The Training of Terrorist Organizations
SUBJECT AREA Training
TITLE: The Training of Terrorist Organizations
AUTHOR: Major David E. Smith USMC
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a worldwide terrorist training apparatus?
During the l96O's the Soviet Union and its communist satellites
deliberately provided training to terrorist organizations in order to further
their political and diplomatic aims and to destabilize the West. They were
instrumental in nurturing the skills employed by terrorists during the
l96O's, 7O's, and 8O's. By the time the USSR collapsed and the Warsaw
Pact disintegrated, communist supported training was no longer vital to
sustain terrorism. Other groups, employing a variety of training
techniques, were able to take their place.
Nations such as Iran and Syria trained and supported terrorists to
influence world events and further their political agendas, while retaining
a cloak of deniability for their leaders. Many nationalist, religious, and
ethnic groups have also developed self sustaining terrorist organizations
such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army with their own independent
CONCLUSION: There is no present evidence of a worldwide terrorist
training apparatus. The world has fragmented into numerous competing
camps and terrorist training is conducted along regional, ethnic, and
religious lines. There are many similarities in the training programs of
successful terrorist organizations, and the trends are towards less restraint
and more violent operations.
Terrorism has been a worldwide phenomenon for hundreds of
years. Significant collusion among groups was not evident until the
l96O's when the Soviet Union embarked upon a coordinated effort to
bolster movements it believed would further its political objectives.
The training it provided itself, and through its surrogates, was the
genesis of knowledge that would ultimately spread to the majority of
the world's terrorist organizations. By the time the Soviet Union
collapsed, it was no longer a vital component in the terrorist training
arena. Other groups, employing a variety of techniques and methods,
had taken its place. Those groups generated personnel with, or
without, a wide range of skills. This paper will recount historical
trends concerning terrorist training methods in order to determine
what current patterns, if any, exist. It will end with conclusions, as
well as with predictions of future trends in the area.
Prior to discussing historical patterns of terrorist training it is
essential to make sure the reader has a basic understanding of who a
terrorist is and how the typical terrorist group is organized. There
are innumerable definitions of terrorism. For the purpose of this
paper we will employ the definition used in Title 22 of the United
States Code, Section 2656 f (d) "premeditated politically motivated
violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational
groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an
audience." Acts of terrorism are committed throughout the world by
a myriad of groups. All successful (enduring) groups exhibit some
organizational similarities that have contributed to their longevity.
TERRORIST NETWORK ORGAMZATION
Terrorist networks are organized for operational effectiveness as
well as for group security. Terrorist groups are directed by a
"headquarters". The headquarters may be the leaders within the
organization or a third party representing a state sponsor. There
may also be regional directorates that are subordinate to the
headquarters. Action teams, or tactical cells, are groups that
perpetrate an assault or other similar actions. They are the men and
women who detonate the bombs, conduct assassinations, and actually
carry out kidnappings and hijackings. Ideally, they do not know who
directs or controls them. Terrorist networks also include support
teams that serve various purposes. Support teams may be active or
passive. Active supporters may conduct fund raising drives for the
group, provide safe locations for members attempting to elude the
authorities, or treat wounded or injured members. Although they do
not conduct actual missions, they directly interact with, and support
the movement. Passive supporters do not become openly involved in
the criminal activities of the organization. On the other hand, they
may contribute money to the cause or provide the group with
information of tactical value. Support teams generally operate at all
times, while tactical cells may be activated just prior to planned
operations. Support teams normally do not know the identity or
existence of other teams in the movement. Compartmentalization
into "cell" structures is crucial to the survival of the group. It has
become vital as counter terrorist efforts have intensified in scope
The three major categories of terrorist groups are non state-
supported, state-supported, and state-directed. Non state-supported
groups are generally small special interest bands such as radical
environmentalists. They tend to be less trained, and less violent,
than groups that have outside assistance. An exception is Sendero
Luminoso, an extremely violent Peruvian terrorist organization,
which may purposely avoid outside support in order to retain
freedom of action.
State-supported groups obtain training, financial assistance, and
logistical support from sovereign governments. The sponsors
generally want to avoid being linked to their surrogate and may
conduct training away from their own territory. Financial aid and
equipment are funneled surreptitiously to the terrorist organizations,
which on occasion may act for chiefly mercenary reasons. Iranian
employment of the Syrian sponsored Popular Front for the Liberation
of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC), led by Ahmed Jibril, to
destroy Pan Am Flight lO3 over Lockerbie, Scotland is an example of
state sponsored terrorism. The PFLP-GC attack was allegedly
coordinated in Damascus through contacts established by Sayeed Ali
Akbar Mohtashami, former Iranian ambassador to Syria, and a
graduate of the Soviet terrorist training facility at Simferopol.
Jabril's group reportedly received $l.3 million for the mission.2
State-directed terrorist groups are organized, supplied, and
controlled by a nation. An example of state-directed terrorism is the
North Korean employment of assassins to murder a number of South
Korean officials visiting Rangoon in l983.3 The destruction of Korean
Air Flight 858 in l987 is another example of North Korean state-
directed terrorism. One of its perpetrators, Miss Kim Hyon Hui, was
apprehended after the attack and has provided a detailed description
of her training for the operation that was well chronicled by Eileen
MacDonald in Shoot the Women First.
Miss Hui was born in Pyongyang during l962 into the relatively
privileged family of a diplomat. Like all North Korean citizens, she
was indoctrinated to revere her leaders, observe and believe the
party line, and to hate its enemies. Her conditioning began when she
was two months old and spent portions of each day at state
Miss Hui was a superior student in Japanese at Kim II Sung
University. During her second year at that institution she was
directed to meet with officers from the North Korean Research
Department (secret service). After a battery of language, memory,
and political reliability tests she was selected for agent training. Her
initial training was conducted at Kimsong Political Military College in
complete isolation from her family and friends, as well as from other
students. Daily instruction was undertaken in small arms, languages,
codes, and communications. Political indoctrination was interwoven
with all courses. Her physical training was intense. Miss Hui claims
that when it was concluded she could "swim two kilometers and run
4O kilometers over rough ground at night."4
After a year at the university she was moved north to the vicinity
of the Chinese border where she received advanced instruction in
kidnapping, assassination, marksmanship, bombing, and agitation.
The research department planned to employ her as an agent in
Japan. She spent six years studying the language and customs of that
nation with Li Eun Hye, who had been kidnapped from a Japanese
beach by North Korean agents. (There have been several reported
incidents of Japanese citizens being kidnapped from Japan by North
Korean Security Forces).5 The purpose of the training was to allow
her to pass as a Japanese citizen. She also received specialized
training in professional espionage, automobile operation,
photography, and clandestine communications. Her ability to
function under cover as a Japanese citizen was tested during a trip to
Europe in l984 during which she posed as the daughter of the
elderly agent who accompanied her. After returning she studied
Chinese in Canton, China and Macao.
