The Training of Terrorist Organizations CSC 1995 SUBJECT AREA Training EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TITLE: The Training of Terrorist Organizations AUTHOR: Major David E. Smith USMC RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a worldwide terrorist training apparatus? DISCUSSION: During the l96O's the Soviet Union and its communist satellites deliberately provided training to terrorist organizations in order to further their political and diplomatic aims and to destabilize the West. They were instrumental in nurturing the skills employed by terrorists during the l96O's, 7O's, and 8O's. By the time the USSR collapsed and the Warsaw Pact disintegrated, communist supported training was no longer vital to sustain terrorism. Other groups, employing a variety of training techniques, were able to take their place. Nations such as Iran and Syria trained and supported terrorists to influence world events and further their political agendas, while retaining a cloak of deniability for their leaders. Many nationalist, religious, and ethnic groups have also developed self sustaining terrorist organizations such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army with their own independent training programs. CONCLUSION: There is no present evidence of a worldwide terrorist training apparatus. The world has fragmented into numerous competing camps and terrorist training is conducted along regional, ethnic, and religious lines. There are many similarities in the training programs of successful terrorist organizations, and the trends are towards less restraint and more violent operations. INTRODUCTION Terrorism has been a worldwide phenomenon for hundreds of years. Significant collusion among groups was not evident until the l96O's when the Soviet Union embarked upon a coordinated effort to bolster movements it believed would further its political objectives. The training it provided itself, and through its surrogates, was the genesis of knowledge that would ultimately spread to the majority of the world's terrorist organizations. By the time the Soviet Union collapsed, it was no longer a vital component in the terrorist training arena. Other groups, employing a variety of techniques and methods, had taken its place. Those groups generated personnel with, or without, a wide range of skills. This paper will recount historical trends concerning terrorist training methods in order to determine what current patterns, if any, exist. It will end with conclusions, as well as with predictions of future trends in the area. Prior to discussing historical patterns of terrorist training it is essential to make sure the reader has a basic understanding of who a terrorist is and how the typical terrorist group is organized. There are innumerable definitions of terrorism. For the purpose of this paper we will employ the definition used in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656 f (d) "premeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience." Acts of terrorism are committed throughout the world by a myriad of groups. All successful (enduring) groups exhibit some organizational similarities that have contributed to their longevity. TERRORIST NETWORK ORGAMZATION Terrorist networks are organized for operational effectiveness as well as for group security. Terrorist groups are directed by a "headquarters". The headquarters may be the leaders within the organization or a third party representing a state sponsor. There may also be regional directorates that are subordinate to the headquarters. Action teams, or tactical cells, are groups that perpetrate an assault or other similar actions. They are the men and women who detonate the bombs, conduct assassinations, and actually carry out kidnappings and hijackings. Ideally, they do not know who directs or controls them. Terrorist networks also include support teams that serve various purposes. Support teams may be active or passive. Active supporters may conduct fund raising drives for the group, provide safe locations for members attempting to elude the authorities, or treat wounded or injured members. Although they do not conduct actual missions, they directly interact with, and support the movement. Passive supporters do not become openly involved in the criminal activities of the organization. On the other hand, they may contribute money to the cause or provide the group with information of tactical value. Support teams generally operate at all times, while tactical cells may be activated just prior to planned operations. Support teams normally do not know the identity or existence of other teams in the movement. Compartmentalization into "cell" structures is crucial to the survival of the group. It has become vital as counter terrorist efforts have intensified in scope and effectiveness.1 The three major categories of terrorist groups are non state- supported, state-supported, and state-directed. Non state-supported groups are generally small special interest bands such as radical environmentalists. They tend to be less trained, and less violent, than groups that have outside assistance. An exception is Sendero Luminoso, an extremely violent Peruvian terrorist organization, which may purposely avoid outside support in order to retain freedom of action. State-supported groups obtain training, financial assistance, and logistical support from sovereign governments. The sponsors generally want to avoid being linked to their surrogate and may conduct training away from their own territory. Financial aid and equipment are funneled surreptitiously to the terrorist organizations, which on occasion may act for chiefly mercenary reasons. Iranian employment of the Syrian sponsored Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC), led by Ahmed Jibril, to destroy Pan Am Flight lO3 over Lockerbie, Scotland is an example of state sponsored terrorism. The PFLP-GC attack was allegedly coordinated in Damascus through contacts established by Sayeed Ali Akbar Mohtashami, former Iranian ambassador to Syria, and a graduate of the Soviet terrorist training facility at Simferopol. Jabril's group reportedly received $l.3 million for the mission.2 State-directed terrorist groups are organized, supplied, and controlled by a nation. An example of state-directed terrorism is the North Korean employment of assassins to murder a number of South Korean officials visiting Rangoon in l983.3 The destruction of Korean Air Flight 858 in l987 is another example of North Korean state- directed terrorism. One of its perpetrators, Miss Kim Hyon Hui, was apprehended after the attack and has provided a detailed description of her training for the operation that was well chronicled by Eileen MacDonald in Shoot the Women First. Miss Hui was born in Pyongyang during l962 into the relatively privileged family of a diplomat. Like all North Korean citizens, she was indoctrinated to revere her leaders, observe and believe the party line, and to hate its enemies. Her conditioning began when she was two months old and spent portions of each day at state nurseries. Miss Hui was a superior student in Japanese at Kim II Sung University. During her second year at that institution she was directed to meet with officers from the North Korean Research Department (secret service). After a battery of language, memory, and political reliability tests she was selected for agent training. Her initial training was conducted at Kimsong Political Military College in complete isolation from her family and friends, as well as from other students. Daily instruction was undertaken in small arms, languages, codes, and communications. Political indoctrination was interwoven with all courses. Her physical training was intense. Miss Hui claims that when it was concluded she could "swim two kilometers and run 4O kilometers over rough ground at night."4 After a year at the university she was moved north to the vicinity of the Chinese border where she received advanced instruction in kidnapping, assassination, marksmanship, bombing, and agitation. The research department planned to employ her as an agent in Japan. She spent six years studying the language and customs of that nation with Li Eun Hye, who had been kidnapped from a Japanese beach by North Korean agents. (There have been several reported incidents of Japanese citizens being kidnapped from Japan by North Korean Security Forces).5 The purpose of the training was to allow her to pass as a Japanese citizen. She also received specialized training in professional espionage, automobile operation, photography, and clandestine