Hainan / Wenchang
The Fourth Launch Infrastructure for the Long March-2E, Long March- 3/3A/3B , and Long March-5 Launch Site Finally Identified
By © C. P Vick, 2006-7, All Rights Reserved
Senior Technical Intelligence Analyst
Hainan Island ,Wench’eng LM-5 Launch Infrastructure Preparation?
The Hainan, Wenchang launch site had originally been scheduled to become operastional in 2013 but is now not sacheduled to become operational until the period between 2014 and 2015 due to both development of the Long March-5 booster and its support production, testing, and launch infrastructure delays.
China LM-5 Launch Site Ground Breaking Corner Stone Ceremony Held
The Officialdom Chinese leadership held a Long March-5 launch site ground breaking corner stone laying ceremony on the Hainan Island Space Satellite Launch Center on Sept 14, 2009 near Wenchang City. Construction had already started during November 2008 and had sufficiently progressed for the corner stone pillar planting to take place. This is the fourth Space Launch Center to be built by China to accommodate newer and existing launch vehicle. The ceremony was carried out on the Tonggu Jiao peninsula by the local Chinese leaders along with Wang Weichang director of the Hainan Space Project Headquarters and Peoples Liberation Army General Chang Wanquan member of the Communist Party, Central Military Commission and Chen Qiufa, chairman of the State Commission for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense. This adds emphasis to the fact that China being an authoritarian State uses the military to get things done that would not otherwise get done. That is the military is the State and the State is the military carrying out State policy in a very real sense. This is a high priority State project requiring considerable State resources to be accomplish between this and the middle of the next five year plan 2011-2015.
Wenchang Space Satellite Launch Center
China ’s fourth launch site infrastructure is about to start full construction over a full five year plan behind its original envisioned schedule. This launch site is primarily being built for the new medium heavy lift Long March-5 space booster but it is also going to accommodate the Long March-2E, Long March-3/3A/3B and /2F/G&2F/H launch vehicles. The launch infrastructure will joint the existing Chinese Jiuquan, Xichang and Taiyuan space launch complexes. There is now one site indicated for the Long-March-5 (LM-5) launch infrastructure construction on Hainan Island which is located east of Wenchang (19 degrees 37 minutes 12 seconds north and 110 degrees 45 minutes 3.60 seconds east).Construction Begins
Construction work on the fourth Chinese space launch facility the Hainan province, Wenchang launch center was planned to start during November 2008 after receiving approval from the PRC State Council and the Central Military Commission, after a meeting of the Local Economic Development Summit Forum. This was because most of the land acquisition has been completed. The facilities development was previously approved by the State Council and the Central Military Commission during September 2007. The facility is primarily being developed for military and civilian launches. Among the types of payload to be launched from the facility are geo-synchronous GEO communication and weather satellite as well as massive polar orbit satellite (China's new generation Reconnaissance Satellites) large medium class 20-25 metric ton manned space stations along with deep space detection satellites, lunar and planetary probes that could also include manned lunar programs. Construction is being directed by the PLA General Armaments Department with its on site Construction Command. It is working the project within a command economy that is based in military labor with material resources, equipment, personnel and man hours as its currency with an almost 5 billion Yuan fiscal budget. Minimum land ground leveling excavation and foundation development with environmental concerns is being observed with the initial instillation of water lines and electrical cabling for the total infrastructure requirement being developed.
