Tehran Research Reactor to Low-Enrichment Fuel, Kerntechnik, 1992, Vol. 57, p. 286-90

181. Seyed Mohammad R. Nejat, Preliminary Neutronics Calculations for Conversion of the Tehran Research Reactor Core From HEU to LEU Fuel, Nuclear Technology, 1993, Vol. 103, p. 187-198

S. M. Nejat, Converting to Low Enriched in Iran: Looking at the Feasibility, Nuclear Engineering International, December 1993, p. 45-46

182. K. Moghadam, F. Ziaie, Modification of the Neutron Beam Spectrum for Neutron Radiography at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR), Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A, 1996, Vol. 377, p. 45-47

183. M. Zaker, H. Azimi, Criticality Calculations of Spent Fuel Storage Racks, Proceedings of the ICNC '91. International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, Oxford, UK, 1991, p. V/192-5, Vol. 2

184. Vladimir Mikheyev, Moscow Will Share the Atom for Peaceful Purposes With Iran, Izvestiya, April 8, 1988

Russian Ambassador Visits Controversial Nuclear Power Plant in Iran, Agence France Presse, April 12, 1998

185. Mark Hibbs, Nuclear Commerce at Issue as Teheran Leans Westward, Nuclear Fuel, December 12, 1991, p. 11-12

186. Li Gongpan, Lin Zhizhou, Xiang Xuyang and Deng Jingtang, Electromagnetic Isotope Separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, 1992, Vol. B70, p. 17-20

Xiao Meiqin, Lu Hongyou, Su Shijin and Lin Zhizhou, Electromagnetic Separation of Stable Isotopes at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A, 1993, Vol. A334, 1993, p. 19-26

187. Mark Hibbs, Nuclear Commerce at Issue as Teheran Leans Westward, Nuclear Fuel, December 12, 1991, p. 11-12

188. N.A. Kaschejev, L.A. Polyakov, and V.V. Tunin, Stable Isotope Production in the Former USSR by Electromagnetic Separation Techniques, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1993, Vol. A334, p. 27-32

S.P. Vesnovskii, V.N. Polynov, E.A. Nikitin, and V.N. Vjachin,

Quality and Availability of Actinide Isotopes from the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics in Arzamas-16, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics research A, 1993, Vol. A334, p. 37-40

189. Belgium Cyclotron May Have Nuclear Uses, Proliferation Issues, March 3, 1992, p. 39-40

190. H. Ayvazian, A New Design for an EMIS-CYCLOTRON System, for Direct Production of Gaseous PET Radioisotopes, Proceedings of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington, DC, p. 1750-2, Vol. 2

191. Y.I. Vereshchagin, V.A. Zagryadskiy, and V.N. Prusakov, Cyclotron 82Sr Production for Medical Purposes, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1993, Vol. A334, p. 246-8

192. "Transfer" of Nuclear Device to Iran Cited, FBIS-CHI-95-078, April 21, 1995

193. see for example: M. Ghorennevis, M.R. Salami, M. Masnavi, J. Mirzaie, etal., Engineering Aspects and Basic Parameters of the IR-T1 Tokamak, IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 1997, p. 251

194. Mark Hibbs, Russia, China, Iran, and India Agree to Fusion R&D Cooperation, Nucleonics Week, February 2, 1996

195. Ekaterina Latypova, Meeting of Asian Foundation for Thermonuclear Studies is Held in Kazakstan, Panorama, February 28, 1997

Recent efforts concerning Russian efforts in the fusion area may be found in: B.N. Kolbasov, Fusion Safety Efforts in Russia in 1996, Journal of Fusion Energy, 1997, Vol. 16, p. 285-290. This article describes research done at the Kurchatov Institute, the Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Investigations and Bauman Moscow State Technical University.

196. M.R. Eskandari, Principle of Nuclear Fusion, Shiraz University Publication Center, 1995

197. R.M. Eskandari, S.N. Motlagh, Z.M. Hoseini, Electron Screening Utilization Factor in d-t Fusion Reaction at Low Energies for Different Distributions, Hezi Kexue (Nuclear Science Journal), 1996, Vol. 32, p. 77-84

198. R. Khoda-Bakhsh, Volume Ignition of DT Microspheres, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A, 1993, Vol. A330, p. 268-275

R. Khoda-Bakhsh, Effect of Fusion Reaction Products Heating on the Volume Ignition of DT and D3He Fuel Pellets, Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1996, Pt. 1, p. 289-296

199. S.M. Hamadani, Nanosecond CO2 Single-Beam Target Irradiation, Topical Meeting on Inertial Confinement Fusion, san Diego, CA, 1978

see also: R.K. Mosavi, A Proposal to Establish a Center for Research and Development in Laser Technology in Iran, AEOI Internal Report, 1975

200. R. Khoda-Bakhsh, H. Hora, G.H. Miley, Effect of D-D Reactions on the Volume Ignition of Laser-Driven D-3He Fusion Pellets, Fusion Technology, 1993, Vol. 24, p. 28-36

201. Steve Coll, Loan From Tehran Saved Third World Nuclear Research Center, Washington Post, December 24, 1992, p. A8, 10

A. Dory, ICTP/Refute Post Article, Nonproliferation Network News, January 8, 1993

202. International Conference on Tritium Handling for Fusion Reactors, Trieste, Italy

203. Iran: First Phase of Iran's Electron Accelerator Operational, FBIS-NES-97-153, June 2, 1997

204. H. Afarideh, M. Lamehi, S.A. Durrani, Beam Profile of Particles Produced by 3 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator, Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, 1991, Vol. 19, p. 801-802

205. H. Mohammadi, S. Mehdizadeh, Dosimetric Influence of Secondary Electrons During Accelerator-Produced Fast Neutron Irradiation, International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 1981, Vol. 32, p. 118-119

206. R. Moini, B. Kordi, B. Vahidi, M. Abedi, Comparison Between LEMP and NEMP Induced Overvoltages in 33 kV Overhead Distribution Lines, 10th Annual Review of Progress in Computational Electromagnetics, Monterey, CA, 1994, p. 189-199, Vol. 2

207. Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings of the Esfahan Symposium, August 29 to September 5, 1971

Further details of Iran's interest in Laser Isotope Separation may be found in Second Tier Nuclear Nations: Laser Isotope Separation Programs, Mark Gorwitz, January 1996

208. N.G. Basov, etal., Stimulation of Chemical Reactions by Laser Radiation, Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings of the Esfahan Symposium, August 29 to September 5, 1971, p. 239-257

V.S. Letokhov, Narrow Resonances Induced in an Absorbing Gas by an Intense Laser Field, Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings of the Esfahan Symposium, August 29 to September 5, 1971, p. 335-369

209. A.M. Prokhorov, Laser Beam Self-Focusing, Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings of the Esfahan Symposium, August 29 to September 5, 1971, p. 51-67

210. S.M. Hamadani, Development of Laser Devices of Interest for Nuclear Applications in Iran: A Case Study of Parallel Technology Transfer, Transactions of the Iran Conference on the Transfer of Nuclear Technology, Shiraz, Iran, April 10-14, 1977, P. 23

211. AEOI Progress Report for October to December 1975, Laser Research and Development Program

AEOI Internal Report, R.K. Mosavi, A Proposal to Establish a Center for Research and Development in Laser Technology in Iran, 1975

AEOI Internal Report, R.K. Mosavi, Laser Technology Program, 1975

212. Iran's Weapons of Mass Destruction, Jane's Intelligence Review, 1995, Special Report No. 6

213. M.R. Taghizadeh, Efficient Multikilowatt Mid Infrared Difference Frequency Generated in CdGeAs2, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 1982, Vol. QE-18, p. 1239-42

214. A.M. Farahbod, Application of Self-Filtering Unstable Resonators to a N2-Laser Pumped Dye Laser, Optics Communications, 1994, Vol. 108, p. 84-90

215. G. Sargent Janes, etal. Two-Photon Laser Isotope Separation of Atomic Uranium: Spectroscopic Studies, Excited-State Lifetimes, and Photoionization Cross Sections, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 1976, Vol. QE-12, p. 111-120

216. Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, The Risk Report, September 1995, Vol. 1, No. 7, Nuclear Profile: Iran

217. G.N. Makarov, V.N. Lokhman, and E. Ronanader, Multiple-Photon IR Absorption by SF6 in a Gas-Dynamic Argon Flow, Optics and Spectroscopy, 1997, Vol. 83, p. 215-220

A.S. Choe, Y. Rhee, J. Lee, M.A. Kuzmina and V.A. Mishin, Selective Photoionization of 169Yb in a Three-Level Atomic Medium by the Collinear Propagation of Laser Pulses, Journal of Physics, Section B, 1995, Vol. 28, p. 3805-3820

218. A. Boushehri and H. Eslami, Thermophysical Properties from the Equation of State of Mason and Co-Workers, International Journal of Thermophysics, 1997, Vol. 18, p. 1027-1034