communications. Her ability to function under cover as a Japanese citizen was tested during a trip to Europe in l984 during which she posed as the daughter of the elderly agent who accompanied her. After returning she studied Chinese in Canton, China and Macao. Miss Hui was provided with a month of specialized explosives training during l987, after she had been chosen for the KAL 858 mission. She was paired once more with the elderly male agent that she had traveled to Europe with, and viewed the assignment as a combat mission behind enemy lines. The couple received explosives and a detonator disguised as a radio and a bottle of whisky from a North Korean diplomat while on a layover in Belgrade. Miss Hui stated that she and her companion would have stayed on the plane and exploded with it if that had been required for the accomplishment of the mission. After the couple was apprehended and brought in for questioning her partner committed suicide and she attempted to kill herself with a cyanide laced cigarette. Her combination of years of training and unswerving loyalty to her cause made her an extremely effective terrorist (or agent) for her nation. The duration, intensity, and effectiveness of her training clearly underscores the point that state-directed terrorists are normally more technically prepared and better equipped than state-supported or non state-supported terrorists.6 It is interesting to compare the training Miss Kim received, with "terrorist theory" advanced by Carlos Marighella in his book the Liberation of Brazil.7 The book contains a chapter entitled "Handbook of Urban Guerrilla Warfare" that was widely translated and employed by Latin American and European terrorists. Marighella encouraged physical training and manual skills, as well as the mastery of small arms and explosives. He emphasized the primacy of the political goal. Additionally, he stated that only a guerrilla who had passed initial tests should be selected for additional training or tasking. Miss Hui's North Korean handlers also believed in physical conditioning and ensured that she was competent with small arms and explosives. She was tested in Europe prior to being assigned to destroy KAL 858, an action designed to further the DPRK's political goal of subverting the Seoul Olympics. The similarities are remarkable and demonstrate the validity of the time tested methods described by Marighella and employed by the North Korean Research Department. TERRORIST TRAINING OBJECTIVES Terrorists require training in a wide variety of subjects in order to operate effectively and achieve their objectives. Since the majority of terrorist incidents involve bombs, explosives training is paramount. Substantial instruction is required to construct anything more complicated than the most fundamental explosive weapon. Use of components such as mercury tilt fuses (common to car bombs), remotely controlled, and electromagnetic firing devices must be taught by experts to students already well versed in, and confident working with, explosives. Additionally, the complexity of the latest types of vehicle bombs is extraordinary. The bomb employed against the Marine Barracks in Beirut, Lebanon consisted of l2,OOO to l8,OOO pounds of explosives arrayed in a gas enhanced configuration. It is widely believed to have been assembled in either Iran or Syria by professional explosives experts for employment in Lebanon. The United States government estimated it to have been the largest non nuclear explosion in history.8 Firearms training is also important and is more easily obtained than explosives training. Students need range time and instruction in weapons maintenance in order to become proficient with small arms. This instruction is often combined with small unit tactics and techniques of guerrilla warfare in what is essentially paramilitary training. Terrorists also require proficiency in covert communications, document falsification, and methods of surveillance. Martial arts, employment of disguise, and procedures for jamming communications are desired talents. Some terrorists also seek expertise in evaluating security systems, as well as in assessing the vulnerability of various targets. These capabilities are essential for successful mission planning. Languages are also a valuable skill, and media manipulation is additional recurring theme of terrorist training.9 In addition to general skills that are germane to virtually all terrorist movements, groups pursue skills in areas directly applicable to their anticipated operations. Organizations intending to kidnap or assassinate people while they are in motor vehicles may study defensive driving and evasion methods to reduce the likelihood of their victim's escape. Similarly, organizations contemplating aircraft hijacking will attempt to learn the techniques that hostage rescue teams might employ in order to thwart them.10 Aircraft hijackers also require a team member who can speak and understand English, which is in use in international aviation operations.11 It also helps with the media. It is important to remember that although terrorists seek training in a wide variety of skills, their rank and file members are normally not particularly skilled. Moreover, they do not need to be as finely trained as law enforcement or military forces do. Terrorists rely on the advantages of surprise and shock when they conduct operations. They prey on the unprepared and avoid undertaking missions that expose them to substantial risks. More importantly, terrorists are rarely concerned with minimizing collateral damage and avoiding injury to noncombatants. In fact, brutality and violence further their ends, and "surgical operations" can actually limit their effectiveness. The average member of a terrorist organization is not well versed in unconventional engagements. Each group has a core of specialists who manufacture bombs, conduct sniping operations, and develop operational plans. Elimination of these key members can, virtually cripple smaller terrorist organizations, and can hamper the activities of larger groups. Despite their training and varied levels of expertise it is not uncommon for terrorists to be the victims of their own devices. During l97O three members of the Weather Underground perished in an explosion in their Greenwich Village headquarters while manufacturing bombs. The Provisional IRA has also suffered from what the British authorities call "scoring own goals", or blowing themselves up. The PIRA' s leadership was so concerned about accidents by less experienced members assigned to plant bombs that they directed their bomb assemblers to place safety devices on the weapons they manufactured. The devices were simple pins that had to be pulled in order to arm the bomb. This created a new problem, because nervous members often forget to pull the pins, therefore placing unarmed bombs in target locations. Safety devices were later equipped with tags which were returned by the bomb planter to his or her superior to demonstrate mission accomplishment after the weapon had been armed and placed in the desired location.12 COMMUNIST MACHINATED TERRORIST TRAINING Although terrorism originated centuries ago, modern international terrorism orchestrated by the Soviet Union arguably began at the Tricontinental Conference conceived by Moscow and conducted in Havana, Cuba during January l966.13 The purpose of the conference was to devise a "global revolutionary strategy to counter the global strategy of American imperialism."14 It resulted in the creation of an African, Asian, and Latin American Solidarity Organization based in Havana. The Conference also passed resolutions advocating outside aid for groups fighting for "liberation". During late l966, the Cubans opened a number of training camps for guerrilla fighters in Cuba that were under Soviet supervision. Palestinian groups began sending students to these facilities on the "Isle of Pines" during l966, and upon graduation, those students spawned the terrorist groups that exploded in the Middle East during the l97O's. Castro's terrorism schools were under the supervision of the Direcion General de Intelegencia (DGI). Students were flown into the country from connecting airports, or arrived in Cuban harbors by boat. Upon debarkation in Havana, they were segregated by nationality and moved to their individual training locations. The guerrilla courses lasted from three to six months. Subject material included "tactics, weapons training, bomb making- particularly how to blow up oil pipelines, map reading, cryptography, photography, falsification of documents, and