Tonggu Jiao Launch Center
The actual facilities are to be located almost due east of Wenchang near Longlou on the Tonggu Jiao peninsula jutting out from the north eastern shore of Hainan Island . (19.658/19.678 degrees north and 111.013 degrees east) There are many useful bays and local protected harbor ports that could be used to receive the large Long March-5 rocket stage segments from its new factory testing facilities being built in Tianjin on the north east coast of main land China . (14) This most northern site seems quite a bit farther north than was expected for achieving the desired launch vehicle performance goals of the Long March-5 medium heavy lift launch vehicle program. This site was suggested by the Acting Governor, Lou Baoming in early February 2007 (1)
The site was described as consisting of 20 kilometer square area about 60 kilometers from the Haikou , the local Hainan provincial capital. (1, 9, 10) The plans were approved by the State Council and the Central Military Commission. (9, 11) It’s launch infrastructure is spread over 20 square kilometers consisting of the satellite launch center with its launch site pads in the Longou town area, command launch control center and near by assembly check out building will also including a port for the stages to be brought on shore, and a large space theme scientific park. The Long March-5 launch tower will be about 800 meters from the coast and will have a flame trench capable of accommodating clustered boosters 8-10 meters in total diameter. (18, 20) It will cost 4.5 billion yuan or about $529 million for the first phase of the site infrastructure development through 2009. (15, 19)
Space/Science Theme Park
The space/science theme park has some seven billion yuan or about 875 million dollars appropriated for its development on 407 hectares of land near the launch site. (12) It is hoped that the theme park as well as the construction will employ many of the 6,100 local inhabitants displaced by the launch infrastructure construction development. (10, 11, 12) Something like 1,200 hectares of land is being taken into the site infrastructure. The residents are mostly located in the towns of Longlou and Dongjiao a rather sparsely populated area. The launch infrastructure is expected to be completed sometime in 2012 with initial flight test scheduled for 2013-2014 during the next five year plan. (10, 12, 15) This near equatorial site will increase the LM-5 performance by about 7.4 % compared to its sister mainland launch sites. That is an added 300 kilograms more payload capacity added to the primarily synchronous satellite launches and heavy manned space station in addition to the lunar and planetary launches. (10, 12) The payload capacity of the Long March-5 booster will be 20-25 metric tons or 14 metric tones to geo-synchronous orbit. It will utilize elements of the core stages that are a full 5 meters in diameter. The launch vehicles height is expected to be 59.4 meters with a launch weight of 643 metric tons and a liftoff thrust of 825 metric tons. (20) Long March-5 is expected to meet most of China ’s heavy payload lifting requirement for the next 30-50 years. (14) The Long March-5 will not be ready for the 2012 launch of the planned Chinese lunar rover lander payload which will apparently launched on the Long March -3B booster. (17)
However there are at least three sites on the Island of Hainan that carry the name “Wenchang” according to the Defense Mapping Agency better known today as the Geospatial Intelligence Agency. This had left some considerable confusion as to the actual location. Based on the Imagery available to date is not adequate to be certain of any the suggested launch site locations and the construction status. This strongly suggests that a major full five year plan slippage in the LM-5 program planning has taken place since no early construction has been identified that started during the previous five year plan 2001-2005.
Binhai New, Area Northern Port City of Tianjin , Factory & Testing Base
The large Long March-5 rocket stage segments will come from its new factory testing facilities being built in the town of Tianjin on the north east coast of main land China near the northern most part of the Grand Canal system of China. (14) Ground was broke for the facility on October 30, 2007 and its construction is expected to be completed in 2009 and booster test articles construction of the first large ground test element is to commence in December 2009.In march 2010 it was announced that the 100,000 squared meters factory work shop had been completed for a waping 1.5 billion Yuan about ($220 million dollars). The facility willl be used for manufacturing and testing of the Long March-5 booster. Once fully completer the total manufacturing test infrastructure will cost 10 billion Yuan. See Long March-6 for the Long March-5 boosters strap-on boosters information that utilizes the existing manufacturing base. Many of the key technologies and components have already been perfected and are ready for production. Many of those key components such as the new pollution free kerosene, lox engines will come from other factories through out mainland China. The several billion yuan factory testing facilities are being built 0n a site that occupies 200 hectares that will easily allow for maritime shipping transportation. No doubt the stages of the Long March-5 may require a special sealed container ship for protecting the stages from the seaside salty environment. The production base for the Long March-5 booster is expected to be capable of producing up to 20-30 boosters a year far beyond normal 12 equivalent booster production rates for Proton in Russia. This is equivalent to war time production capacity far exceeding any nations production rate for such classes of boosters. The Chinese now say the production rate will be only 12 boosters yearly at most. More recently the 120 metric ton thrust Liquid Oxygen Kerosene engines had achieved successful testing milestones by July 2008 before being committed to factory production field testing by years end.