219. Con Couglin, Britain Seizes Bomb-Grade Steel Cargo, Washington Times, August 11, 1996, p. A8

Con Couglin, Customs Foil Iran Bomb, The Electronic Telegraph, August 12, 1997

220. Isfahan's Alloy Steel Complex Goes on Stream, Iran Business Digest, August 22, 1996

221. Danieli At Risk in Isfahan project, Iran Brief, May 6, 1996, p. 5

222. M. Djahazi, X.L. He, J.J. Jonas, and W.P. Sun, Nb(C,N) Precipitation and Austenite Recrystallization in Boron-Containing High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels, Metallurgical Transactions A, 1992, Vol. 23A, p. 2111-20

223. A. Najafi-Zadeh, J.J. Jonas, and S. Yue, Grain Refinement by Dynamic Recrystallization During Simulated Warm-Rolling of Interstitial Free Steels, Metallurgical Transactions A, 1992, Vol. 23A, p. 2607-17

224. Mark Hibbs, Hunted German Expert May Be Hiding In Iran, Nucleonics Week, February 8, 1996, p. 12-13

225. Mark Hibbs, Brazil Blocking Extradition of Iraq's German Centrifuge Expert, Nucleonics Week, March 20, 1997, p. 17-18

226. Steve Rodan, Cyprus, US Team To Block Flow Of Nonconventional Arms To Iran, Defense News, November 4, 1996, p. 15

227. R. Jeffrey Smith, China's Pledge to End Iran Nuclear Aid Yields U.S. Help, Washington Post, October 30, 1997

228. Leonard S. Spector, Going Nuclear, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons, 1986-1987, Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts

229. Biographical information published in the June 1976 edition of IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. Further information may be in The Iranian Nuclear Program, Early History and Its Current Implications, Comments on the Published Literature, December 1995, Mark Gorwitz.

230. Bibliographical information published in the 1998 IEEE Transaction on Plasma Science

231. Bill Gertz, U.S.-Built Computer Missing in Russia, The Washington Times, October 10, 1997

232. IAEA: No Suspicious Nuclear Activities Detected in Iran, IRNA (Tehran), March 16, 1998

Blix Visits Iranian Nuclear Sites, Iran Brief, August 1, 1997

233. David Makovsky, Iran Negotiating With Russia For A Reactor, Ha'aretz, February 18, 1998

234. Andrew Koopman, Tutu Was Broker, Cape Times, December 1997

SA Sells Pelindaba Plant To China, South African Press Association, December 13, 1997

South Africa Sells China Nuclear Plant, Guardian, December 14, 1997

NP Condemns Nuclear Technology Sale To China, South African Press Association, December 14, 1997

Plant Has Been Redundant For Many Years: AEC, South African Press Association, December 15, 1997

Mokoena Apologizes To Chinese Nuclear Workers, South African Press Association, December 18, 1997

Mark Hibbs, End-User Statement, Export Permit Still Pending For AEC-China Deal, Nuclear Fuel, December 29, 1997

Mark Hibbs, Plant Raises Questions On Controls in China, South Africa, Nuclear Fuel, January 12, 1998

Is Iran In RSA-China Zirconium Deal, Jane's Pointer, February 1998

Mark Hibbs, South African Export to China to Be Decided Later This Month, Nuclear Fuel, March 9, 1998

235. Simon Baber, US Seeks Assurance On Atomic Energy Plant sale To China, Business Day, December 12, 1997

Mark Hibbs, Plant Raises Questions On Controls in China, South Africa, Nuclear Fuel, January 12, 1998

236. Leonard S. Spector, U.S. Efforts To Halt Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missile Programs in Iran, Prepared Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, April 17, 1997

Yossef Bodansky, Iran's New Ballistic Missiles, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, May-June 1997

237. Anthony H. Cordesman and Ahmed S. Hashim, Iran - Dilemmas of Dual Containment, Westview Press

Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East: National Efforts, Warfighting Capabilities, Weapons Lethality, Terrorism, and Arms Control Implications, Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 1988

Anthony H. Cordesman, The Iranian and Iraqi Military Balance: Key Trends, Center for Strategic and International Studies, January 1988

Anthony H. Cordesman, Military Developments in Iran: Military Spending, Arms Transfers, Force Strength, and Proliferation, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 21, 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction In Iran: Delivery Systems and Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Programs, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 28, 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Iran in Transition: Uncertain Hostility, Uncertain Threat, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Testimony to the Foreign Relations Committee, May 6, 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Trends in the Arab-Israeli Military Balance: Analytic Overview, Part III, Center for Strategic and International Studies, July 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Military Balance in the Middle East Vol. VIII: Weapons of Mass Destruction, Center for Strategic and International Studies, September 1998

238. Bill Gertz, Russian Firms Face US Sanctions, The Washington Times, July 16, 1998

Bill Gertz, Russia, China Aid Iran's Missile Program, The Washington Times, September 10, 1997

Bill Gertz, US May Punish Russia for Iran Sales, The Washington Times, October 10, 1997

Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iran: Delivery Systems, and Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Programs, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 28, 1988

David Mulholland, Iranian Missile Test Highlights Broader Proliferation Threat, Defense News, July 27-August 2, 1998

Israeli Defense Officials Debate Quality of Iran's Missile Program, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, August 2, 1998

Barbara Opall-Rome, Israel Urges Broader Russian Sanctions for Iran Assistance, Defense News, August 3-9, 1998

Kenneth Timmerman, Major Suppliers of the Shahab-3 Program, The Iran Brief, August 3, 1998

239. Kenneth Timmerman, No Progress in Moscow, The Iran Brief, May 4, 1998

240. Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iran: Delivery Systems, and Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Programs, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 28, 1988

241. Major Shipment of Russian Nuclear Technology Seized En Route to Iran, Israel Line, April 24, 1998

World: S/W Asia: Azeri Iran Missile Seizure, BBC News, April 22, 1998

242. US, Russia Still At Odds Over Iran, Russia Today, January 16, 1998

The Proliferation Primer: Russia, International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services Subcommittee, United States Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, A Majority Report, January 1998

243. Bill Gertz, Russia Says US Conducted Missile Sting, The Washington Times, June 23, 1998

Order to Stop Training Iranians Follows US Sanctions Bill, The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 472, July 2, 1998

244. Russian Missile Update, Iran Brief, January 12, 1998

Bill Gertz, Russia Conspiring With Iran on Missiles, The Washington Times, February 23, 1998

245. Paul Mann, Shaky Russian Export Controls Heighten Proliferation Risk, Aviation Week and Space technology, January 26, 1998

246. Country Briefing - Iran, Jane's Defense Weekly, October 15, 1997

247. Yevgeniya Albats, Our Man in Tehran, Novaya Gazeta, March 17, 1998

Daniel Williams, Russian Spy Agency Linked to Iran, The Washington Post, March 23, 1998

248. Pre-Production Copy, Executive Summary of the Report of the Commission To Assess The Ballistic Missile Threat To The United States, Rumsfeld Commission, CDISS Preprint, July 15, 1998

Bradley Graham, Panel: Iran, Korea Could Build Missiles, Washington Post, July 16, 1998

Laura Myers, Report Cites Missile Attack Dangers, The Washington Post, July 16, 1998

Bill Gertz, No-Warning Attack on U.S. Said Possible in 5 Years, Washington Times, July 16, 1998

249. Michael R. Gordon, Russians Order Expulsion of Iranian for Missile Spying, New York Times, November 18, 1997

Kenneth Timmerman, Time to End Iran's Russian Connection, The New York Times, April 28, 1998

Kenneth Timmerman, Russian Missile Update, Iran Brief, January 12, 1998

250. Anthony H. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iran: Delivery Systems, and Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Programs, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 28, 1988

251. Russia Quits Giving Iran Help On Missiles, Milwaukee Sentinel and Journal, January 3, 1998

252. Iranian Oil Pays Chinese Arms and CW, Iran Brief, June 2, 1997

253. Special Report: The Iranian Defense Industry, Mednews, March 1, 1998

254. Iran Seeking Solid Rocket Fuel, Iran Brief, January 9, 1995

255. Con Couglin, Iran Missile Test Launch Puts Israel Within Range, The Electronic Telegraph, November 2, 1997

Con Couglin, China Lends a Hand With Iran Missiles, The Electronic Telegraph, November 23, 1997

Monterey Institute of International Studies, China's Missile Exports and Assistance to Iran, January 1998

Monterey Institute of International Studies, China's Missile Exports and Assistance to Iran - Statements and Developments, January 1998

Bates Gill, Chinese Arms Exports to Iran, Middle East Review of International Affairs, May 2, 1998, Vol. 2, No. 2

256. Kenneth Timmerman, Major Suppliers to the Shahab-3 Program, The Iran Brief, August 3, 1998

257. Robert Karniol, China's $4.5b Deal With Iran Cools as Funds Fail

258. China Sends Steel to Iran For Use in Missile Program, Israel Line, May 29, 1998

259. Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordechai Anxious to Revive Military Ties, The Jerusalem Post, August 31, 1998

Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordecahi in China to 'Open Doors', The Jerusalem Post, September 1, 1998

Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordechai to Meet Chinese President Today, The Jerusalem Post, September 2, 1998

Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordecahi: We Hope to Balance China's Policy on Mideast, The Jerusalem Post, September 3, 1998

260. Bill Gertz, China Assists Iran, Libya, On Missiles, The Washington Times, June 16, 1998

261. Bill Gertz, Beijing Continued Arms Sales to Pakistan, Iran Last Year, The Washington Times, July 22, 1998

262. Bill Gertz, China Adds 6 ICBM's to Arsenal, The washington Times, July 21, 1998

Bill Gertz, China Conducted Missile Test During Clinton Visit, The Washington Times, July 22, 1998

263. Kenneth Timmerman, White House Sanctions Russian Firms for Missile Sales, The Iran Brief, August 3, 1998

264. Embassy of the Russian Federation, Press Release #18, July 11, 1997

265. Bill Gertz, China Aided Iran Chemical Arms, The Washington Times, October 30, 1997

Britain Reports China Helping Iran to Make "Advanced" Nerve Gas, China Reform Monitor, No. 78, June 1, 1998

266. Transcript: State Department Noon Briefing, March 13, 1998

267. Iran Rejects US Charges on Chemical Weapons, the New York Times, May 26, 1997

268. Kharrazi Denies Reports on Nuclear, CW Plans, IRNA (Tehran), August 5, 1992

269. Con Coughlin, China Helps Iran to Make Nerve Gas, The Electronic Telegraph, May 24, 1998

270. Con Coughlin, Iran in Secret Chemical Weapons Deal With India, The Electronic Telegraph, June 24, 1996

Con Coughlin, Iranian Ayatollahs Building Chemical Arsenal, The Electronic Telegraph, October 13, 1996

Iran Got Chemical Weapons From India: CIA, The Hindustan Times, August 12, 1998

Iraq's Secret Imports, Foreign Report, February 9, 1995

271. Con Couglin, Iranian Ayatollahs Building Chemical Arsenal, The Electronic Telegraph, October 13, 1996

272. US Imposes CW sanctions Against Chinese Entities, Press Statement by Nicholas Burns, US Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, Press Statement, May 22, 1997

Building a New Consensus on China, Remarks by Samuel R. Berger, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, June 6, 1997

273. Marie Colvin, 'MI6 Agent' on sales of Arms to Iran, Sunday Times (London), June 15, 1997

274. Con Couglin, Hong Kong Used as Conduit for Iran Arms Sales, The Electronic Telegraph, September 14, 1997

275. Bill Gertz, US May Help China On Missiles: But Beijing Must Halt Exports, The Washington Times, March 18, 1998

Bill Gertz, Space Deal May Enhance China's Missile Program,The Washington Times, April 29, 1998

276. Ramesh Chandran, US Noncommittal on US-China Missile Technology Cooperation Plan, The Times of India, March 20, 1998

277. Bill Gertz, Clinton to Discuss Missiles With China, The Washington Times, June 17, 1998

278. China Backs Off From Iran - Maybe, Iran Brief, November 10, 1997

Con Coughlin, China Lends a Hand With Iran Missiles, The Electronic Telegraph, November 23, 1997

279. Greg J. Gerardi and James A. Plotts, An Annotated Chronology of DPRK Missile Trade and Developments, Monterey Institute of International Studies, December 1994

David C.Wright and Timur Kadyshev, An Analysis of the North Korean Nodong Missile, Science and Global Security, 1994, Vol. 4, p. 129-160

North Korea's Deadly Industries Revealed, Jane's Defense Weekly, November 12, 1997

Ballistic Missiles, National Briefings: North Korea, CDISS, 1997

280. Anthony H. Cordesman and Ahmed S. Hashim, Iran - Dilemmas of Dual Containment, Westview Press

Barbara Starr, North Korea Casts a Longer Shadow With TD-2, Jane's Defense Weekly, March 12, 1994

Bill Gertz, North Korea Builds New Missiles, The Washington Times, March 19, 1994

281. Joseph Bermudez, A Silent Partner, Jane's Defense Weekly, May 20, 1998

282. Anthony H. Cordesman, Trends in the Arab-Israeli Military Balance: Analytic Overview, Part III, Center for Strategic and International Studies, July 1998

Anthony H. Cordesman, Military Balance in the Middle East Vol. VIII: Weapons of Mass Destruction, Center for Strategic and International Studies, September 1998

Kenneth Timmerman, Mednews, Iran Seeks Missiles From China, North Korea, January 25, 1993

283. Imposition of Missile Proliferation Sanctions Against Entities in Iran and North Korea, Federal Register, June 12, 1996

284. Thomas W. Lippman, Iran Missile Test Shows Effort to Extend Range, The Washington Post, July 23, 1998

John Diamond, Iran Tests Medium-Range Missile, The Washington Post, July 23, 1998

Walter Pincus, Iran May Soon Gain Missile Capability, The Washington Post, July 24, 1998

Report: Iran Tested Weapon That Could Reach Israel, Saudi Arabia, CNN Interactive, July 23, 1998

Bill Gertz, Iran Tests Medium-Range Missile, The Washington Times, July 23, 1998

US Department of State Daily Briefing, July 23, 1998

DOD News Briefing, July 23, 1998

285. Anthony H. Cordesman, Trends in the Arab-Israeli Military Balance: Analytic Overview, Part III, Center for Strategic and International Studies, July 1998

David A. Fulghum, North Korea Space Attempt Verified, Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 21, 1998

Defense and Foreign Affairs Handbook, 1996, International Media Corporation Limited

Hiroshi Kano, Tehran, Pyongyang Push Arms, International review, Autumn 1994

286. Oil For Missiles With DPRK, Iran Brief, August 1, 1995

287. Bill Gertz, Cohen Says North Korean Missile is Big Threat, The Washington Times, July 10, 1998

Kevin Sullivan, N. Korea Admits Selling Missiles, The Washington Post, June 17, 1998

288. Bill Gertz, CIA Seeks Missile Data From Defector, The Washington Times, August 12, 1997

North Korean Diplomat Defects, CNN Interactive, August 25, 1997

Barry Schweid, North Korean Defector May Share Secrets of Arms Sales, The Seattle Times, August 26, 1997

R. Jeffrey Smith, North Korean May Bring Arms Data, the Washington Post, August 27, 1997

Bill Gertz, CIA Seeks Data From Defector, The Washington Times, September 17, 1997

289. Reuters, Newsweek: North Korean Defector Was CIA Agent, August 31, 1997

290. North Korean Missile Proliferation, US Congress, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services, October 21, 1997

Defectors Give Details of North Korean Missile Programmes, CDISS Missile News, November 1997

291. North Korean Defectors: New Round of 'Isolation' for Pyongyang?, Foreign Media Reaction, United States Information Agency, September 3, 1997

North Korean Missile Proliferation, Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services of the Committee on Governmental Affairs United States Senate, October 21, 1997

292. Reuters, Missile Meant for 'Nuclear Israel', Ha'aretz, July 30, 1998

293. Iran Successfully Tests Medium-Range Missile, Tehran Times, July 26, 1998

Dailies Laud Iran's Long-Range Missile Test, IRNA, July 26, 1998

Iran Says It Produced Missile Alone, The Washington Post, July 30, 1998

Iranian Denial of Purchase DPRK Missiles Cited, Xinhua (Beijing), December 31, 1995

294. Iran Studies Iraqi Missiles, Iran Brief, May 6, 1996

295. No Iran-Pakistan Missile Cooperation, Ambassador, Iran News, August 2, 1998

296. Pakistan Unlikely to Transfer Nuclear Arms to Iran, Israel Line, July 10, 1998

297. Gohar Justifies Iran Missile Test, National News of Iran, July 26, 1998

298. Todd Zaun, North Korea Ballistic Missile Fired Over Japan, The Washington Post, August 31, 1998

North Korea Fires Missile into Sea of Japan, CNN, August 31, 1998

Rowan Scarborough and Bill Gertz, North Korea Fires New Missile Over Japanese Airspace, The Washington Times, September 1, 1998

Willis Witter, North Korean Missile Test Causes Defense Concerns in Japan, The Washington Times, September 2, 1998

299. Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordechai: We Hope to Balance China's Policy on Mideast, The Jerusalem Post, September 3, 1998

300. Iranian Missile Program Still Depends on Russian Assistance, Israel Line, July 29, 1998

Arieh O'Sullivan and Liat Collins, Iran Expected to Complete Shihab-3 Prototype Next Year, The Jerusalem Post, July 29, 1998

Iran Developing More Advanced Missile in Parallel to Shihab-3, Israel Line, July 31, 1998

Steve Rodan, New Iran Missile 'Will Have Nonconventional Capability', The Jerusalem Post, July 31, 1998