Miss Hui was provided with a month of specialized explosives
training during l987, after she had been chosen for the KAL 858
mission. She was paired once more with the elderly male agent that
she had traveled to Europe with, and viewed the assignment as a
combat mission behind enemy lines. The couple received explosives
and a detonator disguised as a radio and a bottle of whisky from a
North Korean diplomat while on a layover in Belgrade. Miss Hui
stated that she and her companion would have stayed on the plane
and exploded with it if that had been required for the
accomplishment of the mission. After the couple was apprehended
and brought in for questioning her partner committed suicide and
she attempted to kill herself with a cyanide laced cigarette. Her
combination of years of training and unswerving loyalty to her cause
made her an extremely effective terrorist (or agent) for her nation.
The duration, intensity, and effectiveness of her training clearly
underscores the point that state-directed terrorists are normally
more technically prepared and better equipped than state-supported
or non state-supported terrorists.6
It is interesting to compare the training Miss Kim received, with
"terrorist theory" advanced by Carlos Marighella in his book the
Liberation of Brazil.7 The book contains a chapter entitled
"Handbook of Urban Guerrilla Warfare" that was widely translated
and employed by Latin American and European terrorists.
Marighella encouraged physical training and manual skills, as well as
the mastery of small arms and explosives. He emphasized the
primacy of the political goal. Additionally, he stated that only a
guerrilla who had passed initial tests should be selected for
additional training or tasking.
Miss Hui's North Korean handlers also believed in physical
conditioning and ensured that she was competent with small arms
and explosives. She was tested in Europe prior to being assigned to
destroy KAL 858, an action designed to further the DPRK's political
goal of subverting the Seoul Olympics. The similarities are
remarkable and demonstrate the validity of the time tested methods
described by Marighella and employed by the North Korean Research
TERRORIST TRAINING OBJECTIVES
Terrorists require training in a wide variety of subjects in order
to operate effectively and achieve their objectives. Since the
majority of terrorist incidents involve bombs, explosives training is
paramount. Substantial instruction is required to construct anything
more complicated than the most fundamental explosive weapon. Use
of components such as mercury tilt fuses (common to car bombs),
remotely controlled, and electromagnetic firing devices must be
taught by experts to students already well versed in, and confident
working with, explosives. Additionally, the complexity of the latest
types of vehicle bombs is extraordinary. The bomb employed
against the Marine Barracks in Beirut, Lebanon consisted of l2,OOO to
l8,OOO pounds of explosives arrayed in a gas enhanced configuration.
It is widely believed to have been assembled in either Iran or Syria
by professional explosives experts for employment in Lebanon. The
United States government estimated it to have been the largest non
nuclear explosion in history.8
Firearms training is also important and is more easily obtained
than explosives training. Students need range time and instruction
in weapons maintenance in order to become proficient with small
arms. This instruction is often combined with small unit tactics and
techniques of guerrilla warfare in what is essentially paramilitary
training. Terrorists also require proficiency in covert
communications, document falsification, and methods of surveillance.
Martial arts, employment of disguise, and procedures for jamming
communications are desired talents. Some terrorists also seek
expertise in evaluating security systems, as well as in assessing the
vulnerability of various targets. These capabilities are essential for
successful mission planning. Languages are also a valuable skill, and
media manipulation is additional recurring theme of terrorist
In addition to general skills that are germane to virtually all
terrorist movements, groups pursue skills in areas directly applicable
to their anticipated operations. Organizations intending to kidnap or
assassinate people while they are in motor vehicles may study
defensive driving and evasion methods to reduce the likelihood of
their victim's escape. Similarly, organizations contemplating aircraft
hijacking will attempt to learn the techniques that hostage rescue
teams might employ in order to thwart them.10 Aircraft hijackers
also require a team member who can speak and understand English,
which is in use in international aviation operations.11 It also helps
with the media.
It is important to remember that although terrorists seek training
in a wide variety of skills, their rank and file members are normally
not particularly skilled. Moreover, they do not need to be as finely
trained as law enforcement or military forces do. Terrorists rely on
the advantages of surprise and shock when they conduct operations.
They prey on the unprepared and avoid undertaking missions that
expose them to substantial risks. More importantly, terrorists are
rarely concerned with minimizing collateral damage and avoiding
injury to noncombatants. In fact, brutality and violence further their
ends, and "surgical operations" can actually limit their effectiveness.
The average member of a terrorist organization is not well versed in
unconventional engagements. Each group has a core of specialists
who manufacture bombs, conduct sniping operations, and develop
operational plans. Elimination of these key members can, virtually
cripple smaller terrorist organizations, and can hamper the activities
of larger groups.
Despite their training and varied levels of expertise it is not
uncommon for terrorists to be the victims of their own devices.
During l97O three members of the Weather Underground perished
in an explosion in their Greenwich Village headquarters while
manufacturing bombs. The Provisional IRA has also suffered from
what the British authorities call "scoring own goals", or blowing
themselves up. The PIRA' s leadership was so concerned about
accidents by less experienced members assigned to plant bombs that
they directed their bomb assemblers to place safety devices on the
weapons they manufactured. The devices were simple pins that had
to be pulled in order to arm the bomb. This created a new problem,
because nervous members often forget to pull the pins, therefore
placing unarmed bombs in target locations. Safety devices were later
equipped with tags which were returned by the bomb planter to his
or her superior to demonstrate mission accomplishment after the
weapon had been armed and placed in the desired location.12
COMMUNIST MACHINATED TERRORIST TRAINING
Although terrorism originated centuries ago, modern international
terrorism orchestrated by the Soviet Union arguably began at the
Tricontinental Conference conceived by Moscow and conducted in
Havana, Cuba during January l966.13 The purpose of the conference
was to devise a "global revolutionary strategy to counter the global
strategy of American imperialism."14 It resulted in the creation of an
African, Asian, and Latin American Solidarity Organization based in
Havana. The Conference also passed resolutions advocating outside
aid for groups fighting for "liberation". During late l966, the Cubans
opened a number of training camps for guerrilla fighters in Cuba that
were under Soviet supervision. Palestinian groups began sending
students to these facilities on the "Isle of Pines" during l966, and
upon graduation, those students spawned the terrorist groups that
exploded in the Middle East during the l97O's.
Castro's terrorism schools were under the supervision of the
Direcion General de Intelegencia (DGI). Students were flown into the
country from connecting airports, or arrived in Cuban harbors by
boat. Upon debarkation in Havana, they were segregated by
nationality and moved to their individual training locations. The
guerrilla courses lasted from three to six months. Subject material
included "tactics, weapons training, bomb making- particularly how
to blow up oil pipelines, map reading, cryptography, photography,
falsification of documents, and disguise." Illich Ramirez Sanchez,
a.k.a. Carlos the Jackal, is reputed to have received instruction at
Camp Mantonzas, Cuba, prior to further education in the USSR.15
In addition to operating a series of such camps in Cuba, Castro
exported instructors to newly opened sites in Angola and
Mozambique. Cuban instructors arrived at locations in the Middle
East after the October l973 War. During December of that year, 4O
Cuban terrorist instructors arrived in South Yemen. South Yemeni
desert training sites were protected by the Soviet and East German
secret police, and became the focal point for instructing and
sheltering terrorists from nations including Germany, Ireland, Japan,
Turkey, Iran, Italy, France, Belgium, and Palestine.16
When the Lebanese Civil War broke out it created an opportunity
for terrorist groups to operate from that country. In l978 the
Palestine Rejection Front was firmly established at a number of sites
there. In March, l978 the first team of Cuban instructors arrived at
Tyre, Lebanon. They presented a detailed eight month course of
instruction to their first class of perspective Arab terrorists. The
curriculum included street and desert fighting, attacking people and
buildings, demolitions, and sabotaging oil installations. Graduates of
the school were supplied with false passports and work permits, and
sent to various Persian Gulf countries that they were familiarized
with during training.17
Castro's support of terrorism was indicated by his Tucuman Plan,
designed to export South American revolutionaries to Western
Europe. He intended to dispatch members of the Junta for
Revolutionary Coordination (JRC) from Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia,
and Chile to Lisbon, Portugal and Paris, France. These groups were
designed to act in concert against the continent. Castro established a
special training site for these operations on a 4,OOO acre estate at
Guanabo and provided them with a three month course concentrating
on explosives, sabotage, weapons instruction, and urban operations.
