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Press Coverage in Somalia: A Case for Media Relations

Press Coverage in Somalia: A Case for Media Relations

to be a Principle of Operations Other Than War

 

 

CSC 1995

SUBJECT AREA - Topical Issues

 

Executive Summary

April l8, l995

For: Dr. Jack Matthews, Committee Chairman/1st Mentor; Major Dan Carpenter, 2nd Mentor; and Dr. Mark Jacobsen, 3rd Reader

Title: Press Coverage in Somalia: A Case for Media Relations to be a Principle of Military Operations Other Than War

Author: Major David B. Stockwell, USA, CG 9

Research Question: Does media relations have the impact necessary to be considered a principle of military operations other than war?

 

Discussion: The media's coverage of the United States' and United Nations' intervention in Somalia influenced military operations primarily because the press had unprecedented access to the battlefield. Somalia reinforced that public opinion is a military operation's center of gravity and that media access to the battlefield is a military operation's critical vulnerability.

Media images of starving Somalis got the world into Somalia and media images of a dead U.S. soldier being dragged though Mogadishu streets got the world out of Somalia. In between, the media's access to the battlefield influenced operations in a manner previously unseen. For example, consider the frustration that U.S. troops felt when the international press corps reported

on Task Force Ranger's seemingly bungled raid on a U.N. compound in Mogadishu in August l993. Three days later, a U.S. Army Quick Reaction Force patrol approached a suspected militia mortar firing position in Mogadishu that was housed in a humanitarian relief organization compound. This Time, these soldiers knocked on the gate and asked the proprietor for permission to search the premises. Media coverage had influenced that patrol's actions. The likelihood is

good that the media will have similar access to future operations-other-than-war battlefields.

If the military is to keep pace with the influential press on the operations-other-than-war battlefield, the military would be better-served if it considered media relations as a principle of operations other than war to give it the prominence it needs for proper planning and execution.

 

Conclusion: Media relations has the impact necessary to be considered a principle of military operations other than war and the U.S. military ought to adopt it as such.

Press Coverage in Somalia: A Case for Media Relations

to be a Principle of Military Operations Other Than War

 

A Master's Thesis

by Major David Stockwell, USA, CG9

 

 

April l8, l995

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Item Page

Introduction 1

Chapter One: Historical Overview of the Military-Media

Relationship 6

A. Reporting From the Battlefield 11

B. Reporting the Persian Gulf War 13

Chapter Two: Press Coverage in Somalia as it Relates to the

Principles of Operations Other Than War 17

A. Objective 23

B. Unity of Effort 25

C. Legitimacy 26

D. Perseverance 28

B. Restraint 3l

F. Security 32

 

Chapter Three: Emerging Media Issues from Somalia 34

A. Somalia, Persian Gulf War Were Back-to-Back,

Opposite Scenarios 36

B. Somalia's Emerging Press 37

C. Training Troops, Commanders to Meet the Press 4O

D. Not All Reporters Knew Somalia, Either 4l

E. Even though Independent, Reporters Will Ask

Military for Help 44

 

Chapter Four: Press Planning for Operation UNITED SHIELD: Media

Relations as a principle of Operations Other Than War 47

A. Public Affairs Posture 48

B. Categories of Media 49

C. Somali Press 49

D. Training and Contingency Planning 5l

 

Conclusion 53

 

Illustrations

A. Photo of Aftermath of Battle of 3 October l993 8

B. Photo of Starving Somalis, l992 10

C. Photo of Saigon, Tet l968 l2

D. Photo of Persian Gulf War, l99l l5

Item Page

Illustrations (continued)

E. Map of Africa and Somalia l8

F. Editorial Cartoon of Amphibious Landing, l992 2O

G. Map of Mogadishu 22

H. Somali Qaran Newspaper Front Page 38

I. Synchronization Matrix, Operation UNITED SHIELD 5O

J. Editorial Cartoon, Mogadishu, l994 55

 

Appendix: Overview of U.S. Intervention in Somalia, l992-l994 57

Bibliography 63

Endnotes 85

 

Introduction

 

 

Now to every army and almost every general a newspaper reporter goes along, filling up our transports, swelling our trains, reporting our progress, guessing at places, picking up dropped expressions, inciting jealousy and discontent, and doing infinite mischief.