301. Anwar Faruqi, Iran Reveals Details of Missile, The Washington Post, August 2, 1998

302. Harry Dunphy, Iran Trying to Build Missile, ABCNEWS.com, January 7, 1998

Iran's Shahab-3 IRBM "Ready for Production", Jane's Missiles and Rockets, June 1998

303. Kenneth Timmerman, Special Report: The Zelzal Missile Program, The Iran Brief, September 9, 1996

Iran Made Rocket Motor Test, Says israeli General, Jane's Defense Weekly, April 23, 1997

Russia Proposed Alternative to Iran Weapons Deal to Israel, Asian Defense Journal, May 1997

For details of possible Russian diversion of SS-4 technology to Iran see the following articles:

The Russian Press of Weapons Trade, Eksport Obychnykh Vooruzheniy, 1997, No. 1-2, p. 11-15

Moscow Denies Holding Secret Talks With Tehran, Abrar (Tehran), January 7, 1997

Robin Wright, Russia Warned On Helping Iran Missile Program, Los Angeles Times, February 12, 1997

Denis Zadarnov, Smuggling of SS-4 Missile Know-How Viewed As Possible, Komersant-Daily, February 14, 1997

Russia-Middle East, Yaderny Kontrol, April 1997

Philip Finnegan and Steve Rodan, Israel Tries to Curb Russian Aid to Iran, Defense News, April 14-20, 1997

Noninvolvement in Iran's Missile Modernization, Novosti, April 13-20, 1997

Yo'av Limor, Iran Missiles Capable of Reaching Israel 'Within 2 Years', Ma'ariv, June 25, 1997

Russia is Assisting Iran's Missile Drive, Says USA, Jane's Defense Weekly, October 1, 1997

For a discussion of the various Iranian missiles see:

FAS Intelligence Resource Program: Iran (www.fas.org/irp/threat/missile/iran.htm)

304. Iran's Secret Missiles: A CBN News Special Investigation, February 25, 1998 (www.cbn.org/news/stories/980255.asp)

305. Russian and Iran, Washington Times, February 4, 1998

306. David Fulghum, Slipup Spoils Coverage of Iranian Missile Test, Aviation Week and Space Technology, August 3, 1998

307. Zvi Barel, A (Missile) Shot in the Dark, Ha'aretz, July 31, 1998

308. Yossi Melman, US 'Kept Israel in Dark' on Iran Missile, Ha'aretz, August 19, 1998

309. Iran: New Missile for Defense Only, The Washington Post, July 26, 1998

310. Douglas Davis, Iran: Military Buildup is Needed to Counter Israel, The Jerusalem Post, August 2, 1998

311. Mordechai: We Need Resources to Meet Iranian Missile Threat, The Jerusalem Post, August 3, 1998

312. Arieh O'Sullivan and Douglas Davis, Report: New Jewish Underground Targeting Mordechai, The Jerusalem Post, August 27, 1998

313. Nicolas B. Tatra, Israel Increases Military Spending, the Washington Post, August 17, 1998

314. David Harris, Neeman, Mordechai Still NIS 2.5b Apart on Defense Budget, The Jerusalem Post, August 27, 1998

315. Wilson Dizzard III, Castro Halts Juragua Construction Over Russian Hard Currency Demand, Nucleonics Week, September 10, 1992, p. 3

316. Yossef Bodansky, Radical States and Nuclear Proliferation: Racing to the Finish, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, Winter 1991-1992

Yossef Bodansky, Iran Acquires Nuclear Weapons and Moves to Provide Cover to Syria, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, February 1992

317. A. Sedghi, F. Golestani, The Effect of Graphitization on the Mechanical Properties of Two Dimensional Carbon-Carbon Composites, Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, 1997, Vol. 28, p. 236-40

318. A. Cheldavi and M. Kamarei, Time - Domain (Transient) Analysis of Capacitive Jaumann Absorbers, 1997 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Denver, CO, Vol. 3, p. 1555-8

319. Yossef Bodansky, Iran's New Ballistic Missiles, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, May-June 1997

320. The Iranian Missile Program, Yaderny Kontrol Digest No. 6, Winter 1997-1998

321. Special Report: The Zelzal Missile Program, Iran Brief, September 9, 1996

Some US Companies Are Developing Missile Equipment Deals With Iran, Yaderny Kontrol Digest No. 7, Spring 1998

Russians Help Iran Develop Missile Capable of Striking United States, Russian Reform Monitor, No. 367, January 10, 1998

322. Kenneth Timmerman, Exclusive: Iran Brief Exposes European Missile Assistance, The Iran Brief, August 3, 1998

323. Mark Hibbs, US, Europe Doubt Israeli Claim of Iranian Nuclear Weapons Effort, Nuclear Fuel, November 25, 1991

324. Israel Admits Lack of Proof of Arms Aid to Iran, Proliferation Issues, February 2, 1992

325. Mordecai Establishes Team to Analyze Iranian Threat, Israel Line, January 16, 1998

326. Raine Marcus, Arms Merchant Manbar Indicted The Jerusalem Post Internet Edition, May 6, 1997

Gil Sedan, Did Israeli Millionaire 'Sell His Soul' to Iran for Riches, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, May 1997

David Horowitz, Millionaire Charged With Selling Poison Gas to Iran, The Irish Times, May 6, 1997

327. Israeli Companies Sold Weaponry to Iran Until 1993, IINS News Service, September 13, 1997

Steve Rodan, Israeli Firms Sold Arms to Iran Till '93, The Jerusalem Post, September 12, 1997

Steve Rodan, Manbar Wasn't Alone, The Jerusalem Post, July 17, 1998

328. Daniel Ben-Tal, Israeli Sentenced for Sales to Iran, The Washington Post, July 16, 1998

Dafna Linzer, Israel Office Vows Investigation, The Washington Post, July 16, 1998

329. Tom Sawicki, Sinned Against or Sinning, The Jerusalem Report, December 28, 1995

S.C. Gwynne and Larry Gurwin, The Russian Connection, Time, July 8, 1996

Time Magazine Links Chernomyrdin to Refuted Money Laundering Outfit, Russian Reform Monitor, No. 160, July 10, 1996

Clinton Fundraiser with Russian 'Mafia' Figure Prompts Questions, Russian Reform Monitor, No. 197, November 13, 1996

Jerry Seper and Brian Bloomquist, Clinton's Shady Messenger: Reputed Arms Smuggler Took Plea to Ukranian Leader, The Washington Times, March 1, 1997

Connie Cass, Strange Russian Visa Bid Eyed, The Associated Press, March 20, 1997

US Department of State Daily Press Briefing #53, Briefer: Nicholas Burns, April 11, 1997

Gore Met With Reputed 'Mafiya' Figure at DNC Fundraiser, Russian Reform Monitor, No. 356, December 17, 1997

Shmuel Dekalo, Interior Minister: Luchansky Supplied Iran With Nuclear Missile Construction Material, Globes, August 6, 1998

Israeli-Russian Businessman Suspected of Iran Arms Deals, Agence France-Presse, August 7, 1998

330. Israel Was to Build "Nuclear City" In Pre-Revolution Iran, Agence France-Presse, June 28, 1998

331. Steve Rodan, What the U.S. Is Whispering to Israel About Iran, Jerusalem Post, January 13, 1995

Middle East: Israel is Reported..., International Security Digest, May 1995

332. Manfred R. Lehmann, Is Israel Again Being Deprived of Vital Intelligence Data?, March 7, 1997

333. Thomas W. Lippman, Iran Missile Test Shows Effort to Extend Range, The Washington Post, July 23, 1998

Douglaus Waller, The Message in the Missile, Time, August 3, 1998

334. US/Iran Missile, VOA, August 23, 1998

US Department of State, Daily Press Briefing, Briefer: James R. Rubin, July 23, 1998,

Walter Pincus, Iran May Soon Gain Missile Capability, The Washington Post, July 24, 1998

Bill Gertz, Iran's Missile Test Alarms Clinton, The Washington Times, July 24, 1998

George Gedda, US Worried About Iran Missile, The Washington Post, July 28, 1998

335. George Gedda, GOP Alarmed by Iranian Missile Test, The Washington Post, July 24, 1998

336. Paul Taylor, Iran Missile Test Linked to Fear of Iraq, MSNBC, July 24, 1998

337. Reuters, Missiles Meant for 'Nuclear Israel', Ha'aretz, July 30, 1998

338. Saudi Foreign Minister in Iran to Discuss Arab-Iranian Problems, Arabic News, May 21, 1998

339. Saudi Says Not Worried by Iran Missile Test, IRNA, August 4, 1998

340. Steve Herrman, Iran Closer to Its Old Enemy, BBC News, February 23, 1998

Intense Diplomacy in Wake of Iraqi Crisis, Global Intelligence Update, February 25, 1998