disguise." Illich Ramirez Sanchez, a.k.a. Carlos the Jackal, is reputed to have received instruction at Camp Mantonzas, Cuba, prior to further education in the USSR.15 In addition to operating a series of such camps in Cuba, Castro exported instructors to newly opened sites in Angola and Mozambique. Cuban instructors arrived at locations in the Middle East after the October l973 War. During December of that year, 4O Cuban terrorist instructors arrived in South Yemen. South Yemeni desert training sites were protected by the Soviet and East German secret police, and became the focal point for instructing and sheltering terrorists from nations including Germany, Ireland, Japan, Turkey, Iran, Italy, France, Belgium, and Palestine.16 When the Lebanese Civil War broke out it created an opportunity for terrorist groups to operate from that country. In l978 the Palestine Rejection Front was firmly established at a number of sites there. In March, l978 the first team of Cuban instructors arrived at Tyre, Lebanon. They presented a detailed eight month course of instruction to their first class of perspective Arab terrorists. The curriculum included street and desert fighting, attacking people and buildings, demolitions, and sabotaging oil installations. Graduates of the school were supplied with false passports and work permits, and sent to various Persian Gulf countries that they were familiarized with during training.17 Castro's support of terrorism was indicated by his Tucuman Plan, designed to export South American revolutionaries to Western Europe. He intended to dispatch members of the Junta for Revolutionary Coordination (JRC) from Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile to Lisbon, Portugal and Paris, France. These groups were designed to act in concert against the continent. Castro established a special training site for these operations on a 4,OOO acre estate at Guanabo and provided them with a three month course concentrating on explosives, sabotage, weapons instruction, and urban operations. The plan was foiled by European security services during l978 before numerous operations could be conducted. Nevertheless, it underscores the global scope Castro envisioned for Cuban trained terrorists.18 The Soviet Union also provided training for certain terrorist groups on its homeland, as well as spearheaded training in the territory of its Warsaw Pact allies. The Soviets sponsored terrorism as part of an overall strategy designed to destabilize Western Europe/NATO by supporting international and Western revolutionary movements whose insurrectional activities would have helped expand the communist block and further Soviet aims. In fact, a former senior officer of Soviet Military Intelligence stated that "ideological sympathy with the Soviet Union is unnecessary: anyone who helps destabilize the west is our friend."19 A typical member of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLO) selected for training behind the Iron Curtain received an orientation brief on expected conduct while undergoing instruction, as well as ideological orientation prior to departing for Moscow. Upon arrival he was greeted by the PLO representative there and arrangements were made for further travel to the individual's ultimate training destination.20 A typical training day began with early morning physical fitness or gymnastics exercises. As the morning progressed students generally conducted a parade. There were several hours of daily political orientation covering subjects as wide ranging as "Russian Mortality Rates during World Wars I and II" to "Russian Ties to the third World". The meat of daily instruction was education in incendiary charges and detonators; exploding metals; the art of mining munitions dumps, bridges, vehicles and personnel; the rudiments of chemical and biological warfare; command field and escape tactics; marksmanship and camouflage; the use and employment of Soviet RPG rockets and shoulder borne Strela missiles. Interestingly enough, the Soviets also employed Moslem KGB officers to mix among the trainees and seek recruits for the KGB. 21 By l977 there were terrorist classes within the USSR near Baku on the Caspian Sea 22, and near Simferopol on the Black Sea (See Map One). There were training sites near Plauen, Karl-Marx-Stadt, Dresden (See Map Two), Babelsberg, Klein Machsrow (See Map Three), Schmirblitz, and the North Schwein Region of East Germany. There were four additional sites in Bulgaria, the largest of which was at Varna (See Map Four). There were also four more sites in Czechoslovakia and three in Poland.23 It is clear that by the late l97O's there was a substantial international terrorist network supporting movements from North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The relationships between students and their instructors varied immensely. For example, at one point the Soviets asked for higher quality students from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). The PFLP students, for their part complained that their Soviet hosts gave them too many political lectures and not enough training in field operations. A second example is in this account of the opinion the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) had of their North Korean instructors. "Brigadier Parence Shin, the commander of the 5th Brigade, expressed his disappointment with Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) advisors, indicating that, while they were respected for their individual toughness, they were more notable for their extravagant living and lack of personal discipline, than for their ability to conduct realistic military training."24 The Soviet Union began decreasing its support of terrorism as the l98O's progressed. By mid l987 Moscow had used its influence to push members of the African National Congress and Palestine Liberation Army to seek political, vice military, settlements. By l987 there was a decline in terrorist action by most of the groups purported to be supported by the USSR.25 By l989 the Kremlin had toned down its rhetoric about United States and Israeli terrorist surrogates. Foreign Minister Shevardnadze's comments to the United Nations General Assembly clearly conveyed this new Soviet position: "Violence on national, ethnic, or religious grounds must no longer be tolerated... .no support or sympathy should be extended to the so called movements that allow actions humiliating other nations, or use terrorist, barbaric or inhuman methods in waging their struggle."26 On the other hand, Czechoslovakia continued to sell tons of SEMTEX (a potent plastic explosive) to East Germany and Hungary until l989. They also sold prodigious amounts of the substance to Libya. President Havel of Czechoslovakia stated in l99O that "the past regime exported 1,000 tons to Libya, and yet it takes only 200 grams to blow up a plane. This means that world terrorism has enough supplies of SEMTEX for at least l5O years."27 It is logical to assume that the Libyans supplied movements such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army with the explosive. Whether or not the supply will last l5O years is debatable, but it is certain that one sponsor of international terrorism has amassed a large stockpile of plastic explosive for future operations. PALESTINIAN/LIBYAN TRAINING The demise of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact retarded the support of some terrorist organizations, but did little to eliminate terrorism from the world. The loose net of international terrorists that was spawned during the l96O's and l97O's had already been replaced by groups of cooperating Islamic Fundamentalists, regional alliances, and a small number of independent movements. Additionally, local collusion between criminal organizations and terrorist groups began to occur more frequently. Palestinian organizations such as the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine established their own training facilities and programs based largely on the training they had received behind the Iron Curtain. As the various factions in the Palestinian movement split, groups initiated additional recruitment as well as training programs for their new members. Hussein Jorde Abdallah (his code name) described his training conducted by the Abu Nidal Group. It is interesting to compare his account of the instruction he received from Nidal's organization with that provided to Palestinian students in the Soviet Union. After signing on with the faction he was required to write his biography in painstaking detail. In l987 he was flown to Libya with other recruits