The plan was foiled by European security services during l978
before numerous operations could be conducted. Nevertheless, it
underscores the global scope Castro envisioned for Cuban trained
The Soviet Union also provided training for certain terrorist
groups on its homeland, as well as spearheaded training in the
territory of its Warsaw Pact allies. The Soviets sponsored terrorism
as part of an overall strategy designed to destabilize Western
Europe/NATO by supporting international and Western revolutionary
movements whose insurrectional activities would have helped
expand the communist block and further Soviet aims. In fact, a
former senior officer of Soviet Military Intelligence stated that
"ideological sympathy with the Soviet Union is unnecessary: anyone
who helps destabilize the west is our friend."19
A typical member of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLO) selected
for training behind the Iron Curtain received an orientation brief on
expected conduct while undergoing instruction, as well as ideological
orientation prior to departing for Moscow. Upon arrival he was
greeted by the PLO representative there and arrangements were
made for further travel to the individual's ultimate training
A typical training day began with early morning physical fitness
or gymnastics exercises. As the morning progressed students
generally conducted a parade. There were several hours of daily
political orientation covering subjects as wide ranging as "Russian
Mortality Rates during World Wars I and II" to "Russian Ties to the
third World". The meat of daily instruction was education in
incendiary charges and detonators; exploding metals; the art of
mining munitions dumps, bridges, vehicles and personnel; the
rudiments of chemical and biological warfare; command field and
escape tactics; marksmanship and camouflage; the use and
employment of Soviet RPG rockets and shoulder borne Strela
missiles. Interestingly enough, the Soviets also employed Moslem
KGB officers to mix among the trainees and seek recruits for the KGB.
By l977 there were terrorist classes within the USSR near Baku
on the Caspian Sea 22, and near Simferopol on the Black Sea (See Map
One). There were training sites near Plauen, Karl-Marx-Stadt,
Dresden (See Map Two), Babelsberg, Klein Machsrow (See Map
Three), Schmirblitz, and the North Schwein Region of East Germany.
There were four additional sites in Bulgaria, the largest of which was
at Varna (See Map Four). There were also four more sites in
Czechoslovakia and three in Poland.23 It is clear that by the late
l97O's there was a substantial international terrorist network
supporting movements from North and South America, Europe, Asia,
The relationships between students and their instructors varied
immensely. For example, at one point the Soviets asked for higher
quality students from the Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine (PFLP). The PFLP students, for their part complained that
their Soviet hosts gave them too many political lectures and not
enough training in field operations.
A second example is in this account of the opinion the Zimbabwe
African National Union (ZANU) had of their North Korean instructors.
"Brigadier Parence Shin, the commander of the 5th Brigade,
expressed his disappointment with Democratic People's Republic of
Korea (DPRK) advisors, indicating that, while they were respected for
their individual toughness, they were more notable for their
extravagant living and lack of personal discipline, than for their
ability to conduct realistic military training."24
The Soviet Union began decreasing its support of terrorism as the
l98O's progressed. By mid l987 Moscow had used its influence to
push members of the African National Congress and Palestine
Liberation Army to seek political, vice military, settlements. By
l987 there was a decline in terrorist action by most of the groups
purported to be supported by the USSR.25 By l989 the Kremlin had
toned down its rhetoric about United States and Israeli terrorist
surrogates. Foreign Minister Shevardnadze's comments to the United
Nations General Assembly clearly conveyed this new Soviet position:
"Violence on national, ethnic, or religious grounds must no longer
be tolerated... .no support or sympathy should be extended to the so
called movements that allow actions humiliating other nations, or use
terrorist, barbaric or inhuman methods in waging their struggle."26
On the other hand, Czechoslovakia continued to sell tons of
SEMTEX (a potent plastic explosive) to East Germany and Hungary
until l989. They also sold prodigious amounts of the substance to
Libya. President Havel of Czechoslovakia stated in l99O that "the
past regime exported 1,000 tons to Libya, and yet it takes only 200
grams to blow up a plane. This means that world terrorism has
enough supplies of SEMTEX for at least l5O years."27 It is logical to
assume that the Libyans supplied movements such as the Provisional
Irish Republican Army with the explosive. Whether or not the
supply will last l5O years is debatable, but it is certain that one
sponsor of international terrorism has amassed a large stockpile of
plastic explosive for future operations.
The demise of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Warsaw
Pact retarded the support of some terrorist organizations, but did
little to eliminate terrorism from the world. The loose net of
international terrorists that was spawned during the l96O's and
l97O's had already been replaced by groups of cooperating Islamic
Fundamentalists, regional alliances, and a small number of
independent movements. Additionally, local collusion between
criminal organizations and terrorist groups began to occur more
Palestinian organizations such as the Palestine Liberation
Organization and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
established their own training facilities and programs based largely
on the training they had received behind the Iron Curtain. As the
various factions in the Palestinian movement split, groups initiated
additional recruitment as well as training programs for their new
Hussein Jorde Abdallah (his code name) described his training
conducted by the Abu Nidal Group. It is interesting to compare his
account of the instruction he received from Nidal's organization with
that provided to Palestinian students in the Soviet Union. After
signing on with the faction he was required to write his biography in
painstaking detail. In l987 he was flown to Libya with other
recruits and assigned to a desert camp. The students were building
permanent facilities while he underwent training and he was billeted
in a tent. The daily routine was strenuous. Recruits were awakened
at dawn, required to jog for an hour prior to breakfast, and then
spent a five and one half hour shift on construction duty in the camp.
The recruits were given a light lunch and a mid day rest period
before beginning their three hour afternoon work shift. In the
evening they were required to attend political lectures and films.
Discipline was strict. Students were docked meals if they were late
and harangued if they took unauthorized breaks. The camp had a
prison and interrogation block that was used to provide severe
punishment for serious infractions of the rules. There was an
atmosphere of suspicion, and the organization was paranoid about
penetration by a hostile intelligence service. Abdallah reported
being required to periodically rewrite his biography so it could be
checked for suspicious discrepancies.
Residents of the training facility were not allowed to possess
radios and were unable to receive newspapers. The information they
obtained from the outside world was closely controlled. Incoming
mail was usually kept in individual personnel files and was not
delivered to addressees. Personal identification was surrendered
upon arrival at the camp.