341. Developments in Russia and the Persian Gulf, Global Intelligence Update, August 6, 1998

342. Iranian-Saudi Relations Peak With Missile Offer, Global Intelligence Update, July 31, 1998

343. Gulf Arab Officer Sees No Threat From Iran Missile, Reuters, August 6, 1998

344. Jerusalem Officials Disappointed by Khatami's Statements, Israel Line, August 3, 1998

345. Michael Lelyveld, Iran: Missile Tests Show Country Can't be Ignored, RFE/RFL, August 5, 1998

346. Douglaus Davis, Report: US Slams Israel for Selling Arrow Know-How to India, The Jerusalem Post, July 24, 1998

347. Mark Hibbs, US Charges Israel With Violating Rules on Missile Technology Sales, Global Beat, Nuclear Weapons and Proliferation, July 2, 1998

For a discussion of the strategic relationship between India and Israel see: P.R. Kumaraswamy, Strategic Partnership Between Israel and India, Middle East Review of International Affairs, May 2, 1998, Vol. 2, No. 2

348. Laura Myers, US to Help Israel With Defense, The Washington Post, September 15, 1998

Steve Rodan and Arieh O'Sullivan, Arrow Missile Launch Successful, The Jerusalem Post, September 15, 1998

Lee Hockstader, Israel Hails Test of New Missile, The Washington Post, September 16, 1998

349. Israeli General Disputes Unquestioned Military Superiority, Global Intelligence Update, June 30, 1998

Israel Prepares for Trouble, Global Intelligence Update, July 14, 1998

350. Reuven Pedatzur, The Fallacy of Absolute Security, Ha'aretz, May 3, 1998

Reuven Pedatzur, Arrow Aimed at Wrong Target, Ha'aretz, June 1, 1998

Amir Oren, Spending Your Defense Shekels Wisely, Ha'aretz, July 31, 1998

351. Amnon Barzilai, Defense Against Scuds is Still Patriot, Ha'aretz, February 2, 1998

352. Ze'ev Schiff, Security Needs Under the Shadow of Confrontation, Ha'aretz, march 27, 1998

353. Amnon Barzilai, US Agrees to Fund Another Arrow Missile Battery, Ha'aretz, April 21, 1998

354. India and Israel vs Pakistan, Foreign Report, June 11, 1998

355. Israel Connects to Missile Launch satellite Warning System, Israel Line, December 30, 1996

356. Iraqi Memo To Arab League Warns Of Israeli Space Activity, Mena, March 7, 1998

Israeli Air Force Chief Seeks Space Supremacy, Space News, March 2, 1998

Steve Rodan, Israel Plans Own Satellite Reconnaissance Fleet, Space News, March 9, 1998

Arab League Adopts Resolution On Israeli Space Activities, Mena, March 25, 1998

Arieh O'Sullivan, Air Force Chief: IAF Needs to Enter Space, The Jerusalem Post, August 25, 1998

357. Yossi Melman, Russia Sold Israel Hundreds of Satellite Pictures, Ha'aretz, March 30, 1998

358. Amnon Barzilai, Outer Space - Clean Up Your Act, Ha'aertz, July 28, 1998

359. Ben Kaspit, Jerusalem Considers Reactions 'Options' to Russia-Iran Deal, Ma'ariv (Tel Aviv), September 12, 1997

360. Steven Erlanger, Russian Gas Company Postpones Bond Offering for Iran Project, The New York Times, November 12, 1997

361. Ed Blanche, Israel Stops Gas Deal in Russia-Iran Missile Row, Jane's Defense Weekly, September 17, 1997

Michael R. Gordon, Defying Pressure Over Iran Deal, Russians Spurn U.S. Loan Pact, New York Times, December 18, 1997

362. Dalia Shehori, Sharansky Downplays Russian Mideast Exports, Ha'aertz, March 11, 1998

363. Israeli Minister Discusses Technology Leak Into Iran in Moscow, Interfax, May 21, 1998

364. Ada Kohen, Sharansky - Russian Aid to Iran Must Stop Within 'Weeks', Ma'ariv, May 22, 1998

365. World: Middle East, Israeli Concern Over Iranian Missile Threat, BBC News, August 9, 1998

David Makovsky, Israel Tells Russia That Missile Technology Still Flowing, Ha'aretz, August 10, 1998

366. Ze'ev Schiff, A Rearguard Action Against Iran, Ha'aertz, August 14, 1998

367. Jon B. Wolfsthal, US Prods Israel to Halt Talks With North Korea On Missile Sales, Arms Control Today, September 1993

World: Asia-Pacific, North Korea Wants Dollars for Missiles, BBC News, September 4, 1998

Oded Granot, Background on North Korea-Iran Missile Deal, Ma'ariv, April 14, 1995

368. Alex Somekh, Israel May Employ Out-Of-Work Russian Military Scientists, Ha'aertz, March 11, 1998

369. Salah Badawi, Israeli Missiles Said Aimed On Iran, Al-Sha'b (Cairo), April 25, 1997

370. Egypt: 'Sources' Say Israel-Turkey Accord Aimed Against Iran Threat, IL Messaggero, June 28, 1996

371. Steve Macko, Iran's Nuclear Program Suffering Setbacks, IINS News Service, July 18, 1997

372. Can Shahab-3 Target Turkey?, Turkish Probe, Issue 290, August 2, 1998

373. Saadet Oruc, Turkey, Israel to Enhance Strategic Ties With Georgia and Azerbaijan, Turkish Daily News, March 16, 1998

374. Metehan Demir, Turkish PM to Visit, The Jerusalem Post, August 30, 1998

375. Turkish-Israeli Military Cooperation Criticized, Dawn, September 13, 1998

376. Report On Israeli "Plans" To Attack Iran, al-Majd (Amman, Jordan), January 19, 1998

377. Israeli Planning To Bomb Pakistani Reactor, Qol Ha'ir, January 23, 1998

378. Arieh O'Sullivan, Turkish F-16 Squadron Uses IAF Base to Practice Evading S-300 Missiles, The Jerusalem Post, July 17, 1998

379. Russia Eyes New Arms Sales, Iran Brief, June 1, 1995

380. Arieh O'Sullivan and Douglaus Davis, Report: Turkish Jets Coming for First Joint Maneuvers, The Jerusalem Post, September 9, 1998

381. I.O. Lesser and A.J. Tellis, Strategic Exposure: Proliferation Around the Mediterranean, Santa Monica, Rand Corporation

Kemal Kirisei, Post-Cold War Turkish Security and the Middle East, Middle East Review of International Affairs, No. 2, 1997

Reuven Pedatzur, Straight as an Arrow?, Ha'aretz, January 12, 1998

Amnon Barzilai, Israel and Turkey Agree to Study Joint Missile Project, Ha'aretz, April 23, 1998

382. Israel Offers Weapons Production Deal To Turkey, Jane's International Defense Review, January 1998

Amnon Barzilay, Israel, Turkey Seek To Develop Antiballistic Missile Systems, Ha'aertz, January 2, 1998

More Reports of Israeli Attempts to Stalemate Foes, Global Intelligence Update, July 16, 1998

383. Yusuf Ozkam, Turkey-Israel Missiles Said On Conference Agenda, Milliyet, July 25, 1998

384. Ben Kaspit, Efforts to Curb Iranian Proliferation Viewed, Ma'ariv, December 7, 1997

Steve Rodan, and Arieh O'Sullivan, Iran Test-Fires Shihab-3 Missile, The Jerusalem Post, July 24, 1998

385. Israel Within Iran's Missile Range in 18 Months, The Jerusalem Post, November 1, 1997

386. Jonathan S. Landay, More Flaws in Policy to Isolate Iran, Christian Science Monitor, October 23, 1997

387. David Makovsky and Amos Harel, Iran Missile Will Be ready 'In Months', Ha'aretz, July 24, 1998

388. Gideon Alon, Mordecai: US Aid Helped Iran Make Missile, Ha'aertz, July 28, 1998

David Makovsky and Amos Harel, Iran Missile Will Be ready 'In Months', Ha'aretz, July 24, 1998

389. Arieh O'Sullivan, IDF: Iran Can Complete Shihab-3 Missile Even If Russia Stops Aid, The Jerusalem Post, September 9, 1998

390. Ran Dragon, Israel Moderates Assessments On Iran Ballistic Missile Manufacturing Ability, Globes, February 2, 1998

391. Jack Katzenell, Israel Isn't Threatened by Iran, The Washington Post, July 23, 1998

392. Reuven Pedhatzur, New Thinking on the Iranian Issue, Ha'aretz, July 28, 1998

Ze'ev Schiff, After the Iranian Test, Ha'aretz, July 29, 1998

393. Galit Yemini, Intelligence Sources Split on Attitude Towards Iran, Yedi'ot Aharonot, December 12, 1997

394. Steve Rodan, Iran, Israel Reportedly Forging Contacts, The Jerusalem Post, September 9, 1997

395. Ed Blanche, Israel Stops Gas Deal in Russia-Iran Missile Row, Jane's Defense Weekly, September 17, 1997

396. Steve Rodan, Israel Ban on Russian Sales Excludes Defense Business, Defense News, September 22, 1997

397. Ross Dunn, Offer to Buy Oil If Yeltsin Stops Arms Sales to Arabs, The Sydney Evening Herald, March 11, 1997

398. US, Iran in Secret Talks, Ha'aretz, December 15, 1997

399. Robert S. Greenberger, Iran's Diplomatic Moves Puzzle the US, The Wall Street Journal, March 19, 1998

Elaine Sciolino, Pleased Yet Wary, US Offers Gestures of Support for Iran, New York Times, March 26, 1998