and assigned to a desert camp. The students were building permanent facilities while he underwent training and he was billeted in a tent. The daily routine was strenuous. Recruits were awakened at dawn, required to jog for an hour prior to breakfast, and then spent a five and one half hour shift on construction duty in the camp. The recruits were given a light lunch and a mid day rest period before beginning their three hour afternoon work shift. In the evening they were required to attend political lectures and films. Discipline was strict. Students were docked meals if they were late and harangued if they took unauthorized breaks. The camp had a prison and interrogation block that was used to provide severe punishment for serious infractions of the rules. There was an atmosphere of suspicion, and the organization was paranoid about penetration by a hostile intelligence service. Abdallah reported being required to periodically rewrite his biography so it could be checked for suspicious discrepancies. Residents of the training facility were not allowed to possess radios and were unable to receive newspapers. The information they obtained from the outside world was closely controlled. Incoming mail was usually kept in individual personnel files and was not delivered to addressees. Personal identification was surrendered upon arrival at the camp. Abdallah received specialized training in a separate part of the compound that was used for students assigned to the "Intelligence Directorate's Special Missions Committee." While there, he was segregated from the other trainees and his instruction was tailored to the requirements of special missions. He learned how to assume a false identity, how to avoid attracting attention, how to conduct site reconnaissance, surveillance techniques, counter surveillance techniques, writing with invisible ink, and the encryption of messages while assigned there. He received detailed training in the maintenance and operation of pistols and light machine guns. In addition, Abdallah learned map reading skills in order to allow him to retrieve weapons cached in foreign countries.28 Libyan support for terrorism cropped up during the l97O's. During l976 there was reliable reporting of a series of Libyan camps under the protection of Colonel Qaddaffi. By l98O there were approximately l5O Cuban instructors in Libya. Soviet and East German instructors abounded as well. In addition to providing facilities and supporting instructors, Qaddaffi spent prodigious amounts of his nation's oil revenues to financially aid movements he was sympathetic to. He supported Soviet instructors training Egyptians at al-Beida (See Map Five). Sudanese and Chadian students had Soviet and Cuban instructors and were based at Maaten Biskara. Tunisian students were instructed by Syrians and Palestinians and were located at Bab Aziza. Qaddaffi did not discriminate when it came to offering sanctuary for terrorist groups. Europeans, primarily Irish, German, Basque, Breton s, Corsican s, Italians, Greeks and Turks were centered around camps at Sirte, Sebka, and Az Zaouiah. Cubans and East Germans also ran an advance site at Tokra for graduate work in sabotage. Qaddaffi' s apparatus was coordinated from Tripoli by the Libyan Secret Service. Upon graduation, students were issued false papers, pocket money, and weapons. They were also well cared for in Libya if they became fugitives from the authorities.29 SYRIAN INVOLVEMENT IN TERRORIST TRAINING Syria also continues to sponsor and support terrorism in the Middle East. President Assad employs it to demonstrate his ability to strike at enemies and influence events in the Middle East and Europe. He is cautious to only sanction operations that further his ends, and has kept a tight rein on the groups he employs towards those objectives. Assad does not allow terrorist strikes into areas that would generate conflicts with antagonists he is not willing to battle conventionally. Syria has been involved in direct acts of terrorism such as the September l982 murder of Lebanese President Bashir Jumayyil in Beirut, and Jordanian diplomat Ziyad Sati in Ankara during July l985.30 Assad's nation maintains a significant intelligence apparatus in Western Europe and Lebanon that aids it in directing the groups it supports. Syria supports numerous groups with sanctuary, training, and equipment. The Abu Nidal Organization, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, Al Sa'iqa, the Kurdish Revolutionary Workers Party (PKK), and Hamas are all its beneficiaries. Additionally, Syria is linked to Hizballah. It has provided these groups, and others, with military and technical training. It also provides official documents such as passports and the use of diplomatic pouches to transport weapons and explosives into foreign countries.31 Its influence and ability to affect groups operating in areas it controls, such as Hizballah, is significant. Syria can simply shut down the supply routes for groups based in Lebanon in order to control their activities for a certain period of time. Syria has attempted to distance itself from many terrorist groups during the l99O's and has made a series of moves designed to demonstrate its "change of heart" to the world. Carlos was expelled during September l99l, and the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) base at Helivah in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon was closed during l992.32 Unquestionably though, Damascus International Airport is still used for the transshipment of arms from Iran to Lebanon. Damascus also serves as a focal point for many Middle Eastern terrorist groups. Syria was instrumental in development of the PKK, a powerful group that deserves close attention. Assad used the group to pressure the government of Turkey and to strike at American military targets in that country. Despite closing the camp at Helivah, Syria continues to provide that group with substantial support. The original PKK recruits were drawn from expatriate Kurdish communities in Europe and Syria. Many recruits are women and more and more are coming from Eastern Turkey. The PKK's main training camp, the Mashsum Korkmay Academy in the Bekaa Valley, was reportedly training 3OO-4OO recruits every three months. The organization's leadership has spread the group among Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran and Turkey, presumably to increase its survivability if one sponsor turns against it.33 The group has employed guerrilla tactics and has conducted battalion sized operations against targets in Turkey, prompting a Turkish retaliatory strike against the PKK in northern Iraq. The PKK is also allegedly trained by the Greek government. Camps at Lavion and the Greek part of Cyprus are employed for political indoctrination and explosives training. Captured PKK members revealed that they had been trained in the production of explosives by a Syrian instructor at a site 2OO kilometers east of Athens. The same individuals stated that they had been transported across the border into Turkey and had witnessed PKK recruits moving from Istanbul into training camps in the vicinity of Athens.34 ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST TERRORIST TRAINING Islamic Fundamentalists are now cooperating effectively in their aim of establishing an Islamic Republic combining church and state throughout the Middle Eastern Moslem world. They do not accept the Western point of view that international borders are sacrosanct. Ahmed Tahir captured this point in his book Holy Terror: "Islamic terrorism has played a constant key role in revivalist movements in the Muslim world during the past l5O years. And, despite vehement protests from Western Moslem intellectuals, the idea of murdering, maiming, and menacing the enemy for the purpose of hastening the final triumph of Islam has always held a very strong appeal among the Muslim masses." Iran became the first example of a radical Islamic state when Ayatollah Khomeini assumed power there during l979. The Iranian government had played a major role in promoting the fundamentalist movement. It should be noted, though, that Iran is not the sole force in the Shia Muslim terrorist movement. Muslim terrorists are a diverse group that employ different tactics and operate with varied intensity. "In Beirut alone, the Shia groups differ from neighborhood to neighborhood and are often in disagreement with one another."35 In l979 Iranian students seized the American embassy in Teheran. The Iranian Revolutionary Government did not return the captives and embassy property to the United