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X Corps

Although Pakistan does not have a Corps headquarters in Kashmir [unlike India], X Corps has responsibility for Jammu and Kashmir. Some sources report that the Force Commander Northern Areas is the equivalent of a Division, and is subordinate to X Corps, while most sources agree that it is an independent Corps-equivalent command reporting directly to the Army headquarters.

The X Corps, which has been headquarterd in Rawalpindi since it was raised in 1974, consists of three holding infantry divisions allocated for Jammu and Kashmir. The 19th Infantry Division is reportedly responsible for the area between Kel and Jhelum. These three divisions have a total of four extra brigades, above and beyond the nine [three times three] normally assigned to Pakistani Army divisions. In addition, there are at least one independent brigade, with some sources reporting two [one tank and one infantry], with possibly a third [artillery] brigade].

One of the first acts of Gen. Musharraf, after his appointment as the COAS by Mr. Nawaz Sharif in October, 1998, was to post Lt. Gen. Mahmud Ahmed, ethnicity not clear, but possibly a Pathan, who was then Commandant, National Defence College, as the GOC, 10 Corps.

Following the 1999 military coup, Musharraf initially posted Lt.Gen. Mohammad Aziz [a Kashmiri], as the GOC, 10 Corps, but Qazi Hussain Ahmed of the Jamaat-e-Islami, and Maulana Fazlur Rahman of the Jamaat-ul-Ulema Pakistan criticised the proposed transfer of Lt.Gen. Aziz on the ground that this would weaken the so-called jehad in Kashmir. Gen. Musharraf, thereupon, cancelled his order and instead promoted Maj.Gen. Jamshaid Gulzar, the then head of the India Division in the ISI, as a Lt. Gen. and posted him as the GOC, 10 Corps.

During the five-year-long Taliban regime in Afghanistan, Pakistan had gained several advantages with a friendly neighbour at Kabul. It shifted large elements of its XI and XII Corps close to the Indian border in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), Punjab and Rajasthan. The 9 Infantry Division of XI Corps had been deployed opposite Dras with Headquarters at Gulteri, under X Corps. In November 2001 it was reported that Pakistan had begun shifting elements of its forces from the Indian borders to its borders with Afghanistan. This was the first time in six years that troops had reverted to their original location under the XI Corps (Peshawar) and XII Corps (Quetta).

In December 2001 the Indian government ordered perhaps the largest post-Second World War military build-up, sending some three-quarters of India's 1.2 million soldiers on to offensive positions on the border with Pakstian. Pakistan responded by moving 10, 11 and 12 Corps from their Afghan frontier locations near Rawalpindi, Peshawar and Quetta to its eastern frontier with India.

                    CityLatitudeLongitude
X CorpsRawalpindi 3336'N7304'E
111 Inf BDE (MECH)Rawalpindi 3336'N7304'E
8th Armored BDEKharian ____'N____'E
U/I Artillery BDEU/I Location ____'N____'E
12th Infantry DivisionMuzzafarabad [Murree ?] ____'N____'E
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19th Infantry DivisionRawalkot [Jhelum ?] 3447'N7330'E
U/I BDEU/I Location ____'N____'E
U/I BDEU/I Location ____'N____'E
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23rd Infantry DivisionMangla [Gujrat ?] 3307'N7339'E
U/I BDEU/I Location ____'N____'E
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