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Libyan Air Force

On 17 March 2011 the UN Security Council authorized the use of force in Libya to protect civilians from attack, specifically in the eastern city of Benghazi, which Colonel Muammar Al-Qadhafi had said he would storm to end a revolt against his regime. Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which provides for the use of force if needed, the Council adopted a resolution by 10 votes to zero, with five abstentions, authorizing Member States "to take all necessary measures. to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamhariya, including Benghazi, while excluding an occupation force." The abstentions included China and Russia, which have the power of veto, as well as Brazil, Germany and India.

The B-2 led the way in Libya during Operation Odyssey Dawn, when three B-2s flew more than 25 hours from Whiteman AFB to destroy virtually the entire Libyan air force on the ground. The bombers dropped 45 2,000-pound Joint Direct Attack Munitions on hardened aircraft shelters, destroying the planes and helicopters inside and removing Muammar Qaddafi's ability to harm his people from the air. Collectively, in just 13 days, NATO flew well over 2000 sorties, launched more than 200 TLAMs, released thousands of pounds of munitions, saved thousands of Libyan civilians from massacre, and eliminated the Libyan Air Force as a threat. During Operation Unified Protector, NATO conducted over 26,500 sorties, including over 9,700 strike sorties over Libya.

The Libyan air force was effectively destroyed in 2011, and little effort was initially made to reconstitute this service. Prior to 2011, the Air Force had approximately 375 combat capable aircraft [420 combat aircraft in 2000], though more than half of the aircraft were non-operational, 50 armed helicopters (many in storage) and 90 transport aircraft (some in storage). Most of the equipment was of Soviet origin and some from the USA and France. Serviceability of aircraft and equipment had been drastically affected by the UN embargo ordered in April 1992. In June 2012 the air force chief of staff, Saqr Geroushi said that its main priority was border security, adding that his aircraft were flying regular sorties along Libyas borders. As of mid-2012 it was reliably reported that Libyas existing air force was reckoned to include around 28 aircraft, mainly Migs as well as some French Mirages, and nine helicopters, most of which originated in the Soviet Union.

In January 2013 the government ordered the air force to target smugglers. A number of pilots were reported to have expressed disquiet at the policy, saying they wanted guidance from the Grand Mufti, Sheikh Sadeq Al-Ghariani. On 05 April, 2013 the air force attacked a convoy of fuel smugglers operating near Ghadames on the border with Tunisia and Algeria. According to reports, a fighter plane on border reconnaissance patrol spotted a convoy of six fuel trucks some eight kilometres from the border. Thirteen of the smugglers are said to have been killed in the incident.

An attack 06 July 2012 on a Libyan air force helicopter transporting polling material led to the death of one person. An air show, part of a ceremony to celebrate the graduation of pilots at Benghazis Air Force base, went tragically wrong 04 July 2013 when a helicopter performing aerobatic maneuvrrs crashed. The Mi-35 helicopter hit the ground in front of horrified comrades and spectators. Two of the three crew the pilot and flight engineer were killed on impact. The ceremony was to have celebrated the graduation of some thirty pilots and technicians who had just completed training by Sudanese Air Force instructors in Benghazi.

General Adam Saqr Geroushi was suspended in January 2013 by the Ministry of Defence as head of the Libyan Air Force following his disbarment by the Integrity Commission. The Integrity Commission disbarred Geroushi on 4 January, although he appealed the decision in court. A few days later he faced charges in a separate case in a military court. Ibrahim Al-Awami, the military prosecution spokesman, said: The military prosecutor brought ten charges against Geroushi, including cases of theft and fraud. The case was postponed for a month following a request from the defence lawyers, who said they needed more time to consider the charges and evidence against their client.

Three army and police officers died in separate attacks in Benghazi September 29, 2013, the latest in a string of attacks against security forces in Libya's second city, a security official said. "Air force Lieutenant Colonel Ali al-Daghani was killed when a device placed in his car exploded near a market," said Abdullah al-Zayedi, a spokesman for the security forces. "A few metres (yards) away, police officer Nejib Bel Hacen al-Zwei died when a homemade bomb exploded in his car," he said, while another officer, Abdelkader al-Maadani, was gunned down outside his Benghazi home.

On the evening of 02 October 2013, Russias Embassy in Tripoli was attacked by an armed group of militants. According to the information available, the murder of a Libyan Air Force officer and the stabbing of his mother by Yekaterina Ustyuzhaninova, a Russian national, on 01 October, was the direct reason for these aggressive actions against the diplomatic mission. Yekaterina Ustyuzhaninova was arrested, and a criminal case was initiated against her. The Libyan party will inform us about all circumstances of this incident during its investigation. This event provoked relatives and friends of the murdered Libyan to take revenge for his life by attacking the Russian diplomatic mission.

A group of unknown assailants fired shots at the embassy and managed to break into the territory of the Embassy, but its employees and members of their families hid in protected premises. The attackers fled the scene after several were killed. The armed attackers On 3 October, all employees of the Russian Embassy and members of their families - 52 people - safely crossed the border into Tunisia. They returned to Moscow by a special flight of the Russian Emergencies Ministry on 4 October.

The Russian woman whose alleged murder of a Libyan Air Force officer prompted the attack on the Russian Embassy was a former professional powerlifter who studied in the Siberian city of Novosibirsk, regional officials said. Both Russias and Libyas Foreign Ministries said the murder of Libyan Air Force officer Mohammed Soussi was the motivation for the assault on the embassy. Libyan police arrested Ustyuzhaninova for allegedly shooting Soussi to death in his home and stabbing his mother. A graphic video circulating on Facebook, reportedly of Soussi's murder scene, showed blood pooled around a body on the floor, with Death to rats written in blood in English on the wall beside it.

Colonel Abdullah Ahmed Zayad Al-Barrasi, a pilot in the Libyan Air Force, was shot while driving to work in Benghazi the morning of 6 October 2013. He was targeted at 8:30 am, in the citys Al-Bath Street, by unknown gunmen while on his way to work at Benina Air Base, Spokesman for Benghazi Joint Security Room (BJSR) Abdullah Zaidi told the Libya Herald. He was critically wounded, Zaidi said, and died on arrival at Al-Jala Hospital. The BJSR has launched an investigation into the attack but Zaidi pointed out that, because it was a quiet time of day, there were no eye-witnesses. This was the latest killing in wave of assassinations and explosions targeting symbols of the 17 February Revolution and security personnel that continue to rock Benghazi.

A Libyan air force officer was killed and another security forces member badly wounded on 13 October 2013 in two separate attacks in the eastern city of Benghazi, an official said. "Unidentified assailants opened fire on Abdelfattah al-Ryani, an air force officer, in the Al-Hadaek region of Benghazi," Colonel Abdullah al-Zaidi of the security services told AFP. The officer "died after being struck by bullets in the head and chest", he added. In the other attack, Abdessalam al-Dursi, a colonel in a police anti-drugs unit, was gravely wounded when a bomb planted in his car exploded. Officials at Benghazi's Al-Jala hospital said Dursi suffered serious leg injuries and that his condition was "critical".

Benghazi, the cradle of the 2011 uprising that ousted former dictator Moamer Kadhafi, has seen a series of assassinations targeting officers in the security services. Other attacks have targeted Western interests and diplomats, and much of the violence, including the killing of US ambassador Chris Stevens last year, has been attributed to radical Islamists.




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