400. Reidel Remarks at the Baker Institute Symposium on Iran, USIS Washington File, April 2, 1998

401. Martin Sieff, US Offers to Open Dialogue With Iran,, The Washington Times, June 18, 1998

402. Indyk Worldnet On Iran, Peace Process, Iraq, USIS Washington File, June 24, 1998

403. Arthur L. Lowrie, United States Policy in the Persian Gulf: Domestic Basic of Containment of Iran, University of Southern Florida, December 22, 1997

404. Israel: Mossad Chief Meets Russian Intelligence On Iranian Missiles, Ha'aretz, October 24, 1997

405. Steve Rodan, New Iran Missile "Will Have Nonconventional Capability', The Jerusalem Post, July 31, 1998

406. Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordecai Tells Russians: Stop Aiding Iran Missile Program, The Jerusalem Post, July 17, 1998

Kenneth Timmerman, Time to End Iran's Russian Connection, The Wall Street Journal, April 28, 1998

407. Kenneth Timmerman, White House Sanctions Russian Firms for Missile Sales, The Iran Brief, August 3, 1998

408. Kenneth Timmerman, Russian Missile Update, Iran Brief, January 12, 1998

409. Officials Say Iran Failed to Acquire Russian Nuclear Technology, RFE/RL Newsline, April 14, 1998

410. Three Foreigners Detained In Moscow For Suspected Smuggling, Interfax, April 15, 1998

Michael R. Gordon and Eric Scmitt, Missile-Quality Russian Steel Was Nearly Smuggled to Iran, The New York Times, April 25, 1998

411. Embassy of the Russian Federation, Press Release #16, April 8, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, Senior Russian Officials on Russian Nonproliferation and Export Control Policies, Press Release #17, May 8, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, Press Release #19, May 15, 1998

412. Russia Announces Inquiry Into Aid to Iran, Israel Line, July 16, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, Provision of Russian Missile Technologies to Iran Denied, Press Release 320, September 16, 1997

Embassy of the Russian Federation, Primakov Denies Russia's Assisting Iranian Arms Projects, Press Release #21, September 16, 1997

Embassy of the Russian Federation, No Facts of Transferring Missile Technologies to Iran, Russian Security Service Says, Press Release #24, October 2, 1997

Embassy of the Russian Federation, On The So-Called "Russian-Iranian" Missile Cooperation, Press Release #5, February 11, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, Russia Toughens export Controls, Press Release #8, February 24, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, Press Briefing, Press Release 310, March 5, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, No Missile or Nuclear Technologies Transferred to Iran, Russian Premier Says, Press Release #11, March 9, 1998

413. Arieh O'Sullivan, Mordecai Tells Russians: Stop Aiding Iran Missile Program, The Jerusalem Post, July 17, 1998

The Monterey Institute of International Studies has posted a description of the various organizations named in the Russian report on their web site (www.cns.miis.edu)

414. Russian Agencies Denied US Aid, USA Today, April 16, 1998

Richard Stone, US Blacklists Russian Institutes, Science, Vol. 280, April 24, 1998

415. Russian Supplying Iran Won't Lose Aid, The Washington Times, April 17, 1998

416. Maura Reynolds, Russia, US Split on Arms Control, The Washington Post, August 30, 1998

417. Will Kim Il-Sung Explode Our Nuclear Bomb, Komsomolskaya Pravda, April 22, 1994

Russian Weekly Probes DPRK Attempt to Hire Russian Scientists, FBIS-EAS-93-009

Missile Designers Explain Attempt to Work in DPRK, ITAR-TASS, February 24, 1993

DPRK Reportedly Sought Russian Scientists to Modernize Missiles, ITAR-TASS, February 10, 1993

Thirty seven reports were found in the Monterey Institute of International Studies under the NIS/Soviet Braindrain section of their database.

418. Steven Lee Myers, US Calls North Korean Rocket a Failed Satellite, The New York Times, September 15, 1998

World: Asia-Pacific, N. Korea Satellite 'Failed to Enter Orbit', BBC News, September 15, 1998

419. Arabs Fear Israeli Nuclear Attack, Independent Online, January 20, 1997

420. Sumer Sahin and Anil Kumar, The Effect of the Spectrum Softening Within the Enhanced Radiation Warhead (ERW) on the Biological Dose, Atomkernenergie Kerntechnik, 1984, Vol. 45, p. 117-121

T.A. Al-Kusayer, Assessment of the Radiation Protection Capability of Desert Sand Against Fusion Neutrons, Atomkernenergie Kerntechnik, 1986, Vol. 49, p. 100-103

421. A.A. Hasan, S. Sahin, C. Chung, Yields of Short-Lived Fission Products in 235U(nth,F), Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 1985, Vol. 49, p. 209-211

A.A. Hasan, S. Sahin, C. Chung, Measurement of the Short Lived Cumulative Fission Yield in U-235, Radiation Effects, 1986, Vol. 93, p. 193-196

422. On The Brink: Threat to Use Neutron Bomb on Baghdad As Gulf Crisis Escalates, Sunday Age (Melbourne), November 16, 1997

423. Atomic Warheads Aimed at Iraq After US Policy Switch, Melbourne Age, February 2, 1998

424. Victor A. Utgoff, Nuclear Weapons and the Deterrence of Biological and Chemical Warfare, Occasional Papers No. 36, The Henry L. Stimson Center, October 1997

425. Mark Hibbs, Iran: CIA Says Khatami Not in Control of Nuclear Program, Nuclear Watch, January 31, 1998

Mark Hibbs, Khatamani Not In Control of Iran's Nuclear Program, US Believes, Nucleonics Week, January 15, 1998

426. Gore Protests Russian Sale of Nuclear Missile Technology to Iran, The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 231, February 19, 1997

Gore Presses Chernomyrdin on Iran Missiles, Reuters, January 17, 1998

Gore Presses Chernomyrdin on Iran Missiles, Middle East Times, April 1998

427. Steven Erlanger, U.S. Gets Russia's Firm Vow to Halt Missile Aid to Iran, The New York Times, January 16, 1998

428. Bill Gertz, US, Israel Target Missile Aid to Iran, The Washington Times, September 13, 1997

429. Russia is Assisting Iran's Missile Drive, Says USA, Jane's Defense Weekly, October 1, 1997

430. Russian Satellite Business Linked To Iran, Reuters, March 9, 1998

431. Reuters, U.S. Praises Russian Steps on Arms Materials, The New York Times, January 23, 1998

432. Iran Missile Proliferation Sanctions Act of 1997, Senate, May 22, 1998

433. Bill Gertz, Clinton's Veto Blocks Sanctions on Russia, The Washington Times, June 24, 1998

Clinton Still Aiming to Halt Missile Sales By Russia to Iran, The New York Times, June 25, 1998

James R. Rubin, US Department of State Daily Press Meeting, June 24, 1998

Clinton Vetoes Iran Missile Proliferation Sanctions Act, USIS Washington File, June 24, 1998

Eric Schmitt, Senate Passes Bill to Punish Giving Missile help to Iran, The New York Times, May 23, 1998

Statement of Administration Policy, H.R. 2709 - Iran Missile Proliferation Sanctions Act of 1997, June 5, 1998

434. Fred Weir, New US Law on Sanctions Angers Russia, The Hindustan Times, May 27, 1998

435. David Makovsky, Gore Signals His Opposition to Sanctions on Russian Companies, Ha'aretz, May 3, 1998

436. Matthew Dorf, Pro-Israel Activists Faced Dilemma as Clinton Tried to Avert Veto Override, Jewish Telegraph Agency, July 26, 1998

Kenneth Timmerman, Russian Missile Update, The Iran Brief, January 12, 1998

437. Akiva Eldar, Dual Containment - Dual Standard, Ha'aretz, February 26, 1998

438. David Makovsky, Israel Wants Congress to Act on Russian Arms, Ha'aretz, April 9, 1998

439. David Makovsky, Congress Ignores Israel and Votes to Impose Sanctions on Exporters to Iran, Ha'aretz, June 11, 1998

440. David Makovsky, Israel Tells Congress to Delay Voting on Russia Sanctions, Ha'aretz, July 2, 1998

441. US-Iran: The Road to Reapproachment, United States Information Agency, June 25, 1998

442. Total's Contract With Iran: A Challenge to 'PAX Americana', USIA, Foreign Media Reaction, October 3, 1997

443. Patrick Clawson, US Sanctions on Iran: What Has Been Achieved and At What Cost?, Testimony Before the House Committee on International Relations, June 3, 1998