Abdallah received specialized training in a separate part of the
compound that was used for students assigned to the "Intelligence
Directorate's Special Missions Committee." While there, he was
segregated from the other trainees and his instruction was tailored to
the requirements of special missions. He learned how to assume a
false identity, how to avoid attracting attention, how to conduct site
reconnaissance, surveillance techniques, counter surveillance
techniques, writing with invisible ink, and the encryption of
messages while assigned there. He received detailed training in the
maintenance and operation of pistols and light machine guns. In
addition, Abdallah learned map reading skills in order to allow him
to retrieve weapons cached in foreign countries.28
Libyan support for terrorism cropped up during the l97O's.
During l976 there was reliable reporting of a series of Libyan camps
under the protection of Colonel Qaddaffi. By l98O there were
approximately l5O Cuban instructors in Libya. Soviet and East
German instructors abounded as well. In addition to providing
facilities and supporting instructors, Qaddaffi spent prodigious
amounts of his nation's oil revenues to financially aid movements he
was sympathetic to. He supported Soviet instructors training
Egyptians at al-Beida (See Map Five). Sudanese and Chadian
students had Soviet and Cuban instructors and were based at Maaten
Biskara. Tunisian students were instructed by Syrians and
Palestinians and were located at Bab Aziza. Qaddaffi did not
discriminate when it came to offering sanctuary for terrorist groups.
Europeans, primarily Irish, German, Basque, Breton s, Corsican s,
Italians, Greeks and Turks were centered around camps at Sirte,
Sebka, and Az Zaouiah. Cubans and East Germans also ran an
advance site at Tokra for graduate work in sabotage. Qaddaffi' s
apparatus was coordinated from Tripoli by the Libyan Secret Service.
Upon graduation, students were issued false papers, pocket money,
and weapons. They were also well cared for in Libya if they became
fugitives from the authorities.29
SYRIAN INVOLVEMENT IN TERRORIST TRAINING
Syria also continues to sponsor and support terrorism in the
Middle East. President Assad employs it to demonstrate his ability to
strike at enemies and influence events in the Middle East and
Europe. He is cautious to only sanction operations that further his
ends, and has kept a tight rein on the groups he employs towards
those objectives. Assad does not allow terrorist strikes into areas
that would generate conflicts with antagonists he is not willing to
Syria has been involved in direct acts of terrorism such as the
September l982 murder of Lebanese President Bashir Jumayyil in
Beirut, and Jordanian diplomat Ziyad Sati in Ankara during July
l985.30 Assad's nation maintains a significant intelligence apparatus
in Western Europe and Lebanon that aids it in directing the groups it
Syria supports numerous groups with sanctuary, training, and
equipment. The Abu Nidal Organization, the Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine-General Command, Al Sa'iqa, the Kurdish
Revolutionary Workers Party (PKK), and Hamas are all its
beneficiaries. Additionally, Syria is linked to Hizballah. It has
provided these groups, and others, with military and technical
training. It also provides official documents such as passports and
the use of diplomatic pouches to transport weapons and explosives
into foreign countries.31 Its influence and ability to affect groups
operating in areas it controls, such as Hizballah, is significant. Syria
can simply shut down the supply routes for groups based in Lebanon
in order to control their activities for a certain period of time.
Syria has attempted to distance itself from many terrorist groups
during the l99O's and has made a series of moves designed to
demonstrate its "change of heart" to the world. Carlos was expelled
during September l99l, and the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) base
at Helivah in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon was closed during l992.32
Unquestionably though, Damascus International Airport is still used
for the transshipment of arms from Iran to Lebanon. Damascus also
serves as a focal point for many Middle Eastern terrorist groups.
Syria was instrumental in development of the PKK, a powerful
group that deserves close attention. Assad used the group to
pressure the government of Turkey and to strike at American
military targets in that country. Despite closing the camp at Helivah,
Syria continues to provide that group with substantial support. The
original PKK recruits were drawn from expatriate Kurdish
communities in Europe and Syria. Many recruits are women and
more and more are coming from Eastern Turkey. The PKK's main
training camp, the Mashsum Korkmay Academy in the Bekaa Valley,
was reportedly training 3OO-4OO recruits every three months. The
organization's leadership has spread the group among Syria,
Lebanon, Iraq, Iran and Turkey, presumably to increase its
survivability if one sponsor turns against it.33 The group has
employed guerrilla tactics and has conducted battalion sized
operations against targets in Turkey, prompting a Turkish retaliatory
strike against the PKK in northern Iraq.
The PKK is also allegedly trained by the Greek government.
Camps at Lavion and the Greek part of Cyprus are employed for
political indoctrination and explosives training. Captured PKK
members revealed that they had been trained in the production of
explosives by a Syrian instructor at a site 2OO kilometers east of
Athens. The same individuals stated that they had been transported
across the border into Turkey and had witnessed PKK recruits
moving from Istanbul into training camps in the vicinity of Athens.34
ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST TERRORIST TRAINING
Islamic Fundamentalists are now cooperating effectively in their
aim of establishing an Islamic Republic combining church and state
throughout the Middle Eastern Moslem world. They do not accept
the Western point of view that international borders are sacrosanct.
Ahmed Tahir captured this point in his book Holy Terror:
"Islamic terrorism has played a constant key role in revivalist
movements in the Muslim world during the past l5O years. And,
despite vehement protests from Western Moslem intellectuals, the
idea of murdering, maiming, and menacing the enemy for the
purpose of hastening the final triumph of Islam has always held a
very strong appeal among the Muslim masses."
Iran became the first example of a radical Islamic state when
Ayatollah Khomeini assumed power there during l979. The Iranian
government had played a major role in promoting the
fundamentalist movement. It should be noted, though, that Iran is
not the sole force in the Shia Muslim terrorist movement. Muslim
terrorists are a diverse group that employ different tactics and
operate with varied intensity. "In Beirut alone, the Shia groups
differ from neighborhood to neighborhood and are often in
disagreement with one another."35
In l979 Iranian students seized the American embassy in
Teheran. The Iranian Revolutionary Government did not return the
captives and embassy property to the United States as stipulated by
international law. Instead, government forces were employed to
maintain their captivity and exploit the seized facility.36 This was
the first example of Iranian state directed terrorism. The pattern of
Iranian direct involvement has continued to date. In November
l992, French officials arrested two Iranian nationals for the murder
of Kazein Rajavi, an Iranian dissident in exile, in Switzerland during
l99O. Additionally, Iranian intelligence has been linked to the
assassination of former Iranian Prime Minister Shahpur Bakhtiar and
an assistant near Paris during l99l. Three men are being held by
France in connection with the murders. Among them are a nephew
of President Rafsanjani who was employed by the Iranian Embassy,
and a nephew of the late Ayatollah Khomeini. Many other Iranian
dissidents have been murdered by professional assassins throughout
Europe. Their effectiveness indicates a high level of training
presumably attained in Iran.37 The Iranian government has also
called for the death of Salmon Rushdie, author of SatanicVerses
demonstrating an intention to continue to employ state directed
terrorism to enforce the regime's positions.
