Chinese Anti-Satellite [ASAT] Capabilities
China has tested two direct-ascent antisatellite missiles: the SC–19 and the larger DN–2. Direct-ascent antisatellite missiles are designed to disable or destroy a satellite or spacecraft using one of several possible kill mechanisms, such as a kinetic kill vehicle. The missiles typically are launched against pre-selected targets, as they must either wait for the target satellite to pass overhead within a certain distance from the launch site, or target a stationary satellite within range of the launch site. Unlike co-orbital antisatellite systems, direct-ascent antisatellite missiles do not establish a persistent presence in space, enter into long-term orbits, or loiter to await commands to engage a target.
China continues to develop and refine its ASAT capabilities as one component of a multi-dimensional program to limit or prevent the use of space-based assets by potential adversaries during times of conflict. In addition to the direct-ascent ASAT program, China is developing other technologies and concepts for kinetic and directed energy for ASAT missions. Foreign and indigenous systems give China the capability to jam common satellite communications bands and Global Positioning satellites (GPS) receivers. China's ASAT programs have significant implications for anti-access/area-denial efforts against the United States in Taiwan Strait contingencies.
A PLA analysis of U.S. and coalition military operations reinforced the importance of operations in space to enable informationalized warfare. This analysis claimed that "space is the commanding point for the information battlefield. Battlefield monitor and control, information communications, navigation and position guidance all rely on satellites and other sensors." PLA writings emphasize the necessity of "destroying, damaging, and interfering with the enemy's reconnaissance ... and communications satellites," suggesting that such systems, as well as navigation and early warning satellites, could be among initial targets of attack to "blind and deafen the enemy." The same PLA analysis of U.S. and coalition military operations also states that "destroying or capturing satellites and other sensors ... will deprive an opponent of initiative on the battlefield and [make it difficult] for them to bring their precision guided weapons into full play."
R&D on fundamental technologies applicable to an ASAT weapons system has been ongoing in China since the 1960s. Under the 640 Program, the space and missile industry's Second Academy, traditionally responsible for SAM development, set out to field a viable antimissile system, consisting of a kinetic kill vehicle, high powered laser, space early warning, and target discrimination system components. This program was abandoned in 1980.
Preliminary research on ASATs was carried out since the 1980s, at least partly funded under the 863 Program for High Technology Development. PLA-affiliated publications long asserted that while China did not yet possess the capability to destroy satellites with high-powered lasers, they are capable of damaging optical reconnaissance satellites.
The 1998 Report to Congress "Future Military Capabilities and Strategy of the People's Republic of China", states "China already may possess the capability to damage, under specific conditions, optical sensors on satellites that are very vulnerable to damage by lasers. However, given China's current interest in laser technology, it is reasonable to assume that Beijing would develop a weapon that could destroy satellites in the future."
China is said to be acquiring a variety of foreign technologies, which could be used to develop an anti-satellite (ASAT) capability. Beijing already may have acquired technical assistance which could be applied to the development of laser radars used to track and image satellites and may be seeking an advanced radar system with the capability to track satellites in low earth orbit. It also may be developing jammers, which could be used against Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. In addition, China already may possess the capability to damage, under specific conditions, optical sensors on satellites that are very vulnerable to damage by lasers. Beijing also may have acquired high-energy laser equipment and technical assistance, which probably could be used in the development of ground-based ASAT weapons.
Given China's level of interest in laser technology, Beijing probably could develop a weapon that could destroy satellites in the future. Although specific Chinese programs for laser ASAT have not been identified, press articles indicate an interest in developing this capability and Beijing may be working on appropriate technologies. According to senior consultant, James T. Westwood, of Military Science and Defense Analytics, Unionville, VA, the Chinese ASAT test in January, 2007, was propitious in confirming in the real world, an original operations research and analysis study he did during 1989-1990 while consulting to a consortium of defense contractors paid by the then Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) in the Pentagon.
In that novel study, Westwood showed that space-based 'Brilliant Pebbles' component of the national missile defense system, sponsored by Dr. Lowell Wood (Edward Teller's protégé), of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was a fundamentally flawed concept of operations because (1) it required less than one percent of the total constellation contemplated by the LLNL model to perform effectively and (2) because, like as the PRC anti-satellite event over fifteen years later, every successive, successful, kinetic-kill impact would increase the volume of an orbiting debris cloud, itself ever-more ruinous of the jth "pebble's" reliability.
The Clinton Administration cancelled 'Brilliant Pebbles' five years later. During this ground-breaking study, Mr. Westwood collaborated with Dr. Gregory Canavan, a kinematicists’ and, at one time, the youngest lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Air Force on active duty, then at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. (Kinematics is that branch of physics which studies bodies in motion without respect to how they come to be in motion.)
In August 2006 there were reports that China had fired high-power lasers at American intelligence satellites flying over its territory. National Reconnaissance Office Director, Donald M. Kerr, told reporters that a US satellite had recently been "painted," or illuminated, by a ground-based laser in China. Some observers saw this as tests of Chinese capability to blind the spacecraft, while others took it as being tests of a laser radar for guiding a direct ascent kinetic energy ASAT. It was unclear how many times a the ground-based laser was tested against US spacecraft.