Two briefs offering opinions on sanctions and Russian missile exports also deserve mention:

Reckless Russian Rocket Exports, A Nonproliferation Policy Education Center Policy Brief, 1997 Congressional Hearings, Special Weapons, Nuclear, Chemical, Biological and Missile

Iran Missile Sanctions, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Proliferation Brief, August 27, 1998

444. Hooman Estelami, The Evolution of Iran's Reactive Measures to US Economic Sanctions, Journal of Business in Developing Nations, 1998, Volume 2

445. Kenneth Timmerman, No Progress in Moscow, The Iran Brief, May 4, 1998

446. Iran Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1988, House of Representatives, August 3, 1998

447. Russian Weapons Proliferation "Off the Table" For Gore's Trip, Administration Playing "Russian Roulette" with US Security, Nicholson Says, Press Release, July 21, 1998

448. Clinton Announces Waiver of US-Iran-Libya Sanctions Act, USIS Washington File, May 18, 1998

449. World: Middle East, Iran Applauds EU Diplomacy, BBC News, February 24, 1998

450. World: Analysis, Iran-Italy - A New Ally in Europe, BBC News, March 2, 1998

451. White House Downplays Russian Technology in Iranian Missile, Russian Reform Monitor, No. 488, July 31, 1998

World: Middle East, US and Israel Fear Missile Spectre, BBC News, July 24, 1998

452. Lawrence L. Knutson, Clinton Targets Russian Arms Makers, The Washington Post, July 29, 1998

453. Kenneth Timmerman, No Progress in Moscow, The Iran Brief, May 4, 1998

454. Israel Lists Russian Companies Aiding Iran, Israel Line, July 28, 1998

455. Leslie Shepherd, Russia, Iran Deny Weapon Links, The Washington Post, July 29, 1998

456. No Russian Assistance for Iran's Missile Program, IRNA, August 2, 1998

Yeltsin, Clinton Discuss Nuclear Issues, The Moscow Times, May 19, 1998

457. Berger Impressed by Yeltsin's Newest Promises On Iran, The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 449, May 27, 1998

458. G-7 Ups Pressure On Tehran, Iran Brief, July 3, 1997

459. Moscow Considers Selling More Nuclear Tech To Iran, The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 450, May 28, 1998

460. Agence France-Presse, Iranian Foreign Aide on a Visit to Moscow, The New York Times, February 25, 1998

Embassy of the Russian Federation, The Russian-Iranian Negotiations, Press Release #9, February 27, 1998

461. K. Ilieva, etal., Validation of Neutron Fluence Calculation Methodology for VVER-440 Vessel, Nuclear Science and Engineering, 1997, Vol. 125, p. 243-247

K. Ilieva, etal., Calculating Modeling of Detector Activity for VVER/Pressurized Water Reactor Vessel Surveillance, Nuclear Science and Engineering, 1996, Vol. 122, p. 131-137

462. Malcolm Haslett, World: Analysis, Russia-Iran : Cooling Relations, BBC News, February 24, 1998

463. Michael R. Gordon, Atom Chief of Russia is Removed From Post, The New York Times, March 3, 1998

464. Michael R. Gordon, Russia Names Atomic Chief, And the US Is a Little Wary, The New York Times, March 5, 1998

465. Michael R. Gordon, Russia Plans to Sell Reactors to Iran Despite US Protests, The New York Times, March 7, 1998

Iran Nuclear Team to Russia, AKHBAR.COM, May 11, 1988

466. Tyler Marshall, Kiev Drops Nuclear Deal With Iran, The New York Times, March 7, 1998

Igor Kudrik, Ukraine Abandons Bushehr Project, Bellona, March 14, 1998

467. Reuters, Russia, Iran Ignore Critics, Plan Non-Military Atom Pact, The Boston Globe, May 19, 1998

468. VOA Transcript on Russia/Iran Talks, May 13, 1998

469. Iran Okays Financing of Nuclear Plant, Dawn, October 13, 1998

470. Russia-Iran Analogue to Gore-Chernomyrdin Signs Nuclear Deal, The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 408, March 11, 1998

471. White House Opposes Sanctions Bill on N-Weapons to Iran, As Russia Prepares to Sell Warhead Production Technology, The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 442, May 12, 1998

White House Seen Ignoring 'Inconvenient Facts About Organized Crime', The Russian Reform Monitor, No. 444, May 18, 1998

472. Michael R. Gordon, Ex-Moscow Atom Chief Still in the Fray, The New York Times, March 17, 1998

473. Philip Shenon, US Ties Unaffected, Russian Tells Albright, The New York Times, March 25, 1998

474. Steven Erlinger, Russia Vows to Push Pact Cutting Arms, The New York Times, March 12, 1998

475. Transcript: Albright, Primakov Press Conference March 24, USIS Washington File, March 24, 1998

476. Chernomyrdin's Ouster and Russian Missile Technology Transfer to Iran, Near East Report, April 6, 1998

477. Transcript: Albright, Primakov Press Conference in Manila, July 27, United States Information Agency, July 27, 1998

478. Paul Bedard, Missiles, Terror on Agenda for Clinton, Yeltsin, The Washington Times, August 26, 1998

479. David Hoffman, Clinton Urges Russia to Extend Reforms, The Washington Post, September 2, 1998

480. Russia Today, September 14, 1998

481. Hillel Kuttler, A Time of Danger, and Opportunity, The Jerusalem Post, September 11, 1998

482. Walter Pincus, US, Russia May Swap Data on Third-Party Missiles, The Washington Post, September 1, 1998

483. Shaheen Sehbai, Russia to Stop Arms Dealing with India, Dawn, September 3, 1998

484. Daniel Williams, Primakov Earns Broad Support Through Unclear Ideology, The Washington Post, September 11, 1998

485. Marcus Warren, With Power Play, Primakov Shows Who's In Charge in Moscow, The Washington Times, September 14, 1998

486. Marian Leighton, From KGB to MFA: Primakov Becomes Russian Foreign Minister, Post Soviet Prospects, Vol. IV, #2, February 1996

487. Steve LeVine, Iran Opens Big Gas Pipeline to Neighbor, Defying U.S., The New York Times, December 30, 1997

488. US and 'Great Game': Two Rivals Score, One Teammate Disgruntled, USIA Foreign Media Reaction, Daily Digest, January 8, 1998

489. Scott Peterson, Iran Eyes 'The Bomb', West Watches, The Christian Science Monitor, February 2, 1998

490. Pak N-Capability Will Deter Israel, Says Iran, The News International Pakistan, June 2, 1998

491. Nawaz Calls for Boosting Trade, Economic Ties With Iran, National News of Iran, June 2, 1998

492. World: South Asia, Pakistani Islamic Bomb, BBC, June 8, 1998

493. World: Monitoring, Israel and Iran Worried at N-Tests, BBC, May 30, 1998

494. N-Tests: Pakistan Allays Israeli Fears, Dawn, June 5, 1998

495. Steve Rodan, Iran Has Up To 4 Nuclear Bombs, The Jerusalem Post, April 9, 1998

Steve Rodan, Iran Paid $25m. For Nuclear Weapons, Documents Show, The Jerusalem Post, April 10, 1998

Pentagon: Iran Has No Soviet Nukes, The Washington Post, April 9, 1998

Russia Denies Nuclear Arms Supplies to Iran, Interfax, April 10, 1998

Nuclear Energy Minister Denies Russian Warhead Sales, Interfax, April 13, 1998

496. Reported in the Christian Science Monitor.

Scott Peterson, Iran Eyes 'The Bomb', West Watches, The Christian Science Monitor, February 2, 1998

497. Yossef Bodansky, Iran's Persian Gulf Strategy Emerges Through Its Recent Military Exercises, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, January 1994

Michael Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Paper Number 42

Anthony H. Cordesman and Ahmed S. Hashim, Iran: Dilemmas of Dual Containment, Westview Press, 1997

Storer H. Rowley, Israel Keeps an Eye on Iranian Games, Nuclear Buildup Draws Most Concerns, Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1997

498. Paula DeSutter, Deterring Iranian NBC Use, National Defense University Strategic Forum, Number 110, April 1997

499. US, Iran Sabre-Rattling Over Troops in the Gulf, The Indian Express, June 21, 1997

Tehran Accuses US of Creating Tension in Gulf, Dawn, October 12, 1998

500. Reuters, Iran Said Moving Closer to Nuclear Capability, June 26, 1997

501. Tim Weiner, U.S. Spy Agencies Find Scant Peril on Horizon, New York Times, January 29, 1998

502. Elaine Sciolino, Seeking to Open a Door to U.S., Iranian Proposes Cultural Ties, New York Times, January 8, 1998

Steve Erlanger, U.S. Officials Warming Up To Informal Links With Iran, New York Times, January 10, 1998