The first prototype ground test, systems and dynamic test articles of the LM-5E booster is planned to be ready for testing in 2012 while the static test version of each stage are expected to be ready for static test firings demonstrations in 2013. The prototype LM-5E first flight test is tentatively planned for 2014. The LM-5E first stage clustered 120 metric ton [264,600 lbsf] thrust engine has already accumulated over 10,000 seconds burn time as of the summer of 2010 after many years of R&D.
Launch Infrastructure & Will Construction Delays Impacting the Program Pacing?
The Long March-5 launch infrastructure is to consist of several major elements including it booster vertical assembly building, the launch site with its mobile platforms and pads, the launch command and control facility in addition to a port facility and scientific space theme park. Studies of various sites identified and their potential for a space launch center was started in the early middle year of 2002 during the then existing five year plan January 1, 2001 - January 1, 2006. The construction of the launch infrastructure has come late in the five year plan system and may have a serious impact on the suggested planned first launch in 2010. To meet that schedule would have required them to have started the construction site preparation in the previous five year plan not the present five year plan January 1, 2006- January 1, 2011 . That construction which was not accomplished indicates why the middle of the next five year plan 2011-2016 will be the earliest that it will be available for launch flight tests operations. Indeed flight test operations were expected to come about some time during the 2008 -2010 period but it is now not scheduled before 2013-2014 indicating a major program slip in schedule. We have also seen the Lunar Rover program now delayed into 2012 from its expected schedule and a launch vehicle change because the Long March-5 will not be available. (8)
It is also recognized that Jiuquan could support the early elements of the LM-5 provided a Kerosene and Lox propellant farms was developed. To date there is no indication of this taking place. Time will tell how this will evolve and this leaves some serious concerns over the program pacing verses what has been publicly discussed until very recently. China however stated recently that the LM-5 booster will be available to them with a first test launch in 2011 the beginning of the next five year plan after the present 11 th five year plan in progress. This in turn indicates that the LM-5 will be flight tested only during the start of the next five year plan nearly a half five year plan behind the intended original schedule period 2008 through 2010 the last half of the present five year plan. But the first spacecraft launch is expected in 2010 which conflicts with this data unless they intend to flight test the booster far sooner than now expected which in turn would be in line with the five year plan planning requirements. That is unless they have made considerable more progress than expected in this and the last five year plans. It is now clear that this is not the case.
Settling the Launch Vehicle Design Delays the Program
It also appears that the last half of the last five year plan January 1, 2001 – January 1, 2006 was taken up by a design argument in the Chinese missile industry community in which the developing solid propellant launch vehicle industry tried to move in on the liquid propellant launch vehicle industry development of the Long March-5 booster. This became evident when a considerable display of variations on the Long March-5 were shown in prominent exhibits with solid motor strap-on design variations verses the original all liquid propellant design approach that has been expected. This clearly impacted the program pacing until it was some how settled but the time utilized to evaluate these optional design approaches is only now manifesting itself in the construction delays thus far observed. Precisely what the outcome of these studies has yielded has yet to show up in the final design decisions made. It has also been learned that only during the middle of 2006 did China finally succeed in successfully test firing the new LOX/Kerosene propellant closed cycle engine for the Long March-5 first stage.(4, 6) This was clearly the most critical program pacing element that had long been anticipated.