According to Westwood, in 1978, while employed as a senior special research analyst for one of the three-letter national intelligence agencies, he discovered and crystallized into application, a novel, original technique for interpreting and predicting all of the military and space programs of the former Soviet Union with consistent accuracy and reliability. There came from this numerous applications and non-surprises, e.g., that the ballistic missile programs, with their space rocket off-shoots (to coin a phrase), were arguably the most reliable and revealing among the thousands of armor, aircraft, ship, artillery, etc. military hardware and operations programs. In a recent interview with this author, Westwood says that to the extent that the military programs of the PRC long may have replicated the former Soviet Union's national planning schema, the same methodology likely can successfully illuminate China's future military and space programs.
The Dalian Universuty of Technology design team was on January 9, 2009 awarded the top PRC Science and Technology Award for the development of the ASAT system. It was headed by Gua Dongming head of the Dalian scientific team that included Jai Zhenyuan, Kang Renke, Wang Yongqing, Sheng Xianjun of Dalian University and Yu Huilong of the 25th institute , 2nd. Academy Astronautics science and industry group.
Chinese ASAT and rates of change email@example.com (Allen Thomson) 1995/12/31
- CHINA'S STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES Mark A. Stokes [U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute] -- September 1999
- Future Military Capabilities and Strategy of the People's Republic of China, Report to Congress pursuant to Section 1226 of the FY98 National Defense Authorization Act) (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, November 1998)
- DoD News Briefing , November 3, 1998 -- Bill Gertz in the Washington Times cites a Pentagon report that concludes that China has weapons capable of, laser weapons capable of damaging or disabling sensors on U.S. satellites. So you're saying that your understanding of that report, which you're going to provide us a copy of, does not support the conclusion that was in that newspaper? A: That's correct.
- Future Military Capabilities and Strategy of the People's Republic of China, Report to Congress pursuant to Section 1226 of the FY98 National Defense Authorization Act) (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, June 2000)
- Chinese Test Anti-Satellite Weapon By Craig Covault Aviation Week & Space Technology 01/17/2007
China successfully completed the in-space refuel of orbital satellites following the first launch of a new generation carrier rocket, the National University of Defense Technology announced on 30 June 2016. Similar to air refueling for planes, the process refuels a satellite in orbit in a microgravity environment and will extend a satellite's functional life and boost its maneuver capabilities considerably.
Atop the CZ-7-Y1 launch vehicle was a Yuan Zheng-1A (YZ-1A, “Expedition 1A”) upper stage, which acted as the third-stage of the launch vehicle to deliver the other six payloads into their intended orbits. Similar to the Russian Fregat [which was a Soviet era development of an ASAT upper stage], the Yuan Zheng (YZ) series upper stages are designed to serve as a “space tug” to deliver its payload satellites and spacecraft directly into their intended orbit without the need to use their own propulsion.
Developed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT), an education and research institution of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), Tianyuan-1 is the country's first in-space refueling system for orbital satellites. It was launched into orbit aboard the Long March-7 carrier rocket on 25 June 2016. A series of core independent processes were tested and verified after the launch, with data and videos recording the full process sent back to earth, the university said in a statement. "The injection process was stable, and measurement and control were precise," it said, adding that the test proved that Tianyuan-1 met design requirements.
Though an area of great interest, the process is complicated and only a few countries have begun experiments. A spacecraft that can examine, refuel, or reprogram a satellite might also be capable of disabling, destroying, or deprogramming it.
- CZ-7 payloads demonstrate cutting-edge technologies Posted on July 1, 2016
- Did China just launch a secret satellite-destroying robot weapon into space? By James Billington, IBTimes, June 30, 2016
- Is China militarising space? Experts say new junk collector could be used as anti-satellite weapon - Craft could be used to attack satellites, according to some researchers, Stephen Chen, South China Morning Post : Tuesday, 28 June, 2016
A unique payload lofted by the CZ-7/YZ-1A was the Active Debris Removal Vehicle (ADRV), or Aolong 1 (“Roaming Dragon 1”), also developed by CALT. According to Chinese press reports, Aolong 1 was designed to actively capture and remove space debris objects using its onboard robotic arm. During the CZ-7-Y1 mission, Aolong 1 will demonstrate the removal of a simulated space debris object, capturing the object and then bring it to a re-entry trajectory to be burned up in the Earth atmosphere.
The technique demonstrated by Aolong 1 requires the spacecraft to have the capability to identify, rendezvous, and perform proximity operations with a non-cooperative target, either a retired satellite or a space debris object. However, the same technique could also be used against an operational satellite on orbit, raising concerns that China may be secretively testing a space-based anti-satellite (ASAT) system.
The Roaming Dragon has "potential as an anti-satellite weapon that, during wartime, could be used as deterrents or directly against enemy assets in space". Being small, lightweight and simple to launch the report states China could fill space with a swarm of the robots.
Space engineering expert claimed "the development of the technology was mainly supported by the military, and kept confidential" posing questions as to what the military's interest in a 'cleaning spacecraft' would be. Others questioned the sophistication required of technology to be effective. The precision of the robotic arm would have to be so exact that doubt has arisen as to whether it would be capable of clearing any debris. "To get a firm grip, the arm must aim for a specific target area – something that in space is likely to be constantly changing," said the South China Morning Post.
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