In addition to employing its own intelligence agents in a terror
role, Iran has sponsored Hizballah, the Party of God. Hizballah
operates out of the Shia villages in Southern Lebanon, and in the
Bekaa Valley of that nation. The group has a global network of
supporters in India, Indonesia, South America and Australia.3 8
Hizballah employs camps in the Syrian controlled Bekaa Valley to
train its recruits. They are instructed by veteran terrorists from the
movement as well as by Iranian Revolutionary Guards. The principal
training camp is located at Janba, while another major facility is
located at Wadi Mnaira. Recruits are provided with courses in close
quarter combat, hit and run tactics, infiltration, and mine laying.
They are also taught to handle automatic weapons, explosives, rocket
launchers, recoilless rifles, "Sagger" antitank missiles and SA-7
surface-to-air missiles. In addition, the recruits are provided with
substantial religious indoctrination. Hizballah also trains in small
unit tactics, and is employing l5 to 3O man units in operations
against Israeli forces in Southern Lebanon. Local commanders
usually recruit young men who are familiar with the terrain in their
area of operations.
The Islamic Jihad (Hizballah' s military wing) may work directly
for the Iranian government in some cases. "Senior Palestinian police
sources have revealed that they have found faxes that encouraged
stepped up attacks on Israeli targets while detaining Islamic Jihad
activists during September l994."39 Other reports indicate that
Hizballah forces have obtained a new surface-to-air missile (possibly
the Stinger) from Afghanistan via Iran.40 If so, it would be logical to
assume its members had been trained in its operation given their
historical link with Iranian instructors.
The Afghan link with terrorist training has been clearly
established in a number of instances. By l982 foreign Muslims were
participants in combat against the Soviets in Afghanistan.41 "At the
height of the foreign involvement in the conflict (l989-
l99l), conservative estimates suggest that, at any given time, 3,OOO
to 4,OOO foreign fighters were training or fighting in Afghanistan, or
resting in Peshawar. Over the years, well over ten times that
number spent time on the Afghan battlefield."42 Many of the
participants were from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and the Occupied
Territories. Many were connected with the Muslim Brotherhood.
Later, many North Africans fought there along with Muslims from
the Indian Subcontinent. A camp at Jawar, Pakistan evolved into a
base for foreigners desiring to serve in the struggle in Afghanistan.
Recruits received extremely rudimentary training prior to moving
across the border. Their real education was obtained in on the job
training during combat. Foreign units were often employed
independently for platoon and company sized operations. Many
Middle Eastern Arabs developed credible tactical skills through
practical application while serving in Afghanistan.
By l99l Mujaheddin loyal to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar were training
and advising insurgents in Kashmir and along the Bangladesh-Burma
border.43 It is estimated that there are currently fewer than 1,000
trainees in Afghanistan. Although numbers have decreased, the
quality of the training they receive may be improving. Reports
indicate that there are four major camps in Afghanistan that provide
terrorist training to foreigners. Students are instructed in the use of
weapons, methods of booby trapping cars, and conducting suicide
operations. These skills have been employed effectively by
movements in the Middle East and North Africa. A camp at Shahar
Siyab is alleged to house 2OO trainees. The largest camp, in Baktia
Province (See Map Six), conducts day and night courses and
reportedly has over 5OO students billeted there.44 Ironically, some
of the weapons employed in the training camps and exported to
support Islamic movements throughout the world were supplied by
the American Central Intelligence Agency for use against the Soviet
invasion force. The defeat of that invasion force has superseded the
Mujaheddin' s need to maintain cordial relations with the United
States. That, in conjunction with the sweeping tide of Islamic
fundamentalism, could conceivably result in weapons we envisioned
being employed against the USSR being turned against us in the
There is every indication that Afghanistan will continue to
provide sanctuary, training facilities, instructors, and weapons to
radical Muslims. In fact, Ibrahim el-Mekkawi, a former Egyptian
Army Colonel who fled from Egypt after the assassination of Anwar
Sadat in October l98l, travels between Peshawar, Pakistan and
Afghanistan where he operates camps and bases. El-Mekkawi is said
to be operating the Islamic campaign in Egypt from Pakistan.
Additionally Khalid al-Islambouli, who was sentenced to death in
absentia for planning to kill Hosni Mubarak and other Egyptian
leaders, maintains a base near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan (See
Islamic fundamentalists also find sanctuary and training
opportunities in Sudan. The Sudanese government has close ties to
Iran and has allegedly provided Iranian forces with access to Port
Sudan on the Red Sea in exchange for weapons and ammunition.
Reports also indicate that there are two Iranian facilities for terrorist
training located at Shondi and Wadi Saydna (See Map Seven). These
camps are employed to train members of Hizballah in guerrilla
tactics, bomb manufacturing, weapons employment, intelligence,
purchasing weapons, and clandestinely contacting embassies.46
The Sudanese government attempts to keep its assistance to
terrorist organizations secret in order to avoid international
condemnation. Some training takes place inside mosques. Mosques
were also employed as training locations for the alleged World Trade
Center bombers, several of whom are Sudanese.47 Other recruits
train in Iran: Alsu Aja, former Deputy Speaker of the Sudanese
Parliament, revealed that groups of Sudanese citizens are sent to
Iran for six month periods of training. He further stated that all
Sudanese diplomats were trained in Iran.48 Since Iranian diplomats
have been implicated in actual terrorist attacks and support
activities, Sudanese diplomats trained in that country should be
suspect as well.
Iranian Revolutionary Guards operate camps in Sudan that are
financed by Iran. These camps accommodate personnel who have
been forced out of Lebanon and Libya as those nations tone down
their support for terrorism.49 Sudan's border with Egypt makes it a
logical location for supporting the growing Egyptian Islamic
Fundamentalist movement, and is a source of concern to moderate
Arab governments, as well as the United States and Israel. Sudan
has maintained contact with a wide range of terrorist groups
including Hamas, ITizballah, and the Egyptian Gama'at al Islamiyya.50
The Iran, Afghanistan, Sudan connection clearly demonstrates the
international cooperation among radical Islamic governments.
The cooperation among Islamic fundamentalists may have
expanded into portions of the former Soviet Union. Reports indicate
that Iran is providing military training for Muslims of the Islamic
Renaissance Party (IRP) who oppose the government of Tajikistan.
Twenty seven Tajik militiamen completed training conducted at the
Iranian base at Shardi, Sudan. They were provided with a three
month course of instruction on guerrilla tactics, intelligence
gathering, infantry weapons, and artillery employment. The top six
graduates were transferred to Iran for officer training, including
spiritual guidance, at Qom. While in Qom, attempts may have been
made to recruit them as agents of the government of Iran. The
remaining graduates returned to Tajikistan.51 Tajik Muslims have
continued a fundamentalist pattern of storing weapons in mosques in
There is also evidence of cooperation between Islamic terrorists
in the Middle East and the Western Pacific. On 7 February l995,
Romzi Ahmed Yousef was arrested in Islamabad, Pakistan in
connection with the World Trade Center bombing. Prior to his arrest
he had reportedly operated in the Philippines with the assistance of
the Muslim terrorist group Abu Sayaff.53 Abu Sayaff has been
implicated in a number of bombings and shootings. Military
intelligence information claims the 3OO member group has received
training from Pakistani veterans of the Afghan War. It further states
"Sayaff's lieutenants are composed mainly of Filipino Muslim
volunteers who joined the International Islamic Brigade which
fought the Soviets in Afghanistan."54
SOUTH AMERICAN TERRORIST TRAINING
The widespread cooperation that is evident among large segments
of the fundamentalist Islamic movement is not apparent in other
regions of the world. Consider Central and South America.