Based on initial studies of the suspected Hainan Island LM-5 launch site, ground preparation work should have been completed during 2003-2004 and it was ready for the launch facility construction to begin. That launch site construction would be well along in development of the concrete structures for completion early in the next five year plan. The VAB and pad steel structures should be completed during the early part of the next five year plan January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2011 . The facility should be declared fully operational during the first half of 2007 before the introduction of the logistic, ground test LM-5 launch facilities systems test vehicle. This is far from reality at this time from what little has been observed. This strongly backs up the major full five year plan slippage in the LM-5 program planning.
A high technology program behind in the five year plan schedule is a major no, no in the Chinese planned command economy that had to be sanctioned by the party, central government and its leadership based on the actual circumstances because of its impact on the allocation of materials, personnel and facilities equipment infrastructure. This is why it has taken several years for this to be finalized outside the existing plan. It also indicated that the launch vehicle along with the crewed human Shenzhou spacecraft EVA and docking systems technology demonstration has also slipped. However, the lunar circumnavigation and lunar orbit mission capability are still being perfected essentially parallel to one another. This slip in the mission planning does in fact put them back on the critical forecast planning schedule in the middle of the next five year plan. On the one hand they have slipped the flight testing schedule but at the same time eliminated intermediary steps acceleration the program forward. This also explains the delay in the LM-5 launch infrastructure construction.
Long March-5 Launch Vehicle Series Herald of the Future
This Long March-5 (LM-5) launch vehicle series program has already slipped several times both from its forecast planning and five year planning schedules because of the slowness in developing the key technologies requiring foreign help. China’s introduction of the new Long March-5 medium heavy lift launch vehicle in the Proton/Titan-3D/4 class was planned for the middle of the this five year plan January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2011. With this new launch vehicle we could assume that more advanced un-crewed lunar, planetary probes, civil duel purpose and military satellites will appear by the end of this five year plan. This is in addition to the approved and funded rudimentary and larger Salyut class space stations programs in the following five year plan program. The possibly planned Long March-2F/3B based human crewed lunar circumnavigation and subsequent Long March-5 based human crewed lunar circumnavigation and lunar orbit programs through a minimum of two flight tests could also appear in the follow on five year plan January 1, 2011 - January 1, 2016 . Human rating availability for the Long March-5 will probable not occur until the middle of that five year plan. That is, if they decide to commit to such programs at that time and if the Long March-5 launch vehicle does not give them too much trouble with its advanced closed cycle propulsion system and Kerosene/LOX propellants.
Manned Lunar Effort in the Outlook Plans for 15 Years Hence
In the mean time China plan to use the existing spacecraft variations and their boosters to do the initial un-crewed robotic lunar exploration. Eventually down the road two five year plans beyond the present five year plan we could expect them to start developing a Saturn-V class launch vehicle in the 3,000 – 4,000 ton ’ s thrust category for human lunar landing and large earth orbit payloads assuming the leadership still supports such a policy in the future. Once the LM-5 booster becomes operational after 2014, the single launch circumnavigation mission becomes possible and the lunar orbital mission becomes possible through EOR. This is because the Shenzhou spacecraft has built into its design the capacity for earth orbit and lunar orbital missions. It could with proper equipment also support a human lunar landing mission through EOR similar the present Russian mission concept. (6) It is also of some interest what kind of military payloads will be launched by China on the LM-5 series of boosters separate from the civil duel purpose payloads suggested. Ultimately it is the political leadership that must support and justify these programs domestically in spite of how much the industry and scientist believe it to be necessary. It is after all their rice bowel. The final answer to the Science & Technology (S & T) leadership questions must be a political answer. This however, does not preclude un-crewed lunar exploration in support of future follow on human exploration of the Moon and un-crewed exploration of the planets. Certainly the introduction of the LM-5 booster will be the advent to unmanned lunar exploration probably followed with a limited human lunar circumnavigation and lunar orbit program in the 2014-2015/2016-2020 time frames. Any manned lunar landing program development would not be expected to manifest itself until the 2016-2020 and 2021-2025 or the 2026-2030 five year plans with the actual manned lunar program following after that during the middle of the 14 th or 15 th and 16th five year plans. Although the manned lunar landing program prospects are apparently now in the 15 year outlook plans for future serious consideration this is a far cry from being an actual committed State program by China .(4, 5) The long March-5e will first carry the Fengyan-4 weather satellite now being designed and developed with an intended mass of 9 metric tonnes.