Reuters, Clinton Sends Conciliatory Message to Iran, New York Times, January 30, 1998

Lt.General William E. Odom, USA, Retired, US Policy Toward Central Asia and the South Caucasus, Caspian Crossroads Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1997

503. Elaine Sciolino, Top Woman in Iran's Government Once Spoke for Hostage Takers

504. Iran, Confronting Internal Chaos, Strengthens Defences and Forges New Strategic Links, Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, July-August 1995

The Iranian-American Confrontation, The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition, May 23, 1997

Kenneth R. Timmerman, Iran's Vote: A Good Start, Nothing More, Wall Street Journal-Europe, May 27, 1997

Testimony of Ayatollah Dr. Medhi Haeri Khorshidi, Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Iran Sanctions Act - One Year Later, July 23, 1997

Darius Bazargan, Iran: Politics, The Military and Gulf Security, The Middle East Magazine, July and August 1997

Reuters, Iranians Think Time Not Ripe for U.S. Ties, January 6, 1998

Iran's Leading Ayatollah Says US Diplomacy a 'Gimmick', CNN Interactive Edition, July 12, 1998

505. Anthony E. Mitchell, Iran May Be Our Best Hope Against Iraq, Wall Street Journal, January 29, 1998

506. Robin Wright, US Won't Halt Ties for Iran Ties, The Los Angeles Times, July 24, 1998

507. Son of Revolutionary Guard Commander Says Iran Sponsors Terror, CNN Interactive, July 7, 1998

508. Iran Welcomes Boost in Its Relations With Saudi Arabia, Tehran Times, September 28, 1997

509. Jocelyn Noveck, French, Iranians Discuss Relations, The Jerusalem Post, August 22, 1998

Douglas Davis, Iran Hints it May Rein in Hizbullah, The Jerusalem Post, August 25, 1998

510. Jocelyn Noveck, French Say Iran Wants World Role, The Jerusalem Post, August 23, 1998

511. David Rudge, Hizbullah Warns of Retaliation If Israel Strikes Iran, The Jerusalem Post, October 2, 1998

512. Carey Schofield, All We Need - Mad Mullahs With Nukes, Sunday Telegraph (London), September 24, 1995

513. Michael Specter, Yeltsin Says Clinton Could Blunder Into a World War; Press Imagines Nuclear Attack, The New York Times, February 5, 1998

514. Yevgeny Zainabitdinov, Vigorous Business Contracts Between Russia and Iran Reflect Mutual Desire To Develop Trade and Economic Relations On Long-Term Basis, Says Vladimir Bulgak, RIA Novosti, March 5, 1998

515. Yossef Bodansky, The Rise Of the Trans-Asian Axis. Is It the Basis of New Confrontation?

Mark N. Katz, An Emerging Russian-Iranian Alliance?, Caspian Crossroads Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1996

516. Iran and Proliferation: Is the US Doing Enough? The Arming of Iran: Who is Responsible?, Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate, April 17 and May 6, 1997

517. Robert O. Freeman, Russia and Iran: A Tactical Alliance, Parts I and II, Jewish World Review, February 23, 1998

For Freeman's assessment of Primakov see: Russia and the Middle East: The Primakov Era, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 2, No. 2, May 2, 1998

518. David Makovsky, Primakov Makes Clear Russia Cannot Be Ignored in the Middle East, Ha'aretz, October 28, 1997

519. David Makovsky, Israel Worried by Primakov Appointment, Ha'aretz, September 11, 1998

520. Scott Peterson, Iran's Revolution Still Shapes the Middle East, The Christian Science Monitor, August 6, 1997

521. Zaheeruddin Abdullah, Taliban Says 30 Iranians Captured, The Washington Post, August 10, 1998

522. Iran: Pakistan Liable for Diplomats, The Washington Post, August 10, 1998

523. Donna Bryson, Pakistan Denies Taliban Influence, The Washington Post, August 12, 1998

Russia and Uzbekistan Worried by Taleban Offensive, Global Intelligence Update, August 7, 1998

524. Afghan Defectors Claim They Were Flying Iranian Arms, Dawn, October 6, 1998

525. N.C. Menon, Russia, Iran Aiding Afghan Rebels, July 27, 1998

526. "Secret" Israeli Contacts With Afghan Factions, Global Intelligence Update, June 16, 1998

World: South Asia, Israel Says Its Talking to Afghan Factions, BBC News, June 19, 1998

527. US Accused of Interference: Iran Warns Taliban Over Hostages, Dawn, August 18, 1998

528. Iranian Guards Vigilant Along Afghan Border, Dawn, August 21, 1998

529. Iran Turns Its Attention Eastward, Global Intelligence Update, July 7, 1998

530. Betsy Pisik, US, Iran Officials Meet on Afghanistan Problem, The Washington Times, September 22, 1998

531. Anwar Faruqi, Iran Leader Calls for US Funding, The New York Times, September 22, 1998

Betsy Pisik, Iranian Offers Olive Branch, The Washington Times, September 23, 1998

Howard Schneider, Iranians Hope to End Rogue State Status, The Washington Post, September 23, 1998

532. James Risen, US Seeks Way to Pry Suspect From Afghans, The New York Times, August 20, 1998

James Bennett, US Cruise Missiles Strike Sudan and Afghan Targets Tied to Terrorist Network, The New York Times, August 21, 1998

533. Elaine Sciolino, Top Iranian Official Rejects US Overture on New Ties, The New York Times, September 29, 1998

534. US Faces Dilemma in Relations With Iran, Global Intelligence Update, August 12, 1998

535. Elaine Sciolino, Iranian Dismisses All Hope For Now of Political Thaw, The New York Times, September 23, 1998

536. Benjamin Weisner, US Says Bin Laden Aide Tried to Get Nuclear Weapons, The New York Times, September 9, 1998

Hugh Davies, Bin laden Aide 'Tried to Buy Atomic Arms', The Electronic Telegraph, September 28, 1998

537. Shlomo Ben-Ami, Israeli Security and the Taleban, Ha'aretz, August 25, 1998

538. Barton Gellman, US Tried to Halt Several Searches, The Washington Post, August 27, 1998

Judith Miller, American Inspector on Iraq Quits, Accusing UN and US of Cave-In, The New York Times, August 27, 1998

Weapons Inspector Blasts Britain, BBC News, September 27, 1998

Ben Barber, Inspector Says US Must Confront Saddam, The Washington Times, August 28, 1998

539. Laurie Mylroie, Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction and the 1997 Gulf Crisis, Middle East Review of International Affairs, No. 4, 1998

540. UN Inspector Says Israel Was a Help, The Jerusalem Post, September 29, 1998

David Makovsky, Hide and Seek With the Palace Guard, Ha'aretz, September 29, 1998

Barton Gellman, Israel Gave Key Help to UN Team in Iraq, The Washington Post, September 29, 1998

Betsy Pisk, Inspector Dismisses Threat of Iraqi Bomb, The Washington Times, October 2, 1998

541. Waiel Faleh, Iraq Demands Arms Inspectors Probe, The Washington Post, October 2, 1998

542. Moscow's Man 'Leaked UN Secrets to Baghdad', The Electronic Telegraph, February 14, 1998

543. George Gedda, US Says Firepower in Gulf Upgraded, The Washington Post, August 28, 1998

544. US Secretary of Defense on Gulf Tour to Focus on Iran, ArabicNews.Com, October 10, 1998

US to Defend Gulf Against Iraqi Threat: Cohen, Dawn, October 13, 1998

545. Darius Bazargan, Iran: Politics, the Military and Gulf Security, Middle East Review of International Affairs, No. 3, 1997

546. Ze'ev Schiff, Facing Up to Reality, Ha'aretz, January 9, 1998

Eilam's Testimony, Ha'aretz, January 13, 1998

547. World: Middle East, Israeli MP Calls for Strike Against Iran, BBC News, September 27, 1998

548. Threat of Pre-emptive Attacks: Iran Vows to Hit Back if Israel Strikes, Dawn, September 28, 1998

549. Martin Sieff, Iran's Long-Range Missile Plans Worry Netanyahu, The Washington Times, October 1, 1998

550. World: Middle East, Iran Confirms Missile Expansion Programme, BBC News, September 27, 1998

551.Liat Collins, Mordecai: We can Protect Our Citizens From Iran Threat, The Jerusalem Post, September 28, 1998

552. Iran Developing Spy Satellite, Israel Believes, Nando Times, September 4, 1998

553. Steve Erlanger, Top CIA Official Leaving, The New York Times, October 21, 1997

United States-China Relations, Senate, October 24, 1997

Ivo Dawnay, Arms Scandal Fears As Top CIA Man Quits, The Electronic Telegraph, October 26, 1997

John Mintz, Signs of Chinese Arms Sales Dismissed, Ex-Official Says, The Washington Post, June 12, 1988

554. Tyler Marshall, US Policy on Russia Seen as Failure by Some Experts, The Los Angeles Times, September 19, 1998



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