States as stipulated by international law. Instead, government forces were employed to maintain their captivity and exploit the seized facility.36 This was the first example of Iranian state directed terrorism. The pattern of Iranian direct involvement has continued to date. In November l992, French officials arrested two Iranian nationals for the murder of Kazein Rajavi, an Iranian dissident in exile, in Switzerland during l99O. Additionally, Iranian intelligence has been linked to the assassination of former Iranian Prime Minister Shahpur Bakhtiar and an assistant near Paris during l99l. Three men are being held by France in connection with the murders. Among them are a nephew of President Rafsanjani who was employed by the Iranian Embassy, and a nephew of the late Ayatollah Khomeini. Many other Iranian dissidents have been murdered by professional assassins throughout Europe. Their effectiveness indicates a high level of training presumably attained in Iran.37 The Iranian government has also called for the death of Salmon Rushdie, author of SatanicVerses demonstrating an intention to continue to employ state directed terrorism to enforce the regime's positions. In addition to employing its own intelligence agents in a terror role, Iran has sponsored Hizballah, the Party of God. Hizballah operates out of the Shia villages in Southern Lebanon, and in the Bekaa Valley of that nation. The group has a global network of supporters in India, Indonesia, South America and Australia.3 8 Hizballah employs camps in the Syrian controlled Bekaa Valley to train its recruits. They are instructed by veteran terrorists from the movement as well as by Iranian Revolutionary Guards. The principal training camp is located at Janba, while another major facility is located at Wadi Mnaira. Recruits are provided with courses in close quarter combat, hit and run tactics, infiltration, and mine laying. They are also taught to handle automatic weapons, explosives, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles, "Sagger" antitank missiles and SA-7 surface-to-air missiles. In addition, the recruits are provided with substantial religious indoctrination. Hizballah also trains in small unit tactics, and is employing l5 to 3O man units in operations against Israeli forces in Southern Lebanon. Local commanders usually recruit young men who are familiar with the terrain in their area of operations. The Islamic Jihad (Hizballah' s military wing) may work directly for the Iranian government in some cases. "Senior Palestinian police sources have revealed that they have found faxes that encouraged stepped up attacks on Israeli targets while detaining Islamic Jihad activists during September l994."39 Other reports indicate that Hizballah forces have obtained a new surface-to-air missile (possibly the Stinger) from Afghanistan via Iran.40 If so, it would be logical to assume its members had been trained in its operation given their historical link with Iranian instructors. The Afghan link with terrorist training has been clearly established in a number of instances. By l982 foreign Muslims were participants in combat against the Soviets in Afghanistan.41 "At the height of the foreign involvement in the conflict (l989- l99l), conservative estimates suggest that, at any given time, 3,OOO to 4,OOO foreign fighters were training or fighting in Afghanistan, or resting in Peshawar. Over the years, well over ten times that number spent time on the Afghan battlefield."42 Many of the participants were from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and the Occupied Territories. Many were connected with the Muslim Brotherhood. Later, many North Africans fought there along with Muslims from the Indian Subcontinent. A camp at Jawar, Pakistan evolved into a base for foreigners desiring to serve in the struggle in Afghanistan. Recruits received extremely rudimentary training prior to moving across the border. Their real education was obtained in on the job training during combat. Foreign units were often employed independently for platoon and company sized operations. Many Middle Eastern Arabs developed credible tactical skills through practical application while serving in Afghanistan. By l99l Mujaheddin loyal to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar were training and advising insurgents in Kashmir and along the Bangladesh-Burma border.43 It is estimated that there are currently fewer than 1,000 trainees in Afghanistan. Although numbers have decreased, the quality of the training they receive may be improving. Reports indicate that there are four major camps in Afghanistan that provide terrorist training to foreigners. Students are instructed in the use of weapons, methods of booby trapping cars, and conducting suicide operations. These skills have been employed effectively by movements in the Middle East and North Africa. A camp at Shahar Siyab is alleged to house 2OO trainees. The largest camp, in Baktia Province (See Map Six), conducts day and night courses and reportedly has over 5OO students billeted there.44 Ironically, some of the weapons employed in the training camps and exported to support Islamic movements throughout the world were supplied by the American Central Intelligence Agency for use against the Soviet invasion force. The defeat of that invasion force has superseded the Mujaheddin' s need to maintain cordial relations with the United States. That, in conjunction with the sweeping tide of Islamic fundamentalism, could conceivably result in weapons we envisioned being employed against the USSR being turned against us in the future. There is every indication that Afghanistan will continue to provide sanctuary, training facilities, instructors, and weapons to radical Muslims. In fact, Ibrahim el-Mekkawi, a former Egyptian Army Colonel who fled from Egypt after the assassination of Anwar Sadat in October l98l, travels between Peshawar, Pakistan and Afghanistan where he operates camps and bases. El-Mekkawi is said to be operating the Islamic campaign in Egypt from Pakistan. Additionally Khalid al-Islambouli, who was sentenced to death in absentia for planning to kill Hosni Mubarak and other Egyptian leaders, maintains a base near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan (See Map Six).45 Islamic fundamentalists also find sanctuary and training opportunities in Sudan. The Sudanese government has close ties to Iran and has allegedly provided Iranian forces with access to Port Sudan on the Red Sea in exchange for weapons and ammunition. Reports also indicate that there are two Iranian facilities for terrorist training located at Shondi and Wadi Saydna (See Map Seven). These camps are employed to train members of Hizballah in guerrilla tactics, bomb manufacturing, weapons employment, intelligence, purchasing weapons, and clandestinely contacting embassies.46 The Sudanese government attempts to keep its assistance to terrorist organizations secret in order to avoid international condemnation. Some training takes place inside mosques. Mosques were also employed as training locations for the alleged World Trade Center bombers, several of whom are Sudanese.47 Other recruits train in Iran: Alsu Aja, former Deputy Speaker of the Sudanese Parliament, revealed that groups of Sudanese citizens are sent to Iran for six month periods of training. He further stated that all Sudanese diplomats were trained in Iran.48 Since Iranian diplomats have been implicated in actual terrorist attacks and support activities, Sudanese diplomats trained in that country should be suspect as well. Iranian Revolutionary Guards operate camps in Sudan that are financed by Iran. These camps accommodate personnel who have been forced out of Lebanon and Libya as those nations tone down their support for terrorism.49 Sudan's border with Egypt makes it a logical location for supporting the growing Egyptian Islamic Fundamentalist movement, and is a source of concern to moderate Arab governments, as well as the United States and Israel. Sudan has maintained contact with a wide range of terrorist groups including Hamas, ITizballah, and the Egyptian Gama'at al Islamiyya.50 The Iran, Afghanistan, Sudan connection clearly demonstrates the international cooperation among radical Islamic governments. The cooperation among Islamic fundamentalists may have expanded into portions of the former Soviet Union. Reports indicate that Iran is providing military training for Muslims of the Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP) who oppose the government of Tajikistan. Twenty seven Tajik militiamen completed training