Geographical separation hampers teamwork among many in this
region. There is a further problem of vastly different ideologies of
the various groups. Even if they are not well coordinated, active
terrorist movements in South America do exhibit a wide variety of
Peru is a good example of a South American nation where
terrorism is thriving. The Shining Path Organization (Sendero
Luminoso) is among the most ruthless terrorist groups in the world.
Sendero forces originally operated in the Peruvian countryside.
Members occupy a village, set up a revolutionary government, and
organize a popular school in the community. Once established, the
school is used to increase the literacy of the villagers and
propagandize. Teachers constantly evaluate the students to identify
potential recruits. All recruiting is instigated by the movement in
order to reduce the possibility of organizational penetration. Once
identified, candidates spend approximately one year receiving
political indoctrination and conducting propaganda activities such as
slogan painting on walls. They also take instruction on guerrilla
strategy. As the candidate progresses, he or she is trained in the use
of firearms and explosives. Physical training is also emphasized.
Members who have been fully accepted into the group are assigned
to a terrorist cell.55 The real education for Sendero active cadre is
provided by on the job training in military action against
government forces, organized peasants, or other terrorists such as
Tupac Amaru collaborators. To date there has been no substantiated
evidence of external training being provided to Sendero members.
The movement prefers self sufficiency.
Colombia is another South American nation facing a substantial
indigenous terrorist threat. Its l9th of April Movement (M-l9),
famed for its daring l985 seizure of the Supreme Court Building in
Bogota, has demonstrated remarkable resiliency. In l99O only three
of the movement's approximately 27O fighters refused to accept a
government deal requiring them to lay down their arms. Since then
the group has swelled to 25O members.56 The training methods of
M-l9 are not well known, but it is presumed that current members
receive instruction in Colombia.
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is a large
group consisting of 4-5,OOO members. In contrast to the
independent methods typical of South American terrorist groups,
FARC leadership has supported the creation of the Simon Bolivar
Guerrilla Coordinator (SBGC), which is designed to harmonize the
efforts of disparate Colombian terror groups. If successful, SBGC may
potentially lead to cooperative training among the terrorist groups of
Central and South American terrorism is often associated with
right wing political movements. So called "death squads", often
comprised of military or police personnel, are active in many
countries. They employ their law enforcement and martial skills in
the conduct of their operations. Right wing terrorists with
government connections (state-support) also enjoy virtual immunity
from prosecution, although they risk retaliation from the enemies
they attack. Right wing groups are also likely to have access to high
quality weapons, explosives, and detonators from state arsenals.
Western European terrorism is largely urban in nature and is
comprised primarily of Marxist groups and organizations organized
along ethnic and religious lines. Several hard core European Marxist
groups cooperated during the l98O's. The Combatant Communist
Cells (CCC) of Belgium, Direct Action (AD) of France, and the Red
Army Faction (RAF) of Germany allied to form the Anti Imperialist
Allied Front. The front followed an anti NATO policy. Additionally,
the Red Brigades (RB) of Italy also had contact with RAF and AD
members. These groups, several of which were established by
members trained by Palestinian terrorists, currently present little
threat to the continent. Marxism seems to have lost its appeal there.
Ominously though, Iranian government agents are reputed to have
made contact with the remnants of some of those organizations
during l994.58 One can speculate that Iran believes they could be
useful to her cause in the future.
The greatest organic terrorist threat to Europe comes from the
ethnic/religious movements exemplified by the PIRA, ETA, and PKK.
The ETA and PIRA have established a close working relationship.
Many members met at various Middle Eastern training camps
beginning during the l97O's. In l98O, a Basque prisoner indicated
that at least l5 of his ETA comrades had attended an Irish weapons
and explosives training course.59
In Ireland, much of the Provos legendary expertise in bombs has
been self developed. Daithi O'Connell, of PIRA fame, is the
acknowledged inventor of the car bomb. Many PIRA volunteers
learned their bomb manufacturing skills from their civilian
occupations as electricians, and surprisingly, pin ball machine
repairmen.60 As time progressed they perfected their skills at
developing time delay and remotely detonated fuses. The Irish have
also been innovative in the employment of blast accentuators and in
booby trapping their bombs.
Training in how to resist interrogation is another feature of PIRA
education. When new PIRA inmates arrive in British or Irish prisons,
they are immediately approached by other incarcerated cadre and
debriefed on their capture. This information is smuggled out of the
institution and provided to the command structure for analysis by
leaders and promulgation to members at large. Other "lessons
learned" are useful to the PIRA. Members are instructed to take
possession of weapons as late as possible prior to conducting an
operation, and to move to a safe house immediately after the
engagement. This minimizes their exposure while in possession of
illegal weapons and gets them out of sight quickly. Once at the safe
house, weapons are transported to a hiding spot and members wash
and change clothes. Attention to detail is stressed. The terrorists
even scrub their nails to remove any residue of explosives or
firearms in order to conceal evidence from forensic scientists of the
Irish and British authorities.61 Curiously, many particularly effective
Irish Republican terrorists obtained their skills in such areas as crew
served weapons, including mortars, during service with the British
Training for members of PIRA active service units is conducted
by training officers at safe sites in Ireland. Detailed explosives
training is provided along with instruction in small arms and
machine guns. Basic training includes methods of priming and
detonating bombs, while advanced courses teach more progressive
classes on subjects such as booby trapping and methods of remote
controlled explosives. Much of the training seems to be geared at
increasing the confidence level of members in order to enhance their
effectiveness at placing and detonating bombs.63
TERRORIST TRAINING IN EMPLOYING WEAPONS OF MASS
Hiring or recruiting experts is an option for terrorist groups in
lieu of training their own members in difficult or technical subjects
that require years of rigorous study. This approach can be used by
organizations interested in obtaining skills in nuclear, biological, and
chemical weapons. Thousands of engineers graduate from Middle
Eastern universities every year and many join the ranks of the
unemployed. They are a great pool of potential disciples for the
numerous terrorist movements of the region.
Chemists and biologists possess requisite skills for developing
rudimentary chemical and biological weapons, both of which
constitute a great present danger to world security. Palestinian
groups have already threatened to employ chemical weapons.
Adnon Abu Jaber, who was arrested by the Israelis after the 2 May
l98O Hebron raid, admitted to having undergone training in Moscow,
and claimed this training had included chemical and biological
warfare courses.64 The PLF and PLFP-GC have menaced Cyprus by
stating that they might overfly the island and saturate it with aerosol
poisons. Those organizations are accumulating micro light and glider
aircraft that could provide them with that capability. "In l987
Colonel Ayu al Tayyib, the commander of force l7 of the PLO, stated
that his group had acquired chemical weapons and would use them
against Israel, if necessary. He claimed that some Palestinians have
been trained in the use of these weapons in other countries."65
Libya's chemical capabilities, as well as its support for terrorist
organizations, are well documented. They may well have provided
chemical training to surrogate organizations. It is less likely that the
Libyans would provide their proxies with actual chemical or
My first conclusion is that there is no evidence today of a
worldwide terrorist training apparatus. This is because there is no
nation, or block of nations, with both the resources and the belief
that its political goals will be furthered by a coordinated global
terrorist assault against an opposing camp. The world has fractured
into a number of competing alliances and factions, each attempting to
further its own ends. This has resulted in terrorist training
cooperation along regional, ethnic and religious lines.
