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Endnotes for Chapter XXIII

1 Donnison, Civil Affairs and Military Government, Northwest Europe, p. 405.

2 Memo, Hqs, UJFET, ACofS G-2, for ACofS G-5, sub: German Responsibility for Civil Order, 31 Oct 45 in USFET SGS 014.113.

3 History of Military Government in Land Wuerttemberg-Baden, vol. 1, p. 1428.

4 Cable, Hqs, USFET, to War Dept, AG, 20 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 091.1/1.

5 After the State Department announced that XXII corps, the U.S. force in Czechoslovakia, would be withdrawn by 1 December, it looked for a time as if the Sudeten Germans might burst into the zone in an uncontrolled flood. Generals Carleton and Adcock discussed that possibility by telephone on 21 November: Carleton: As soon as the Germans realize that Harmon's XXII Corps is going to move they will become more and more terrified, because actually he has been their god and protector up there. Adcock: Yes. He has been the only one to keep the low level Czechs from raising hell with them. I am afraid they will turn white upon hearing that Harmon's corps is going to pull out. Word is being spread now. Carleton: Yes. The congestion along the border area is becoming terrific. So far we have been able to handle it, but we don't look to the future with any real hope. (1) Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 9 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 370.5/3. (2) Diary, XV Corps, 21 Nov 45, in XV Corps, 215-0.3.

6 The May 1946 census showed over three quarters of a million refugees from other zones still in the U.S. zone. Annual Report OMG, Bavaria, Refugee Section, 9 Jul 46, in OMGUS 65-1 / 10.

7 Diary, XV Corps, 21 Nov 45, in XV Corps, 215-0.3.

8 (1) Memo, USFET, CofS, for Head of  U.S. Forces Mission to France, 2 Oct 45, and Memo, Hqs, TSFET, Office of the Chief Surgeon, sub: Conference-POWs Under French Control, 4 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 383.6 /1. (2) Memo, Hqs, USFET, Provost Marshal, for CG, Hqs, USFET, Sub: Disposition of POWs, 26 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/3.

9 Memo, OMGUS, Dep Mil Gov, for CG, USFET, sub: Supply of Food to Civilians in Berlin, 3 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 014.1.

10 Cable, OMGUS to AGWAR for WARCOS, 1 Nov 45, in OMGUS 12-1/5, v60-20/1.

11 Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 14, 26 Mar 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5.

12 (1) Cumulative Historical Report for Land Bavaria, 30 Jun 46, p. 109. (2) Hist Rpt, OMG, Berlin, 1 Jul 45-30 Jun 46, vol. I, p. 100.

13 Germany had been closed to relief shipments until December on the grounds that they might tend to negate the policy of restricting the German standard of living to the average of the surrounding European nations. CARE package shipments to individuals remained prohibited until 5 June 1946. (1) Memo, European Section Theater Group, OPD, for L & LD, sub: Establishment of Civilian Director of Relief, 8 Dec 45, in OPD, ABC 336 (sec. IV) (cases 155- ) . (2) OMGUS, Control Office, Hist Br, History of U.S. Military Government in Germany, Public Welfare, 9 Jul 46, in OMGUS 21-3/5.

14 Frankfurter Rundschau, 21 Dec 45.

15  Stuttgarter Zeitung, 19 Dec 45.

16 Frankfurter Rundschau, 21 Dec 45.

17  Hist Rpt, Eastern Military District, 15 Dec 45-14 Jan 46, in OMGUS 76-3/ 10. (2) Hist Rpt, Det G-34, Dec 45, in OMGUS 8-2/5. (3) Hist Rpt, Det G-41, Dec 45, in OMGUS 9-1/5. (4) Hist Rpt, Det G-28, Dec 45, in OMGUS 10-1 /5. (5) Annual Hist Rpt, Det E-285, 30 Jun 46, in OMGUS 77-1/10.

18 Frankfurter Rundschau, 24 Dec 45.

19 Rhein-Neckar Zeitung, 1 Jan 45.

20 Annual Hist Rpt, OMG, Bavaria, Refugee Section, 9 Jul 46, in OMGUS 65-1 / 10.

21 Hqs, USFET, Commanders's Weekly Staff Conference No. 6, 29 Jan 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5.

22 (1) Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 1, 18 Dec 45, No. 8, 12 Feb 45, and No. 9, 19 Feb 45, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5. (2) Hqs, USFET, Rpts and Inf Br, Political Intelligence Summary, 15 Jan 46, in OMGUS 418-1/3, v37-10/1.

