Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle AMEV
The AMEV overcomes the casualty treatment shortcomings of the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier in the medical evacuation role by providing room for the medical attendant to monitor patient condition en-route, access stored medical equipment, and improved medical capabilities. Improvements in medical capabilities include an on-board oxygen production unit, a medical suction system, improved litter configuration, and provisions for a medical mentoring system. The AMEV will have the communications and situational awareness capabilities, compatible with the force it supports, which will be necessary to survive and provide support on the 21st Century battlefield.
An armored medical evacuation vehicle will correct known deficiencies in the currently used M113A2/A3 armored personnel carrier: inadequate casualty evacuation and treatment capacity; poor patient and attendant ride stabilization; limited patient in-transit support by medical aidmen; inadequate space for supplies, equipment, and personnel; and not being able to keep up with the units it supports on the battlefield.
The Army's Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations approved the Mission Need Statement for Medical Evacuation for Combat Casualty Care in December 1995. The AMEV ORD was approved by TRADOC on 18 October 96. This provided clearance for exploration of options and long range programming of funds for procurement. Options included wheeled armored vehicles, improved versions of the M113 family, a modified Bradley Fighting Vehicle and the Future Infantry Vehicle. An AMEV prototype participated in an Army Warfighting Experiment in 1997 to further define final configuration and specifications.
M113A4 Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle AMEV
The M113A4 Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle represents the means to treat and evacuate combat casualties from Armor and Mechanized Infantry battalions on the 21st Century battlefield, while providing a standard of care similar to that in other modern medical evacuation vehicles and aircraft.
The M113 AMEV is equipped with the RISE power package consisting of the Detroit Diesel 400 hp 6V53TA engine coupled with the Allison X200-4A transmission, providing the power and reserve necessary to maintain pace with front line units. Complementing the M577A4 Armored Treatment Vehicle and sharing many common components, the M113A4 Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle supports the required mission profile including:
- accommodations for four litter or eight ambulatory patients
- movable attendant's seat
- an over pressure NBC air filtration system
- patient support systems
- engine noise reduction
- Geneva Convention markings.
The high-mobility stretch chassis provides excellent cross-country capability and ride characteristics particularly important in this unique mission. In addition, the AMEV provides improved lighting and storage, digital communication interfaces and MSE link-up capability as well as three-net communication capability.
As the Army's remaining heavy combat units are upgraded with Abrams SEP tanks and Bradley A 3 fighting vehicles, the medical evacuation and en route treatment capability remains inadequate. The current ground evacuation platform appears incapable of keeping up with this modernized force and lacks the protection necessary to evacuate casualties from the close combat fight. The current platform also lacks the capability of providing essential en route medical treatment. The Committee directs the Army to provide a report to the congressional defense committees by no later than March 31, 2002 outlining how it plans to provide survivable medical evacuation and improved medical treatment capability to the soldiers of heavy combat units.
M2A0 Armored Medical Evacuation Vehicle AMEV
The AMEV is intended to replace the M113A2/A3 Armored Ambulance as the medical evacuation platform in the Army's heavy force. The AMEV uses excess M2A0 Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFVs) which have the turret removed and the roof squared off and raised 13 inches. As a BFV variant, the AMEV overcomes the shortfalls of the M113 identified during Operation Desert Shield/Storm and has the mobility, survivability, and maintainability equivalent to the supported force.
Medical capability includes on board oxygen, suction, storage of essential medical items and equipment, and the capacity to carry four litter patients, four ambulatory patients, and a crew of three. This system provides the medical platoons and forward medical companies with an enhance armored vehicle to evacuate casualties and allows en route patient monitoring.
The AMEV improves patient care by allowing on board medical treatment in an interior designed for medical treatment. It improves survivability with enhance armor protection, improved communications and NBC collective protection. The AMEV increases reliability with improved automotive and electrical systems, chassis compatibility, and machine/soldier interface. Finally, it provides increased operational flexibility as it allows mobility equal to supported forces.
The AMEV provides close combat medical treatment in support of Army operations. It enhances rapid collection and treatment of casualties and allows the medics to keep pace with supported forces. The AMEV corrects known deficiencies in the currently used M113A2/A3 armored ambulance, which is not a dedicated emergency medical treatment system. Those deficiencies are inadequate casualty treatment capacity; poor patient and attendant ride stabilization; no capability to treat patients in transit; inadequate space for supplies, equipment, and personnel; and no environmental control. TRADOC approved the Operational Requirements Document in October 1996.