A second conclusion is that the training techniques for the
majority of terrorist organizations exhibit many similarities. The
first and most important is that ideology is paramount. Political or
religious indoctrination is stressed by everyone from Marighella to
Islamic fundamentalists. Terrorists from most movements must
demonstrate ability and loyalty by performing simple tasks prior to
being trained for more difficult assignments. Hence, as we have
seen, Sendero recruits begin by painting graffiti while PIRA initial
instruction is designed to build confidence rather than technical
ability. Additionally, most groups have a small number of trained
key personnel supported by many more less specialized members.
In l985 the British Army estimated the PIRA relied on only four or
five master explosives experts.66 Finally, all groups are moving
towards weapons and tactics that are increasingly sophisticated and
deadly. Their level of violence is increasing, perhaps because the
world has become immune to "routine" bombings and shootings.
Past patterns and current developments point to several
trends during the next ten years. First, Islamic fundamentalism will
increase rather than wane, and it will be accompanied by continued
cooperation in training among militant Islamic cliques. Algeria and
Egypt will be subject to increased fundamentalist violence, and
religion will have a greater appeal to the poor masses of those
nations than their governments will. Continued Shia-Sunni, Iranian-
Sudanese concord will be particularly crucial to support terrorist
organizations in North Africa and the Middle East. There is every
indication that radical Sunni Islam is on the ascent.67 The increased
immigration of Muslims to the United States will facilitate
fundamentalist terrorist actions being conducted here in the same
way they made it easier to operate in Europe.
Marxist groups will continue to decline because of the failure of
communism in the former Soviet Union and general disillusionment
with its philosophy. The remnants of those organizations have been
deprived of their former East European safe havens. More
importantly, they have lost their former popular support above and
below ground. Without their support infrastructures these groups
will eventually fade away.
Another future trend will be increased participation in the
political process by wings of terrorist organizations. Sinn Fein and
the PIRA demonstrated how potent the terrorist political/military
combination could be. They were emulated by the Basque ETA
whose political wing, Herri Batasuna, generally draws l5 to l7
percent of the votes in the Basque region of north Spain.6 s Several
Middle Eastern groups have entered the political arena. Hizballah
has recently ventured forth into mainstream Lebanese politics and
fundamentalist Islamic groups have attained political successes in
Turkey and Algeria. The political trend is also surfacing in South
America where the Patriotic Union has pursued the interests of the
State-supported terrorism will remain common. This is because
terrorism pays. Nations do not need to invest a great deal of
resources to assist a terrorist organization, and can gain great
negotiating power when it is presumed that they can influence the
activities of certain movements. Terrorism is a particularly effective
means of confronting the United States. Saddam Hussein challenged
the United States conventionally and was decisively defeated. Iran
challenges us constantly through her surrogates and has not suffered
significantly for it. State sponsors of terrorism will be more wary of
the groups they aid, and will increase their efforts to infiltrate and
influence them, intensifying their attempts at agent recruitment
during training. They will increasingly try to guarantee that the
recipients of their assistance do not turn against them.
Ethnic and religious movements will perpetuate as the world
proceeds to evolve after the demise of the former Soviet Union.
Repressed minorities that were held in place by oppressive
communist regimes will struggle for national identity, and faced with
overcoming more heavily armed governments, will resort to
Surviving ethnic/nationalist groups operating in hostile territory
will become much more sophisticated as counter terrorist efforts
increase in effectiveness and expertise. "Survival of the fittest" will
be the rule; groups will either adapt or perish. Organizations that
are able to operate from territory controlled by their sponsors, such
as Hizballah in the Bekaa Valley, will not need to adapt as radically
to persevere. Terrorist groups may take a vested interest in
maintaining their safe havens and may deliberately attempt to
undermine the political, military, or diplomatic efforts of their
sponsors that could threaten them.
Alliances between terrorists and criminals are already a matter of
grave concern. The line separating terrorist organizations and
criminal enterprises has become indistinct, and may be more vague
in the future. The Irish Republican Army and the Loyalist
paramilitaries illustrate groups that risk significant financial loss if
there is a negotiated settlement to the conflict in Northern Ireland.
Protracted struggle lends an air of legitimacy to their local extortion
and racketeering operations. The growing worldwide appetite for
illegal narcotics will provide even greater incentives for alliances
between narcotics producers/distributors and indigenous terrorist
bands. The amount of money Peruvian and Colombian terror
organizations can extort from narcotics traffickers is staggering.
Many drug lords pay terrorists $l5,OOO per flight in or out of
protected runways.70 Police in Lima, Peru believe Sendero Luminoso
has accumulated $4O million, largely from runway "landing fees" .71
Future terrorists will continue to exploit publications that provide
instruction in useful techniques. Military manuals are common,
easily understood, and readily reproduced. The Anarchist's
Cookbook and publications such as the PIRA's Green Book
supplement those documents. Active duty or reserve military
training provides a background of experience that terrorists will
continue to tap as members of action teams and instructors. The
Former Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact have generated thousands of
dispossessed military commissioned and noncommissioned officers
who could conceivably be enticed to provide mercenary instruction.
The combination of profits from illegal undertakings, in conjunction
with an available pool of experienced instructors, could lead to
enhanced training for members of financially unconstrained
movements. In addition to individual instructors, corporations may
offer training to terrorist organizations. Israel's Hod Hohonit Security
Firm was investigated for training Colombian drug cartel
Many terrorists will continue to learn their initial skills while
serving periods of incarceration. John Stephenson (a.k.a. Sean
MacStiofain) of the Provisional IRA learned terrorist techniques from
Greek Cypriot inmates while serving a sentence at the Wormwood
Scrubbs Prison.73 Increased apprehension and sentencing of
terrorists to institutions where they mix with other convicted
criminals will provide them with a fertile recruiting ground, and a
violent and largely dispossessed audience for instruction/exchange of
Terrorists will also avail themselves of advances in technology to
further their aims and enhance their training. John Maxwell Oliphant
developed a bomb making video for distribution to Aryan groups in
the United States.74 The Internet and other computer systems
provide a superb medium for spreading global propaganda.
Worldwide mobile communications systems provide the means for
coordinating training and operational planning across great distances.
In the long run, Soviet orchestration of international terrorist
training might seem like "the good old days", since Moscow exerted a
moderating influence on movements it supported, and historically
did not promote actions against United States territory. Today's
Islamic Fundamentalists will be less likely to refrain from attacks on
our soil (as we have seen with the World Trade Center Bombing).
That lack of restraint, with more advanced and lethal munitions, to
include weapons of mass destruction (as evidenced in Tokyo), will
exemplify the character of future terrorist operations.