Union Army General William Tecumseh Sherman, l863

Introduction

 

The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how the military's relationship with the media, and the resultant press coverage that occurs in operations other than war, has become an operational function and not just a battlefield activity; dealing with the media has become strategically and operationally critical for the military. The thesis question this document seeks to answer: Does media relations have the impact necessary to be considered a principle of operations other than war?

First, there are procedural matters to discuss. This introduction and the conclusion are written in the first person, but the text is written in the third person. Many media outlets use "The" in their titles. I have dispensed with the use of "The" in media titles to make the text, endnotes and bibliography more readable and concise. Despite the Joint Military Intelligence College Style Guide's format, I prefer to use civilian-style dates rather than military-style dates in the bibliography. This is the only deviation from the style guide I have taken. Also, I interchange the use of "U.N." with "UNOSOM II" in the text. Unless otherwise noted, "U.N." and "UNOSOM II" refers to he United Nations Operation in Somalia II. Likewise, I interchange the terms "journalist," "reporter," "correspondent," "press" and "media."

Second, some explanation on this document's organization. For this document's purposes, press coverage of UNOSOM II and planning for Operation UNITED SHIELD is highlighted. The reason for choosing these two periods is because the U.S. mission in UNOSOM II was long-range and under the aegis of the United Nations; the public affairs apparatus was understaffed and ill-prepared. UNITED SHIELD capitalized on the hard-learned lessons of UNOSOM II by incorporating UNOSOM II's after-action recommendations into its planning process in a precedent-setting way.

Somalia's media relations experience can't be examined in a vacuum. Therefore, the first chapter provides a brief historical overview of the military-media relationship, especially the Persian Gulf War as a counterpoint to Somalia. As you will read, the U.S. Defense Department's masterful control of the press in the Gulf War may have been too good by portraying war as bloodless. I contend that this legacy did not properly prepare Americans for the possibility of casualties in the world's first peace-making operation in Somalia barely two years later.

The purpose of chapter two is to examine the principles of operations other than war and show how the press coverage in Somalia impacted on those principles, actually influencing military operations. The U.S. Army's Field Manual lOO-5, Operations, dated June l993, is the source of information on these principles.1 This field manual is among the first in the military to conceptualize operations other than war. The six principles of operations other than war in FM lOO-5 are: objective, unity of effort, legitimacy, perseverance, restraint and security. This chapter demonstrates, through examples from Somalia, how press coverage impacted on each of these principles. But media relations was more than just a battlefield activity in Somalia. I contend that press coverage in Somalia so permeated and influenced military operations that the U.S. military should add media relations as the seventh principle of operations other than war to give it the prominence it deserves to ensure proper planning and preparation in the future. I will repeat the notion that media coverage in operations other than war permeates and influences military operations several Times throughout this document to maintain that focus.

The purpose of chapter three is to round out the analysis in chapter two by providing significant lessons learned from Somalia, for example, the need to train troops and commanders how to plan for and deal with reporters on the operations-other-than-war battlefield. These lessons contribute to the argument that media relations is operational.

The purpose of chapter four is to show how operational planning for the last installment of U.S. intervention in Somalia, Operation UNITED SHIELD, actually used media relations as a principle for operations other than war based on UNOSOM II's lessons and became the combined task force commander's focus of effort during one phase of the operation.

For those readers less familiar with U.S. intervention in Somalia, the appendix summarizes those periods.

The key ingredient that separates media relations in war from media relations in operations other than war is reporter access to the battlefield; the military is able to control the press in war. In operations other than war, the press has unrestricted access to the battlefield. That fact alone created public scrutiny of military operations in Somalia so unprecedented that

press coverage influenced military operations. Consider the frustration that U.S. troops felt when the international press corps reported on Task Force Ranger's seemingly bungled raid on a U.N. compound in Mogadishu in August l993. Three days later, a U.S. Army Quick Reaction Force patrol approached a suspected militia mortar firing position in Mogadishu that was housed in a humanitarian relief organization compound. This Time, these soldiers knocked on the gate and

asked the proprietor for permission to search the premises. Media coverage had influenced that patrol's actions.

In military parlance, media access to the operations-other-than-war battlefield is a strategic, operational and tactical critical vulnerability.2 Media relations in operations other than war requires an increased prominence to ensure proper planning and executing to make it less of a vulnerability to military operations.3

Further, support from the American people the military requires for a successful operation is a strategic and operational center of gravity.4 When public support for an operation wanes, as it did so dramatically in Somalia in the aftermath of the Battle of 3 October, the operation is terminated. The conduit for public support of a military operation is though the media.