NASA's former director Michael Griffin before leaving office in January 2009 stated that he still believed that China could if it chooses fly a manned circumlunar mission by 2015 via earth orbital rendezvous with the new Long March -5 booster. This duel launch scenario would utilize the lunar variant of the Shenzhou spacecraft and a propulsion stage. However from design studies by Phillip S. Clark of the British Interplanetary Society it is known the Long March-5 booster could do the mission in a single launch. The point ultimately being if the Chinese geopolitical leadership so chooses it could demonstrate manned lunar capability with in the next five year plan.
1. http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/China_To_Build_Satellite_Launching_Center_I...2/8/2007, China to Build Fourth Satellite Launching Center in Hainan , Staff Writer, Haikou (XNA) Feb 8, 2007 .
4. http://www.moondaily.com/reports/China_to Launch_Lunar_Satellite_Probe_This _Year_... 3/7/2007, AFP, Beijing , China
5. http://www.moondaily.com/reports/Chinese_Spaceman_To_Reach_Moon_In_15_Years_99... 3/7/2007, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , (XNA) China
6. http://www.moondaily.com/reports/First_Chinese_Lunar_Probe_Assembled_And_Ready_F... 3/8/2007, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , (XNA), China
8. http://www.moondaily.com/reports/China_May_Launch_First_Lunar_Probe_Satellite_In_September_999.html, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , March 19, 2007
9. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-09/22/content_6774462.htm, 9/23/2007 , Sept. 21, 2007 , Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , (XNA), China
10. China to build fourth space launch center, Beijing , (PTI), China , http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/003200709231021.htm, 9/23/2007
11. China To Build New Space Launch Center In Southernmost Province, http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/China_To_Build_New_Space_Launch_Center_In_Sou... 9/24/2007
12. Six thousand people top be resettled to make way for new space launch center, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-10/29/content_6971942.htm, 10/29/2007
13. China to build fourth space launch center Bejing (AFP) Oct. 29, 2007 , http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/China_to_build_fourth_space_launch_center_999.html, 10/30/2007
14. New carrier rocket series to be built, by Xin Dingding (China Daily) updated 2007-10-31, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-10/31/content_6217880.htm, 10/31/2007
15. China Starts Developing New Heavy-Duty Carrier Rockets, Tianjin, Xinhua News Agency, (XNA) China Nov. 01, 2007, http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/China_Starts_Developing_New_HGeavy_Duty_Carrier_... 11/1/2007
16. New Carrier Rocket Series To Be Built, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , (XNA) China , http://www.space-travel.com/reports/New_Carrier_Rocket_Series_To_Be_Built_999.html., 11/1/2007
17. China May Use Long March 3 for Lunar Landing, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, (XNA) China, http://www.space-travel.com/reports/China_May_Use_Long_March_3_For_Lunar_Landin..., 11/6/2007
18. China Completes Enclosure Of Land For Fourth Satellite Launch Center, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , (XNA) China , http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/China_Completes_Enclosure_Of_Land_For_Fourth_..., 11/19/2007
19. New rocket set to blast off by 2013, http://English.peoplesdaily.com.cn/90001/90781/90876/6305728.html, 11/20/2007
20. New Rocket Set To Blast Off By 2013, Xinhua News Agency, Beijing , (XNA) China , http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/New_Rocket_Set_To_Blast_Off_By_2013_999.html, 11/21/2007
21. Construction of launch center for new-generation carrier rockets expected to start, Peoples Daily On-Line English, http://english.peoples.com.cn , Nov. 4, 2008, p.1.