23  Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 13, 19 Mar 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5.

24 (1) War Diary, US Gp CC, PW &DP Div, 29 Sep 45, in OMGUS 314.81. (2) Memo, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-4, Opns Br, sub: Report on Progress of Polish Repatriation Movement, 1 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.7, vol II.

25 (1) Cable, Hilldring to Smith, 5 Oct 45, and Ltr, Hilldring to Smith, 26 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 334. (2) Ltr, Sec of War to Sec of State, 16 Dec 45, in OPD, ABC 336, (sec VI), (Cases 155- ) .

26 ECOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Displaced Persons, p. 58.

27 Memo, Hqs, USFET, Director OMG, for CofS, sub: Release of Soviet Citizens, 14 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/11.

28 Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 1, 18 Dec 45, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5.

29 Cable, Hqs, USFET, Eisenhower, to JCS, 1 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/ 11.

30 Ibid.

31 Malcolm J. Proudfoot, European Refugees: 1939-1952 (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1956) , p. 215.

32 (1) Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-5, to CofS, sub: Use of Force in Repatriation of Soviet Citizens, 31 Aug 45, and Cable, USFET to CG, Seventh Army, 6 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/11. (2) Cable, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-5, to JCS, 4 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 337/2, vol. 11.

33 Memo, ACofS G-1 for Dep CofS, sub: Repatriation of German Prisoners of War of Soviet Nationality, 21 Dec 44, in Army G-1, 383.6, sec. 6.

34 Memo, ACofS G-1 for Dep CofS, sub: Repatriation of German Prisoners of War of Soviet Nationality, 27 Dec 44, in Army G-1, 383.6, sec. 6.

35 Radiogram, War Dept, to CG, U.S. Military Mission Moscow, sub: Fort Dix Incident, 11 Jul 45, in Army AG, 091.713 (1) .

36 Memo, G-1 for Gen Handy, 31 Aug 45, and Memo, Actg PMG for ACofS G-1, sub: Prisoners of War of Russian Origin, 11 Oct 45, in Army G-1, 383.6, sec. 6, pt. 2.

37 Memo for record, ACofS G-1, sub; SWNCC 46/4/D and Draft Report on Same by SWNCC Subcommittee for Europe, 14 Sep 44, in Army G-1, 383.6, sec. 6.

38 Cable, Hqs, USFET, Eisenhower, to JCS, 1 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/ 11.

39 (1) Memo, Hqs, USFET, Director OMG, for CofS, sub: Repatriation of Soviet Citizen K. G. Konopelko 18 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/11. (2) Cable, CG, USFET, to the War Dept, 19 Oct 45, in CCS 383.6 (7-4-44) , sec. 6.

40 Memo, US Gp CC, PW & DP Div, for CG, US Gp CC, sub: Report of Negotiations, 14-15 Sep 45, in OMGUS 314.81.

41 Memo, CG, Third Army, for CG, USFET, sub: Care and Administration of Jewish DPs, 27 Dec 45, and Memo, OMG (Zone) for SGS, USFET, 5 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/1.

42 Cable, USFET to War Dept, 14 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/1.

43 Ibid.

44 Ltr, Smith to Hilldring, 22 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/1.

45 (1) Ibid. (2) Cable, USFET to War Dept, 14 Dec 45, and Ltr, Truscott to Smith, 24 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/1.

46Cable, Hilldring to Smith, 7 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/ 1.

47 Ltr, Smith to Hilldring, 22 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/1.

48 Cable, Hilldring to Smith, 7 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 383.7/ 1.

49 Eisenhower left the theater on 11 November to become Army Chief of Staff, and MCNarney assumed command on 26 November.

50 President's Directive on Emigration from Europe, 22 Dec 45, and Cable, McNarney to WARCOS, 25 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 040.

51 Cable, War Dept to USFET, 30 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 040.

52 The Department of State Bulletin, 23 Dec 45, p. 981.

53 The DP population in the U.S. zone did not change significantly during the next two years. On 30 June 1948, the population was 501,267. After 1 July 1949, when the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 went into effect with expanded quotas for emigration to the United States (and mass emigration to the new state of Israel became possible), the DP population dropped by almost one half in one year and thereafter declined to 183,000 by 1 May 1950, when USFET's successor, the European Command, transferred the responsibility for DPs to the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany. (1) Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 28, 2 Jul 45, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5. (2) EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Displaced Persons, p. 118. (3) Fredriksen, The American Military Occupation of Germany, 1945-1953, p. 79f.