Map One: Simferopol and Baku
Map Two: Plauen, Karl Marx Stadt, and Dresden
Map Three: Babelsberg and Kleinmachnow (Klein Machsrow)
Map Four: Varna
Map Five: Al Bayda (Al-Beida), Surt (Sirte), and Tukrah (Tokra)
Map Six: Baktia (PaktikaIPaktia), Jalabad, and Peshawar
Map Seven: Wadi Seidna (Wadi Saydna)
l. Karl A. Segar, The Antiterrorism Handbook (Novato: Presidio
2. David Segal, "Tehran's Terror Czar: Sayeed Ali Akbar
Mohtashemi," Counterterrorism and Security Affairs, Winter l989-9O, l4-
3. Segar, 4-6.
4. Eileen MacDonald, Shoot the Women First (New York: Random
5. Joseph S. Bermudez, Terrorism, the North Korean Connection
(New York: Taylor & Francis), l47.
6. MacDonald, 33-62.
7. Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Terrorists, Their
Weapons, Leaders and Tactics (New York: Facts on File Publications), l2-
8. Segar, 44-45.
9. Michael Connor, Terrorism, Its Goals, Its Targets, Its Methods
(Boulder: Paladin Press), 22-26.
10. Connor, 27.
ll. Dobson and Payne, (The Terrorists), 7-8.
l2. Dobson and Payne, (The Terrorists), l3O-l3l.
l3. Roger W. Fontaine, Terrorism: The Cuban Connection (New York,
Philadelphia, London: Crane Russack & Company), 36-37.
l4. Claire Sterling, The Terror Network (New York: Reader's Digest
l5. Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Carlos Complex A
Study in Terror (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons), 33-34.
l6. Sterling, 253-254.
l7. Sterling, 255.
l8. Sterling, 255-256.
l9. Stephen Segaller, Invisible Armies Terrorism into the 199O's
(San Diego, New York, London: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Publishers),
2O. Sterling, 278.
2l. Sterling 279.
22. Roberta Goren, The Soviet Union and Terrorism (London: George,
Allen and Union), l38.
23. Sterling, 279-28O.
24. Bermudez, Joseph S. Terrorism, the North Korean Connection
(New York: Taylor & Francis), l32.
25. Galia Golan, Gorbachev's "New Thinking" on Terrorism (New
York: The Center for Strategic and International Studies), 88.
26. Golan, 89.
27. Bruce George and Timothy Watson, "Combating International
Terrorism After l992" in European Terrorism Today & Tomorrow
(New York: MacMillan Publishing), l9O.
28. Patrick Seale, Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire (New York: Random
29. Sterling, 26l-264.
3O. Michael Eisenstadt, "Syria and the Terrorist Connection," Jane's
Intelligence Review, January l993, 33.
3l. Eisenstadt, 35.
32. Eisenstadt, 35.
33. Tim Ripley, "The PKK-Another Look at the Middle East's Shining
Path," Jane's intelligence Review, August l993, 372.
34. "Intelligence Services Report Greece Supporting PKK", Berlin Die
Welt, 2 December l994, l. Translated by Foreign Broadcast Information
Service: JPRS Report l2 December l994, (JPRS-TOT-94-O48-L).
35. John M. Musacchio and Arnon Rozen, "Fundamentalist Fervor:
Islamic Terrorism in the 8O's," Security Management, November l988, 56.
36. Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism, Iran and the Gulf Region," Jane's
Intelligence Review, May l992, 226.
37. Wilkinson (Iran), 224.
38. Wilkinson (Iran), 226.
39. "Israeli Police Find Faxes Calling for Attacks", Tel Aviv Yedi Ot
Aharonot, 8 September l994, l and l7. Translated by Foreign
Broadcast Information Services: JPRS Report l5 September l994
4O. Magnus Ranstorp, "Hezbollah' s Future?- Part l," Jane 's
Intelligence Review, February l995, 34.
4l. Anthony Davis, "Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan," Jane's
Intelligence Review, July l993, 327.
42. Davis, 328.
43 . Davis, 33l.
44. "'Growing Activity' at 'Islamic Extremists' Training Camps", Paris
AL- WATAN AL ARABI, 6 January l995, 6. Translated by Foreign
Broadcast Information Service: JPRS Report l9 January l995 (JPRS
45. James Bruce, "Arab Veterans of the Afghan War," Jane's
Intelligence Review, April l995, l76.
46. "Sudan's Secret training Camps," The Economist, lO September
47. "Turning Informer," New York Times, !9 February l995.
48. "Deputy Speaker Defects, Details Foreign Terrorist Training",
Cairo AL AHRAM, l7 January l994, Translated by Foreign Broadcast
Information Service: JPRS Report 3l January l994 (JPRS-TOT-94-
49. James Wylie, "Sudan-The Middle East's Latest Rogue State,"
Jane's intelligence Review, July l992, 3ll.
5O. "Patterns of Global Terrorism," Department of State, l993, 25.
5l. Foreign Report, The Economist, l2 November l992.
52. Foreign Report, The Economist, 3O April l992, 4.
53. Ahmed Rashid, "March of the Militants," Far Eastern Economic
Review, 9 March l995, l8.
54. Rigoberto Tiglao, "To Fight or Not to Fight," Far Eastern Economic
Review, 9 March l995, 2l.
55. Thomas Bedford Jones Frank, "Sendero Luminoso: Origins,
Outlooks and Implications. Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey,
California, June l986, 53.
56. "Colombia's Other Gangsters," The Economist, 25 March l995, 48.
57. Robert A. Friedlander, Documents of International and Local
Control Volume VI Global Terrorism in the Dangerous Decade (London,
Rome, New York: Oceana Publications Incorporated), 299, 3lO.
58. Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism in Europe-Retrospect and Prospect,"
Jane's The World In Conflict, 59.
59. Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Never Ending War-
Terrorism in the 8O's (New York: Facts on File Publications), l8O.
6O. Dobson and Payne (Never Ending War), l82.
6l. Dobson and Payne (Never Ending War), l85.
62. Dobson and Payne (The Terrorists), 75.
64. Roberta Goren, The Soviet Union and Terrorism (London, Boston,
Sydney: George, Allen & Urwin), l39.
65. Jeffery D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap. America 's Experience With
Terrorism (Bloomington& Indianapolis: Indiana University Press), 358.
66. Dobson and Payne (Never Ending War), l82
67. Judith Miller, "Faces of Fundamentalism: Hassan al Turabi and
Muhammed Fadlallah," Foreign Affairs, November/December l994, l42.
68. John Durnton, "Basques Find Inspiration as I.R.A. Talks of Peace,"
New York Times, l6 April l995, 6.
69. Friedlander, 3O9.
7O. "Colombia's Other Gangsters", The Economist, 25 March l995, 48.
7l. Linda Robinson, "No Holds Barred", U.S. News & World Report, 28
September l992, 49.
72. "Counterterror Course for Beginners", Counterterrorism &
Security, Winter l989-l99O, 2l.
73. Stephen E. Arthurs, Terrorism: A Reference Handbook (Santa
Barbara: ABC-CLIO Inc.),78.
74. Brent L. Smith, Terrorism in America Pipe Bombs and Pipe
Dreams, (Albany: State University of New York Press), 8O.
Adams, James. The Financing of Terror. New York: Simon & Schuster,
Anderson, Scott. "Making a Killing. The High Cost of Peace in Northern
Ireland." Harper's Magazine, February l994, 45-54.
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