22. Construction of Wenchang launch center to begin, Peoples Daily Online, English, http://english.people.com.cn , Nov. 19, 2008 p. 1.
In October 1999 it was reported that China was planning to build a satellite launching centre on Hainan island in the South China Sea. By one report the plan envisioned a launch site in the eastern coast of Sanya, China's southernmost city. The southern location could increase the capability of rockets by up to seven percent from that of the Xichang site or up to 12 percent from Jiuquan. The Hainan launch center could take over for both Xichang and Taiyuan.
Hainan is China's lowest latitude on land area. In the world various astronautics big company all chooses the low latitude for geo-stationary satellite launch sites. With such low latitude, the satellite launch direction and equatorial plane included angle small, then the emission efficiency high, the expense few, the technical difficulty is low and may lengthen the satellite lifetime. In recent years our country economy continued high speed to develop, the Hainan special zone vigorously developed the construction, the infrastructure greatly for has a new look, the transportation, the energy, the communication and the cities construction, have all had the development especially big goal ability.
China is implementing the "863" astronautics plan. After reform and opening policy, China frequently sold launch services, but found existing launch locations to be insufficient. They are situated at the remote mountain launch site, as a result of the position flaw, causes the massive personnel and the large-scale thing passes in and out is limited. Therefore, developing the new coastal site to launch became an urgent topic.
China plans to develop the launch site near Wenchang, about two miles from the coast, according to Long Lehao, deputy director of the China Carrier Rocket Research Institute. The Institute designed the Long March 3 booster. He told China's Hua Sheng Bao on 04 October 1999 that the Wenchang complex would include two pads, with the first pad supporting the CZ-2E and CZ-3/3A launch vehicles. A vertical assembly building at the site that wwould allow boosters to be transported to the pad fully integrated. About five square miles of land are needed.
Hainan's superior low latitude (19 N) on the coastal position is the the best choice for a new civilian market launch location. The Hainan provincial party committee and the provincial government strongly support this project. The Hainan new century international commercial goal is the an industrial facility which has astronautics technology and domestic tourism as the center-pieces. Taking the advanced launching center as the main body, the province would set up as an attachment an international astronavigation museum, the outer space tourist facility, astronautics high tech industry center and business trade area.
Astronautics launch center provides launch service for the outside customers and the domestic civil satellite. Discussions of a Hainan space launch site have been going for at least five years as of 2005. China operates three widely separated space launch centers, Jiuquan, Taiyuan, and Xichang to meet the needs of the Long March family of boosters. Each site is limited in the launch azimuths, with three separate centers for low earth orbit (LEO), sun-synchronous, and geo-stationery earth orbit (GEO) missions. The Hainan site would permit launches to all three orbits.
In June 2005 it was reported that Chinese officials were still in the early planning stages for the new launch center. At that time, the leading candidate for the launch center was said to be Wenchang, a city on Hainan Island. A preliminary feasibility report made by provincial authorities had been approved by an [unidentified] expert panel. But an official from the local commission for development and reform said it was a long-term blueprint, with a long way to go before the central government finalized the proposal.
Wenchang, to the east of Haikou on the northeastern corner of the island, is the centre of Han settlement and the place where standard Hainanese is spoken. It is also one of the main sources of Hainanese migration overseas.
Located in the north of Hainan Island, Wenchang City has a total area of 2,403 sq km and a population of 520,000. Wenchang City borders on the sea in the east, south and north and adjoins Qiongshan City and Ding'an County in the west and Qionghai City in the southwest.
It has been more than 2000 years that people live and work in the area where Wenchang City is located now. It is the hometown of many overseas Chinese, of culture and the charming scenery of coconut forest. Wenchang is rich in tropical tourist resources, boasting 20 famous scenic spots and historical sites.