54 Cable, AGWAR, Hull, to Smith, 25 Oct 45, and Cable, Eisenhower to JCS, 19 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/11.

55 (1) Memo, Hqs, USFET, Director to OMG, for CofS, sub: Release of Soviet Citizens subject to Repatriation, 14 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/ 11. (2) USFET, Summary of Decisions, 15 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 016/1., vol. I

56 Cable, JCS to USFET, 20 Dee 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/5, vol. 1.

57 The SWNCC apparently did not give a separate decision in the Konopelko case, but the Russian and others like him were covered in the directive which also specified that open resistance to repatriation should not be construed as evidence of a person's having given aid and comfort to the enemy. USFET had previously reported that Konopelko had not been a member of the Soviet or German forces. Cable, Smith to Hull, 26 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/ 11.

58 Ltr, Hqs, USFET, to CG, Third Army, sub: Repatriation of Soviet Citizens, 4 Jan 46, in USFET, Hist Div, U-11068/69.

59 Hqs, USFET, Summary of Decision, 31 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 016/1, vol. 1.

60 (1) Foreign Relations, 1946, vol. V, p. 141f. (2) Hqs, Third Army, AG, to Distribution, sub: Procedure for Repatriation of Russian Nationals, 22 Jan 46, in USFET, Hist Div, U-11068/69. (3) Opns Rpt, Third Army, CofS Sec, 1 Jan-31 Mar, in EUCOM, P-120, 66-98.

61 CMH, General Reference Br, The Exchange With the Soviet Forces of Liberated Personnel-World War 11, undated, in CMH file. In April, U SFET had apparently used three criteria, the right to bear arms, the right to vote in free elections, and the right to hold public office, as tests of Soviet citizenship and had declared those men who did not possess one or more of the rights not to have been Soviet citizens. A request for a War Department opinion on the legality of the tests brought a negative reply-but not until 7 June 1946. See Foreign Relations, 1946, vol. V, pp. 154-56 and 170.

62 Ltr, Eisenhower to All Unit Commanders, sub: Conduct, 8 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 250.1.

63  Hqs, Seventh Army, ACofS G-2, Weekly Intelligence Summary, 21 Nov 45, in Seventh Army, Rpt of Opns, Annex No. 2.

64 Ibid.

65 Hist Rpt, Eastern Military District, 15 Sep-14 Oct 45, in OMGUS 76-3/10.

66 (1) Ibid. (2) Hist Rpt, Det G-41, Dec 45, in OMGUS 9-1 /5.

67  Hqs, Seventh Army, ACofS G-2, Weekly Intelligence Summary, 24 Oct 45, in Seventh Army, Rpt of Opns, Annex No. 2.

68 Hqs, Third Army, sub: Letter Directive No. 1, 11 Oct 45, in Third Army, Chief of Staff Section, 66-98 (20) .

69 (1) Hqs USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 1, 18 Dec 45, and No. 2, 2 Jan 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5. (2) Memo, Hqs, USFET, Redep Coord Gp, for Dep CofS, sub: Monthly Rpt of Redep Coord Gp, 1 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 322.

70 (1) Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 3, 8 Jan 46, No. 4, 15 Jan 46, and No. 5, 22 Jan 46, in Hist Div. Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5. (2) EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Redeployment, pp. 160-65. For detailed accounts of the demobilization crisis worldwide see John C. Sparrow, History of Personnel Demobilization in the United States Army (Washington, 1952 ), pp. 160-70 and 241-43, or R. Alton Lee, "The Army `Mutiny' of 1946," The Journal of American History, 53:4, Apr 1966, pp. 555-71.

71 (1) Ibid., p. 165. (2) Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 1, 18 Dec 45, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF-0.5.

72 Hqs, USFET, to CG's sub: Revision of Theater Logistics Program, 6 Feb 46, in OMGUS 3/35, dec. 320.2.

73 Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 7, 5 Feb 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF-0.5.

74 Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 12, 12 Mar 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5,

75 (1) Rpt, Det B-272, 28 Jun 46, in OMGUS 81-2/10. (2) Hist Rpt, Det G-230, Mar 46, in OMGUS 80-2/ 10. (3) Hist Rpt, Hqs, U.S. Constabulary, Apr 46, Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, in 97-USF8-0.3.

76 Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 15, 2 Apr 46, and No. 17, 16 Apr 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF9-0.5.


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