League Of Just Men
The League of the Just or the League of Just Men (Bund der Gerechten), a secret revolutionary organisation founded in 1836 by German proletarianised emigrant craftsmen in Paris. Besides France, League branches existed in Germany, England and Switzerland. A great role in their organisation was played by Weitling. This was initially a utopian socialist and Christian communist grouping devoted to the ideas of Gracchus Babeuf. Various theories of utopian communism and socialism, in particular Weitlingism, formed the ideological foundation of the League. The motto of the League of the Just was "All Men are Brothers" and its goals were "the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth, based on the ideals of love of one's neighbor, equality and justice".
The League of the Just was a splinter group from the League of Outlaws (Bund der Geaechteten) created in Paris in 1834 by Theodore Schuster, Wilhelm Weitling and others German emigres. Schuster was inspired by the works of Philippe Buonarroti. The League of Outlaws had a pyramidal structure inspired by the secret society of the Republican Carbonari, and shared ideas with Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier's utopic socialism. Their aim was to establish a "Social Republic" in the German states which would respect "freedom", "equality" and "civic virtue".
In 1836 the most extreme, chiefly proletarian elements of the secret democratic-republican Outlaws' League, which was founded by German refugees in Paris in 1834, split off and formed the new secret League of the Just. The parent League, in which only sleepy-headed elements à la Jakobus Venedey were left, soon fell asleep altogether; when in 1840 the police scented out a few sections in Germany, it was hardly even a shadow of its former self.
The new League of Just Men, on the contrary, developed comparatively rapidly. Originally it was a German outlier of the French worker-Communism, reminiscent of Babouvism and taking shape in Paris at about this time; community of goods was demanded as the necessary consequence of "equality". The aims were those of the Parisian secret societies of the time: half propaganda association, half conspiracy, Paris, however, being always regarded as the central point of revolutionary action, although the preparation of occassional putsches in Germany was by no means excluded. But as Paris remained the decisive battleground, the League was at that time actually not much more than the German branch of the French secret societies.
The League of Just Men participated in the Blanquist uprising of May 1839 in Paris. prominent members of the League of the Just: the type-setter Karl Schapper, the watchmaker Joseph Moll and others, connected with the Blanquist secret Société des Saisons which organised the Paris uprising of May 12, 1839. Schapper and Moll took part in the uprising, were prosecuted by the French authorities and compelled to leave for England, where they headed local branches of the League. Engels made their acquaintance in the spring of 1843 in London, as he wrote later in his article "On the History of the Communist League".
The League of Just Men moved to London where they founded a front group, the Educational Society for German Working-men, in 1840. While Weitling moved to Switzerland, Bauer and Schapper escaped to London. It became an international organization, which Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Johann Eccarius later joined.
The emigrant workers of other nationalities also participated in the League's activities. The internationalisation of the League and the evolution of its members' views under the influence of the ideas of Marx and Engels led to its reorganisation into the Communist League in 1847.
In their infamous 1976 book None Dare Call It Conspiracy, Gary Allen and Larry Abraham claim that Karl Marx was approached by the Illuminati - calling themselves The League Of Just Men (Bund der Gerechten) - who commissioned him to write his Communist Manifesto. The League of Just Men was said to be simply an extension of the Illuminati, which was forced to go deep underground after it was exposed by a raid in 1786 conducted by the Bavarian authorities.
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