To mention a few, they are the marvelous Tonggu Ridge, the beautiful Dongjiao Coconut Groves, the white-sand bathing beach at Gaolong Bay, the Mangrove Forest, the Confucius Temple, the ancestral Home of Song Qingling and the ancient town at Wencheng. The pleasing food of the local cooking includes seafood and the famous Wenchang Chicken. It takes about 30 minutes by car from Haikou to Wenchang.
The Wenchang Confucius Temple is one of the best preserved examples of ancient architecture in Hainan. The temple was first built during the 11th century, after repeated renovation and expansion since the Ming Dynasty. The temple is also one of the biggest and most impressive examples of ancient architecture in Hainan.
Sanya is situated in the southern part of Hainan Province. It is the most famous tropical seaside resort in China. Sanya boasts the finest sea water, sand beaches and tropical beaches green vegetation in China, and increasingly complete tourist facilities.
The domestic and foreign tourists travel not only watch the launch vehicle with own eyes the preparation and the satellite launch. Moreover, tourists may also experience in person through the simulator the line to live the environment by oneself in the outer space, watches our Earth and the outer space picture, the experience rides the spaceship the feeling, this not only brings the abundant pleasure for the general traveling visitor, moreover is specially is the young people carries on astronautics popular science, the human environment and the protection and the defense education effective facility to the national.
Sanya is a tropical city located in the southernmost part of Hainan province. The city has a population of 380,000, among which 260,000 are farmers. Sanya has been listed as an international tourism city because of its beautiful tropical scenery and special geographic location. With the infusion of goods and investment from abroad and other provinces, the economy of Sanya has boomed. Therefore, it has become one of the tourism regions in China which attract investment.
Sanya is a world-famous tropical seashore tour-enjoying and ecological Demonstration City. And it is the most important political, economic, cultural and foreign trade port in the southern part of Hainan, also a famous coastal tourist city with tropical landscapes and special local customs.
Located on the southern tip of Hainan Island, Sanya stands between 18°09'and 18°37' latitude almost the same as Hawaii. Thus, it's often called "the Hawaii of China" or "orient Hawaii". Situated in the center of Southeast Asia, Sanya is a highly convenient place for exchange with countries in Southeast Asia. It is also an important sea route connecting China with Southwest Asia, Africa and Europe. The area of Sanya is about 1,,919 square kilometers, 91.6 kilometers long from the east to the west, and 51.2 kilometers wide from the north to the south. It lies in the southern valley of the Wuzi Mountain range, and stretches from the higher north to the lower south. With a coastline of 209.1 kilometers, it has 10 islets and 19 harbors. Among them, the West Daimaozhou islet is the biggest of all, on which there are nearly two big harbors, and the Sanya harbor has now become an important port of entry-and exit for deluxe passengers ships and for trade with foreign countries. Sanya has an international modern airport--SYPIA (SANYA PHOENIX INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT) which is the second largest in Hainan Province, with flights to domestic and foreign cites.
Sanya City is a tropical international tourist city. It enjoys clean seawater, fresh air, beautiful beaches and bright sunshine and is rich in natural tropical scenery and historical sites. Its tourist attractions include Yalong Bay National holiday Resort, Dadonghai Tourist Zone, TianyaHaijiao, Luhuitou Park, Nanshan Cultural and Tourist Zone, the marvelous landscape of mountains and seas at Nanshan, Wuzhizhou Island, the Ancient City of Yazhou, Shuinan Village, Luobidong Cavern and the Muslim tombs built in Tang & Song dynasties, etc. Local specialties include handicrafts made of seashells, horn-ware, coconut shell carving products, squid and pepper, etc.
More than 20 nationalities, including Han, Li, Miao, and Hui, inhabit the city. There are altogether more than 4.83,1 million people, among them 1.49,8 million are registered for permanent residence (in 2,000). Languages used here are dialects of Hainan, Junhua, Maihua, and Lihua Danjiahua, besides Putonghua, the common language in China.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|