conducted at the Iranian base at Shardi, Sudan. They were provided with a three month course of instruction on guerrilla tactics, intelligence gathering, infantry weapons, and artillery employment. The top six graduates were transferred to Iran for officer training, including spiritual guidance, at Qom. While in Qom, attempts may have been made to recruit them as agents of the government of Iran. The remaining graduates returned to Tajikistan.51 Tajik Muslims have continued a fundamentalist pattern of storing weapons in mosques in that region.52 There is also evidence of cooperation between Islamic terrorists in the Middle East and the Western Pacific. On 7 February l995, Romzi Ahmed Yousef was arrested in Islamabad, Pakistan in connection with the World Trade Center bombing. Prior to his arrest he had reportedly operated in the Philippines with the assistance of the Muslim terrorist group Abu Sayaff.53 Abu Sayaff has been implicated in a number of bombings and shootings. Military intelligence information claims the 3OO member group has received training from Pakistani veterans of the Afghan War. It further states "Sayaff's lieutenants are composed mainly of Filipino Muslim volunteers who joined the International Islamic Brigade which fought the Soviets in Afghanistan."54 SOUTH AMERICAN TERRORIST TRAINING The widespread cooperation that is evident among large segments of the fundamentalist Islamic movement is not apparent in other regions of the world. Consider Central and South America. Geographical separation hampers teamwork among many in this region. There is a further problem of vastly different ideologies of the various groups. Even if they are not well coordinated, active terrorist movements in South America do exhibit a wide variety of training methods. Peru is a good example of a South American nation where terrorism is thriving. The Shining Path Organization (Sendero Luminoso) is among the most ruthless terrorist groups in the world. Sendero forces originally operated in the Peruvian countryside. Members occupy a village, set up a revolutionary government, and organize a popular school in the community. Once established, the school is used to increase the literacy of the villagers and propagandize. Teachers constantly evaluate the students to identify potential recruits. All recruiting is instigated by the movement in order to reduce the possibility of organizational penetration. Once identified, candidates spend approximately one year receiving political indoctrination and conducting propaganda activities such as slogan painting on walls. They also take instruction on guerrilla strategy. As the candidate progresses, he or she is trained in the use of firearms and explosives. Physical training is also emphasized. Members who have been fully accepted into the group are assigned to a terrorist cell.55 The real education for Sendero active cadre is provided by on the job training in military action against government forces, organized peasants, or other terrorists such as Tupac Amaru collaborators. To date there has been no substantiated evidence of external training being provided to Sendero members. The movement prefers self sufficiency. Colombia is another South American nation facing a substantial indigenous terrorist threat. Its l9th of April Movement (M-l9), famed for its daring l985 seizure of the Supreme Court Building in Bogota, has demonstrated remarkable resiliency. In l99O only three of the movement's approximately 27O fighters refused to accept a government deal requiring them to lay down their arms. Since then the group has swelled to 25O members.56 The training methods of M-l9 are not well known, but it is presumed that current members receive instruction in Colombia. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is a large group consisting of 4-5,OOO members. In contrast to the independent methods typical of South American terrorist groups, FARC leadership has supported the creation of the Simon Bolivar Guerrilla Coordinator (SBGC), which is designed to harmonize the efforts of disparate Colombian terror groups. If successful, SBGC may potentially lead to cooperative training among the terrorist groups of Colombia.57 Central and South American terrorism is often associated with right wing political movements. So called "death squads", often comprised of military or police personnel, are active in many countries. They employ their law enforcement and martial skills in the conduct of their operations. Right wing terrorists with government connections (state-support) also enjoy virtual immunity from prosecution, although they risk retaliation from the enemies they attack. Right wing groups are also likely to have access to high quality weapons, explosives, and detonators from state arsenals. EUROPEAN TERRORISM Western European terrorism is largely urban in nature and is comprised primarily of Marxist groups and organizations organized along ethnic and religious lines. Several hard core European Marxist groups cooperated during the l98O's. The Combatant Communist Cells (CCC) of Belgium, Direct Action (AD) of France, and the Red Army Faction (RAF) of Germany allied to form the Anti Imperialist Allied Front. The front followed an anti NATO policy. Additionally, the Red Brigades (RB) of Italy also had contact with RAF and AD members. These groups, several of which were established by members trained by Palestinian terrorists, currently present little threat to the continent. Marxism seems to have lost its appeal there. Ominously though, Iranian government agents are reputed to have made contact with the remnants of some of those organizations during l994.58 One can speculate that Iran believes they could be useful to her cause in the future. The greatest organic terrorist threat to Europe comes from the ethnic/religious movements exemplified by the PIRA, ETA, and PKK. The ETA and PIRA have established a close working relationship. Many members met at various Middle Eastern training camps beginning during the l97O's. In l98O, a Basque prisoner indicated that at least l5 of his ETA comrades had attended an Irish weapons and explosives training course.59 In Ireland, much of the Provos legendary expertise in bombs has been self developed. Daithi O'Connell, of PIRA fame, is the acknowledged inventor of the car bomb. Many PIRA volunteers learned their bomb manufacturing skills from their civilian occupations as electricians, and surprisingly, pin ball machine repairmen.60 As time progressed they perfected their skills at developing time delay and remotely detonated fuses. The Irish have also been innovative in the employment of blast accentuators and in booby trapping their bombs. Training in how to resist interrogation is another feature of PIRA education. When new PIRA inmates arrive in British or Irish prisons, they are immediately approached by other incarcerated cadre and debriefed on their capture. This information is smuggled out of the institution and provided to the command structure for analysis by leaders and promulgation to members at large. Other "lessons learned" are useful to the PIRA. Members are instructed to take possession of weapons as late as possible prior to conducting an operation, and to move to a safe house immediately after the engagement. This minimizes their exposure while in possession of illegal weapons and gets them out of sight quickly. Once at the safe house, weapons are transported to a hiding spot and members wash and change clothes. Attention to detail is stressed. The terrorists even scrub their nails to remove any residue of explosives or firearms in order to conceal evidence from forensic scientists of the Irish and British authorities.61 Curiously, many particularly effective Irish Republican terrorists obtained their skills in such areas as crew served weapons, including mortars, during service with the British Army.62 Training for members of PIRA active service units is conducted by training officers at safe sites in Ireland. Detailed explosives training is provided along with instruction in small arms and machine guns. Basic training includes methods of priming and detonating bombs, while advanced courses teach more progressive classes on subjects such as booby trapping and methods of remote controlled explosives. Much of the training seems to be geared at increasing the confidence level of members in order to enhance their effectiveness at placing and detonating bombs.63 TERRORIST TRAINING IN EMPLOYING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION Hiring or recruiting experts is an option for terrorist groups in lieu of training