The AMEV prototype participated in the National Training Center rotation 99-05 in February-March 1999. Experimental results and user feedback from this exercise, as well as all relevant test and development data from the M2, were used to support a successful Milestone I/II decision in May 1999.
The Army did not have a viable acquisition strategy to acquire the AMEV at the completion of the engineering and manufacturing development phase of the acquisition process. As a result, the Army had obligated about $9.7 million in research, development, test and evaluation funds for the program from its in inception in FY 1997 through FY 2000 and planned to obligate another $6.3 million to complete the developmental effort in FY 2001 through FY 2003 for a program that the Army did not intend to fund for production. Implementing the recommendation would allow the Army to put the $6.3 million of remaining funds programmed for the AMEV to better use.
Recapitalization of M2A0 Bradley chassis is the most realistic, cost effective, and economical manner of replacing the aging M113 fleet. The M2A0 platform is modified by removing the turret, raising the roof, moving fuel tanks to the exterior, installing Bradley M2A2 armor protection and transmission TEC upgrade. The vehicle is further modified to meet medical requirements by incorporating 1) an oxygen distribution system, 2) litters for up to four personnel, 3) seating for up to eight ambulatory patients, 4) medical lighting, and 5) stowage for medical equipment.
The total Army requirement is 1,491 vehicles for all Force Packages. The total requirement is 1491 AMEVs. The procurement objective is 675 Vehicles for the active force, Army pre-positioned Stocks (APS) 127. The FY02-07 unfunded requirement of $303.7M reflects the TRADOC sponsored Armored Systems Modernization Report recommendation to field AMEVs to 6 active divisions; 1 active ACR; Army Pre-positioned Stock (APS) 3,4,5; two enhanced Separate Brigades; and the training base (675 vehicles). An additional $4.4M is needed for the logistics tail in FY08 to complete fielding. The remaining 816 vehicles are estimated at $721.4 Million in the FY08-13 EPP.
The Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the Program Executive Office, Ground Combat and Support Systems, have overall management responsibility for the AMEV. The Army plans to make a low-rate initial production decision in September 2001 for the AMEV and a full-rate production decision in August 2003. The Army has a requirement to procure 675 vehicles at an estimated program cost of $580 million; however, the AMEV is currently unfunded for procurement. The Army projects the life-cycle cost for the AMEV through FY 2027 to be about $2.5 billion in FY 1999 dollars.
The AMEV is based on a Bradley M2A0 chassis and hull design. The turret has been removed and the chassis ceiling behind the driver and the engine compartment has been raised 13 inches and squared off to provide additional head clearance and room for patients on litters in the rear of the vehicle. The power train and chassis are based on the standard Bradley design. The engine is standard 600 hp Bradley A2 engine. The AMEV has a three-man crew. The driver sits in the Bradley driver's position just to the left of the engine. The Track Commander's (TC) seat is just aft of the engine compartment along the centerline of the vehicle. A hatch has been provided that allows the TC to maintain situational awareness by riding with head out of the vehicle. This hatch also allows the TC to assist the driver in navigating and avoiding obstacles. The hatch also provides an egress path and access to the top of the vehicle. An M113 commander's cupola has been provided at the hatch opening, which provides a self-defense weapon mount if desired. The medic sits just aft of the TC in a rear-facing seat. This location provides him with good access to the litters to monitor the patients' condition during transport
The standard M2A0 fixed fire suppression system has been removed from the crew compartment. A 2½ lb. handheld CO2 fire extinguisher has been mounted to the rear and right side of the driver. Two external fuel tanks with in-tank pumps are mounted at the rear of the vehicle to replace the fuel capacity lost by the removal of the Bradley fuel tanks. The external tanks act as independent supplies of diesel fuel to the engine. An Environmental Control Unit (ECU) and a Bradley A3 Gas Particulate Filter Unit (GPFU) modified to accommodate 11 personnel, are being added to the vehicle to provide a clean environment for medical treatment, even when operating the vehicle in a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) environment. A 400-amp generator is added to the vehicle in addition to the standard 400-amp generator. The medical and mission equipment is to be added to the vehicle by the user and/or combat developer.
In the Army, the AMEV will operate in the forward area with armored and mechanized battalions, armored cavalry squadrons, and supporting divisional units.
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