Military


Iraq Historical Timeline

1534-1918

Area ruled by Ottoman Turks

1912

Turkish Petroleum Co. formed; Concession given to British by 1914

1913

Boundary with Kuwait defined by Anglo-Turkish convention

1920

Mandate for Iraq awarded to UK by League of Nations

1921

Hashemite monarchy established under King Faysal

1922

Boundary with Saudi Arabia is agreed upon . . . Along with creation of Iraq-Saudi Neutral Zone

1927

Discovery of oil north of Karkuk; Pipeline begun to Mediterranean

1932

Iraq achieves independence

(October 3)

1936

First coup d’etat at hands of military

1948-49

Iraqi troops participate in Arab League

invasion of new State of Israel

1958

Hashemite Kingdoms, Iraq and Jordan join, Arab Union Federation.

King Faysal assassinated in coup; General Quasim takes power; Arab Union dissolved

1961

Quasim claims Kuwait as integral part of Iraq; Kurds begin armed revolt against Baghdad

1963

Quasim killed in military coup; Iraq renounces claim of Kuwait

1966

Cease fire effected between Kurds and government forces

1967

June war; Iraqi airfields attacked;Iraq troops enter Jordan, but do not do battle; Diplomatic relations broken with US

1968

Arab Socialist Ba’th (Resurrection) Party seizes power through a coup

1970

Announced settlement ends Kurdish rebellion in the north, but legal status of Kurdish territory remains unresolved

1972

Iraq Petroleum Co., a consortium of Western companies, is nationalized

1979

Saddam Hussein emerges President and Chairman of RCC

1980

Unilateral denunciation of Baghdad Treaty; War with Iran starts

1982

Export pipeline via Syria closed

1984

Diplomatic relations restored with US

1986-87

The "tanker war" increased Iraqi and Iranian attacks on ships in Persian Gulf

1988

Cease fire ends eight-year war with Iran ; Iraq reasserts claim to Kuwait

1990

Invasion of Kuwait; World community imposes economic embargo

Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait

1990 August 2 - Iraq invades Kuwait and is condemned by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 660, which calls for the full withdrawal.

1990 August 6 - UNSC Resolution 661 imposes economic sanctions on Iraq.

1990 August 8 - Iraq appoints puppet regime in Kuwait that declares a merger with Iraq.

1990 November 29 - UNSC Resolution 678 authorizes the states cooperating with Kuwait to use "all necessary means" to uphold UNSC Resolution 660; UN orders Iraqi withdrawal by January 15, 1991.

1991 January 17 - The Gulf War starts with coalition forces begin aerial bombing of Iraq, "Operation Desert Storm".

1991 February 24 - The start of a ground operation; liberation of Kuwait occurs February 27.

1991 March 3 - Iraq accepts the terms of a ceasefire. The primary ceasefire resolution is UNSCR 687 (April 3) requiring Iraq to end its weapons of mass destruction programs, recognize Kuwait, account for missing Kuwaitis, return Kuwaiti property and end support for international terrorism. Iraq is required to end repression of its people.

1991 Mid-March/early April - Iraqi military forces suppress rebellions in the south and north of the country, creating a humanitarian disaster on the borders of Turkey and Iran.

No-Fly Zones

1991 April 8 - A plan for the establishment of a UN safe-haven in northern Iraq, north of the latitude 36 degrees north, for the protection of Kurds is approved at a European Union meeting in Luxembourg. On April 10, the US orders Iraq to end all military action in this area.

1991 April - Working in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) is established to ensure Iraq is free of weapons of mass destruction and to establish long-term monitoring program to see it remains free of prohibited weapons.

1992 August 26 - A no-fly zone, which prohibits the flights of Iraqi planes, is established in southern Iraq, south of latitude 32 degrees north.

1993 June 27, US forces launch a cruise missile attack on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Al-Mansur district, Baghdad, in response for the attempted assassination of former U.S. President George Bush in Kuwait in April.

1994 May 29 Saddam Hussein becomes prime minister and president.

1994 November 10 - The Iraqi National Assembly recognizes Kuwait's borders and its independence.

1995 April 14 - UNSC Resolution 986 allows the partial resumption of Iraq's oil exports to buy food and medicine. It is not accepted or implemented by Iraq until December 1996.

1996 August 31 - In response to a call for aid from the KDP, Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern no-fly zone and capture Arbil.

1996 September 3 - U.S. extends the southern no-fly zone to latitude 33 degrees north.

1996 December 12 - Saddam Hussein's elder son Uday is seriously wounded in an assassination attempt.

1998 October 31 - Iraq ends all forms of cooperation with the UNSCOM and expels inspectors.

1998 December 16-19 - U.S. and U.K. launch a bombing campaign "Operation Desert Fox" to destroy suspected nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs.

1999 January 4 - Iraq asks the UN to replace its US and UK staff in Iraq.

1999 February 19 - Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr, spiritual leader of the Shi'a, is assassinated in Najaf in southern Iraq.

1999 December 17 - UNSC Resolution 1284 creates the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) to replace UNSCOM. Iraq rejects the resolution.

2000 March 1 - Hans Blix assumes the post of Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC.

2000 October - Iraq resumes domestic passenger flights, the first since the 1991 Gulf War. Commercial air links re-established with Russia, Ireland and Middle East. Regime invests more revenue in the general economy.

2000 November - Iraq rejects new weapons inspections proposals.

2000 December - Iraq temporarily halts oil exports after the UN rejects Iraq's request that buyers pay a 50-cent-a-barrel surcharge into an Iraqi bank account not controlled by the UN.

2001 Free-trade zone agreements set up with neighboring countries. Rail link with Turkey re-opened in May for the first time since 1981.

2001 February - Britain and U.S. carry out bombing raids to try and disable Iraq's air defense network.

2001 May - Saddam Hussein's son Qusay elected to the leadership of the ruling Ba'th Party, fueling speculation that he is being groomed to ensure the Takriti clan's hold on power in Iraq.

2002 February 11-15 - For the first time since 1992, Iraq hosts a UN human rights expert. During the preceding years, the international community documented and reported allegations of gross human rights abuses in Iraq, including summary executions; arbitrary arrest, systematic torture 'in its most cruel forms'; coercion by means of reprisals against a family members; and mass discrimination regarding access to food supplies and health care.

2002 May - UNSC Resolution 1409 overhauls the sanctions regime goods review list to focus on military and dual-use equipment and streamline approval of civilian goods for commercial sale in Iraq.

2002 July 5 - In talks with UN Secretary General, Iraq rejects weapons inspections proposals.

2002 August 2 - In a letter to the UN Secretary General, Iraq invites Hans Blix to Iraq for technical discussions on remaining disarmament issues.

2002 August 19 - UN Secretary General rejects Iraq's proposal as the "wrong work program" but renews offer to facilitate the return of inspectors in accordance with UNSC resolution 1284, passed in 1999. The resolution calls for UNMOVIC inspectors to spend 60 days conducting active inspections to determine what has changed since U.N. weapons inspectors were expelled in 1998 and what needs to be done for Iraq to be rid of all chemical, biological and nuclear weapons.




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