their own members in difficult or technical subjects that require years of rigorous study. This approach can be used by organizations interested in obtaining skills in nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Thousands of engineers graduate from Middle Eastern universities every year and many join the ranks of the unemployed. They are a great pool of potential disciples for the numerous terrorist movements of the region. Chemists and biologists possess requisite skills for developing rudimentary chemical and biological weapons, both of which constitute a great present danger to world security. Palestinian groups have already threatened to employ chemical weapons. Adnon Abu Jaber, who was arrested by the Israelis after the 2 May l98O Hebron raid, admitted to having undergone training in Moscow, and claimed this training had included chemical and biological warfare courses.64 The PLF and PLFP-GC have menaced Cyprus by stating that they might overfly the island and saturate it with aerosol poisons. Those organizations are accumulating micro light and glider aircraft that could provide them with that capability. "In l987 Colonel Ayu al Tayyib, the commander of force l7 of the PLO, stated that his group had acquired chemical weapons and would use them against Israel, if necessary. He claimed that some Palestinians have been trained in the use of these weapons in other countries."65 Libya's chemical capabilities, as well as its support for terrorist organizations, are well documented. They may well have provided chemical training to surrogate organizations. It is less likely that the Libyans would provide their proxies with actual chemical or biological weapons. CONCLUSIONS My first conclusion is that there is no evidence today of a worldwide terrorist training apparatus. This is because there is no nation, or block of nations, with both the resources and the belief that its political goals will be furthered by a coordinated global terrorist assault against an opposing camp. The world has fractured into a number of competing alliances and factions, each attempting to further its own ends. This has resulted in terrorist training cooperation along regional, ethnic and religious lines. A second conclusion is that the training techniques for the majority of terrorist organizations exhibit many similarities. The first and most important is that ideology is paramount. Political or religious indoctrination is stressed by everyone from Marighella to Islamic fundamentalists. Terrorists from most movements must demonstrate ability and loyalty by performing simple tasks prior to being trained for more difficult assignments. Hence, as we have seen, Sendero recruits begin by painting graffiti while PIRA initial instruction is designed to build confidence rather than technical ability. Additionally, most groups have a small number of trained key personnel supported by many more less specialized members. In l985 the British Army estimated the PIRA relied on only four or five master explosives experts.66 Finally, all groups are moving towards weapons and tactics that are increasingly sophisticated and deadly. Their level of violence is increasing, perhaps because the world has become immune to "routine" bombings and shootings. Past patterns and current developments point to several trends during the next ten years. First, Islamic fundamentalism will increase rather than wane, and it will be accompanied by continued cooperation in training among militant Islamic cliques. Algeria and Egypt will be subject to increased fundamentalist violence, and religion will have a greater appeal to the poor masses of those nations than their governments will. Continued Shia-Sunni, Iranian- Sudanese concord will be particularly crucial to support terrorist organizations in North Africa and the Middle East. There is every indication that radical Sunni Islam is on the ascent.67 The increased immigration of Muslims to the United States will facilitate fundamentalist terrorist actions being conducted here in the same way they made it easier to operate in Europe. Marxist groups will continue to decline because of the failure of communism in the former Soviet Union and general disillusionment with its philosophy. The remnants of those organizations have been deprived of their former East European safe havens. More importantly, they have lost their former popular support above and below ground. Without their support infrastructures these groups will eventually fade away. Another future trend will be increased participation in the political process by wings of terrorist organizations. Sinn Fein and the PIRA demonstrated how potent the terrorist political/military combination could be. They were emulated by the Basque ETA whose political wing, Herri Batasuna, generally draws l5 to l7 percent of the votes in the Basque region of north Spain.6 s Several Middle Eastern groups have entered the political arena. Hizballah has recently ventured forth into mainstream Lebanese politics and fundamentalist Islamic groups have attained political successes in Turkey and Algeria. The political trend is also surfacing in South America where the Patriotic Union has pursued the interests of the Colombian FARC.69 State-supported terrorism will remain common. This is because terrorism pays. Nations do not need to invest a great deal of resources to assist a terrorist organization, and can gain great negotiating power when it is presumed that they can influence the activities of certain movements. Terrorism is a particularly effective means of confronting the United States. Saddam Hussein challenged the United States conventionally and was decisively defeated. Iran challenges us constantly through her surrogates and has not suffered significantly for it. State sponsors of terrorism will be more wary of the groups they aid, and will increase their efforts to infiltrate and influence them, intensifying their attempts at agent recruitment during training. They will increasingly try to guarantee that the recipients of their assistance do not turn against them. Ethnic and religious movements will perpetuate as the world proceeds to evolve after the demise of the former Soviet Union. Repressed minorities that were held in place by oppressive communist regimes will struggle for national identity, and faced with overcoming more heavily armed governments, will resort to terrorism. Surviving ethnic/nationalist groups operating in hostile territory will become much more sophisticated as counter terrorist efforts increase in effectiveness and expertise. "Survival of the fittest" will be the rule; groups will either adapt or perish. Organizations that are able to operate from territory controlled by their sponsors, such as Hizballah in the Bekaa Valley, will not need to adapt as radically to persevere. Terrorist groups may take a vested interest in maintaining their safe havens and may deliberately attempt to undermine the political, military, or diplomatic efforts of their sponsors that could threaten them. Alliances between terrorists and criminals are already a matter of grave concern. The line separating terrorist organizations and criminal enterprises has become indistinct, and may be more vague in the future. The Irish Republican Army and the Loyalist paramilitaries illustrate groups that risk significant financial loss if there is a negotiated settlement to the conflict in Northern Ireland. Protracted struggle lends an air of legitimacy to their local extortion and racketeering operations. The growing worldwide appetite for illegal narcotics will provide even greater incentives for alliances between narcotics producers/distributors and indigenous terrorist bands. The amount of money Peruvian and Colombian terror organizations can extort from narcotics traffickers is staggering. Many drug lords pay terrorists $l5,OOO per flight in or out of protected runways.70 Police in Lima, Peru believe Sendero Luminoso has accumulated $4O million, largely from runway "landing fees" .71 Future terrorists will continue to exploit publications that provide instruction in useful techniques. Military manuals are common, easily understood, and readily reproduced. The Anarchist's Cookbook and publications such as the PIRA's Green Book supplement those documents. Active duty or reserve military training provides a background of experience that terrorists will continue to tap as members of action teams and instructors. The Former Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact have generated thousands of dispossessed military commissioned and noncommissioned officers who could conceivably be enticed to provide mercenary instruction. The combination of profits from illegal undertakings, in conjunction with an available pool of experienced instructors, could lead to enhanced training for members of financially unconstrained movements. In addition to individual instructors, corporations may offer training to terrorist organizations. Israel's Hod Hohonit Security Firm was investigated for training Colombian drug cartel executioners.72 Many terrorists will continue to learn their initial skills while serving periods of incarceration. John Stephenson (a.k.a. Sean MacStiofain) of the Provisional IRA learned terrorist techniques from Greek Cypriot inmates while serving a sentence at the Wormwood Scrubbs Prison.73 Increased apprehension and sentencing of terrorists to institutions where they mix with other convicted criminals will provide them with a fertile recruiting ground, and a violent and largely dispossessed audience for instruction/exchange of ideas. Terrorists will also avail themselves of advances in technology to further their aims and enhance their training. John Maxwell Oliphant developed a bomb making video for distribution to Aryan groups in the United States.74 The Internet and other computer systems provide a superb medium for spreading global propaganda. Worldwide mobile communications systems provide the means for coordinating training and operational planning across great distances. In the long run, Soviet orchestration of international terrorist training might seem like "the good old days", since Moscow exerted a moderating influence on movements it supported, and historically did not promote actions against United States territory. Today's Islamic Fundamentalists will be less likely to refrain from attacks on our soil (as we have seen with the World Trade Center Bombing). That lack of restraint, with more advanced and lethal munitions, to include weapons of mass destruction (as evidenced in Tokyo), will exemplify the character of future terrorist operations. MAPS Map One: Simferopol and Baku Map Two: Plauen, Karl Marx Stadt, and Dresden Map Three: Babelsberg and Kleinmachnow (Klein Machsrow) Map Four: Varna Map Five: Al Bayda (Al-Beida), Surt (Sirte), and Tukrah (Tokra) Map Six: Baktia (PaktikaIPaktia), Jalabad, and Peshawar Map Seven: Wadi Seidna (Wadi Saydna) NOTES l. Karl A. Segar, The Antiterrorism Handbook (Novato: Presidio Press), 6-1l. 2. David Segal, "Tehran's Terror Czar: Sayeed Ali Akbar Mohtashemi," Counterterrorism and Security Affairs, Winter l989-9O, l4- l7. 3. Segar, 4-6. 4. Eileen MacDonald, Shoot the Women First (New York: Random House), 47. 5. Joseph S. Bermudez, Terrorism, the North Korean Connection (New York: Taylor & Francis), l47. 6. MacDonald, 33-62. 7. Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Terrorists, Their Weapons, Leaders and Tactics (New York: Facts on File Publications), l2- l3. 8. Segar, 44-45. 9. Michael Connor, Terrorism, Its Goals, Its Targets, Its Methods (Boulder: Paladin Press), 22-26. 10. Connor, 27. ll. Dobson and Payne, (The Terrorists), 7-8. l2. Dobson and Payne, (The Terrorists), l3O-l3l. l3. Roger W. Fontaine, Terrorism: The Cuban Connection (New York, Philadelphia, London: Crane Russack & Company), 36-37. l4. Claire Sterling, The Terror Network (New York: Reader's Digest Press), l4. l5. Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Carlos Complex A Study in Terror (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons), 33-34. l6. Sterling, 253-254. l7. Sterling, 255. l8. Sterling, 255-256. l9. Stephen Segaller, Invisible Armies Terrorism into the 199O's (San Diego, New York, London: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Publishers), l26. 2O. Sterling, 278. 2l. Sterling 279. 22. Roberta Goren, The Soviet Union and Terrorism (London: George, Allen and Union), l38. 23. Sterling, 279-28O. 24. Bermudez, Joseph S. Terrorism, the North Korean Connection (New York: Taylor & Francis), l32. 25. Galia Golan, Gorbachev's "New Thinking" on Terrorism (New York: The Center for Strategic and International Studies), 88. 26. Golan, 89. 27. Bruce George and Timothy Watson, "Combating International Terrorism After l992" in European Terrorism Today & Tomorrow (New York: MacMillan Publishing), l9O. 28. Patrick Seale, Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire (New York: Random House), 6-24. 29. Sterling, 26l-264. 3O. Michael Eisenstadt, "Syria and the Terrorist Connection," Jane's Intelligence Review, January l993, 33. 3l. Eisenstadt, 35. 32. Eisenstadt, 35. 33. Tim Ripley, "The PKK-Another Look at the Middle East's Shining Path," Jane's intelligence Review, August l993, 372. 34. "Intelligence Services Report Greece Supporting PKK", Berlin Die Welt, 2 December l994, l. Translated by Foreign Broadcast Information Service: JPRS Report l2 December l994, (JPRS-TOT-94-O48-L). 35. John M. Musacchio and Arnon Rozen, "Fundamentalist Fervor: Islamic Terrorism in the 8O's," Security Management, November l988, 56. 36. Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism, Iran and the Gulf Region," Jane's Intelligence Review, May l992, 226. 37. Wilkinson (Iran), 224. 38. Wilkinson (Iran), 226. 39. "Israeli Police Find Faxes Calling for Attacks", Tel Aviv Yedi Ot Aharonot, 8 September l994, l and l7. Translated by Foreign Broadcast Information Services: JPRS Report l5 September l994 (JPRS-TOT-94-O3 8-l). 4O. Magnus Ranstorp, "Hezbollah' s Future?- Part l," Jane 's Intelligence Review, February l995, 34. 4l. Anthony Davis, "Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan," Jane's Intelligence Review, July l993, 327. 42. Davis, 328. 43 . Davis, 33l. 44. "'Growing Activity' at 'Islamic Extremists' Training Camps", Paris AL- WATAN AL ARABI, 6 January l995, 6. Translated by Foreign Broadcast Information Service: JPRS Report l9 January l995 (JPRS TOT-95-OOl-L). 45. James Bruce, "Arab Veterans of the Afghan War," Jane's Intelligence Review, April l995, l76. 46. "Sudan's Secret training Camps," The Economist, lO September l992, 2-3. 47. "Turning Informer," New York Times, !9 February l995. 48. "Deputy Speaker Defects, Details Foreign Terrorist Training", Cairo AL AHRAM, l7 January l994, Translated by Foreign Broadcast Information Service: JPRS Report 3l January l994 (JPRS-TOT-94- OO4-L). 49. James Wylie, "Sudan-The Middle East's Latest Rogue State," Jane's intelligence Review, July l992, 3ll. 5O. "Patterns of Global Terrorism," Department of State, l993, 25. 5l. Foreign Report, The Economist, l2 November l992. 52. Foreign Report, The Economist, 3O April l992, 4. 53. Ahmed Rashid, "March of the Militants," Far Eastern Economic Review, 9 March l995, l8. 54. Rigoberto Tiglao, "To Fight or Not to Fight," Far Eastern Economic Review, 9 March l995, 2l. 55. Thomas Bedford Jones Frank, "Sendero Luminoso: Origins, Outlooks and Implications. Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey, California, June l986, 53. 56. "Colombia's Other Gangsters," The Economist, 25 March l995, 48. 57. Robert A. Friedlander, Documents of International and Local Control Volume VI Global Terrorism in the Dangerous Decade (London, Rome, New York: Oceana Publications Incorporated), 299, 3lO. 58. Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism in Europe-Retrospect and Prospect," Jane's The World In Conflict, 59. 59. Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Never Ending War- Terrorism in the 8O's (New York: Facts on File Publications), l8O. 6O. Dobson and Payne (Never Ending War), l82. 6l. Dobson and Payne (Never Ending War), l85. 62. Dobson and Payne (The Terrorists), 75. 63. MacDonald,l36-l37. 64. Roberta Goren, The Soviet Union and Terrorism (London, Boston, Sydney: George, Allen & Urwin), l39. 65. Jeffery D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap. America 's Experience With Terrorism (Bloomington& Indianapolis: Indiana University Press), 358. 66. Dobson and Payne (Never Ending War), l82 67. Judith Miller, "Faces of Fundamentalism: Hassan al Turabi and Muhammed Fadlallah," Foreign Affairs, November/December l994, l42. 68. John Durnton, "Basques Find Inspiration as I.R.A. Talks of Peace," New York Times, l6 April l995, 6. 69. Friedlander, 3O9. 7O. "Colombia's Other Gangsters", The Economist, 25 March l995, 48. 7l. Linda Robinson, "No Holds Barred", U.S. News & World Report, 28 September l992, 49. 72. "Counterterror Course for Beginners", Counterterrorism & Security, Winter l989-l99O, 2l. 73. Stephen E. Arthurs, Terrorism: A Reference Handbook (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Inc.),78. 74. 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