Somalia-type missions may be in the offing for the U.S. military in the future. As such, the military will be better-served if it considers media relations as an integral part of its operational design instead of the peripheral component it is now.

Finally, my role was as chief UNOSOM II military spokesman from March l993 to March l994 which included concurrent duties as spokesman for U.S. Forces Somalia and spokesman for Task Force Ranger. I also served in Somalia during the Unified Task Force (for more information on UNITAF and the U.S. intervention in Somalia, see this document's appendix) and on the staff of Combined Task Force United Shield. Material in this document from UNOSOM II stems from my volume of unpublished notes written in Somalia. These notes and collection of original press briefings I have represent the only media-oriented catalogue of material from that period.

 

 

Chapter One

 

Historical Overview of the Military-Media Relationship

 

Chapter One

 

Historical Overview of Military-Media Relationship

 

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief, historical overview of the military-media relationship in setting the stage for discussion of the thesis question, and also to establish the Persian Gulf War as a media relations counterpoint to Somalia.

It was an horrific image to anyone who saw it, a moment forever frozen in Time from mid-morning Monday, October 4, l993, on the streets of Mogadishu, Somalia. The image was a photograph of a dead American soldier, his hands bound, his body clad in dirty olive-drab underwear, being dragged through the dusty alleyways by a throng of Somali youths.5

The image of the dead soldier is one of two images that most readily comes to mind when one hears the topic of U.S. involvement in Somalia. The other image is emaciated Somali men, women and children starving in a human-made famine caused by greedy warlords who seized humanitarian relief supply shipments after Somalia's dictator fled the country at the start of that country's civil war that began in January l99l. Popular consensus blames the media's images of starving Somalis in the media for having caused the United States' involvement in Somalia. Popular consensus also blames the media's image of the dead soldier being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu for having caused the U.S. to withdraw its support from that African nation. Simply put, the media got us into Somalia, and the media got us out of Somalia.6

The debacle in Somalia followed soon after the successful U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War. The Gulf War, a conventional war on the strategic offensive, has become the antithesis for Somalia, an operation other than war on the strategic defensive, where the media's role is concerned. In the Persian Gulf War, the military corralled the press, showed reporters

 

Canadian Paul Watson, correspondent for the Toronto Star, took this photograph with a pocket camera (he is a print journalist, not a photojournalist) of Somalis dragging the body of a dead U.S. soldier in Mogadishu after the Baffle of October 3, l993. This photo has come to symbolize the failure of U.S. foreign policy in the Horn of Africa and created an backlash of U.S. public opinion that forced the withdrawal of U.S. troops. Watson received a Pulitzer Prize for this picture.

 

 

what it wanted them to see and then screened their stories in the interest of security. In Somalia, the press traveled freely, often to places in Mogadishu where the United Nations military, of which the U.S. military comprised less than 10 percent of the U.N. force and was under the control of the UNOSOM's civilian-led political and humanitarian divisions, felt unsafe to go.7 The resultant environment in Somalia created a constant challenge for the United Nations public affairs apparatus, both civilian and military, to maintain credibility for what had become the world's first attempt at nation-building.8

On further examination, though, one might conclude that the success of the Persian Gulf War's military public affairs apparatus created too much of a notion that war was bloodless and had evolved to such a high state of technology that combat was like playing a Nintendo game.9 The American news-consuming public had not been properly prepared for the image of the dead soldier in Mogadishu during the U.S.'s involvement in Somalia and had not seen anything so upsetting since coverage of the Vietnam war.10 Perhaps somewhere in the U.S. strategic public affairs success in the Persian Gulf War lies, in part, the U.S. strategic and operational failure in Somalia.11

The U.S. administration had not prepared Americans for the likelihood of U.S. casualties when Somali's mission changed from UNITAF's short-range humanitarian intervention to UNOSOM II's long-range nation building under the precedent-setting Chapter VII peace enforcement mandate that, in effect, authorized combat operations.12 Instead perhaps the political goal was to exercise U.S. public policy through the aegis of the United Nations, hence the need to minimize potential for casualties and not get Americans unduly excited that their troops were going in harm's way.13 Regardless of the reasons, Somalia's outcome was clear:

 

Images like this of Somali children starving at the hands of merciless Somali warlords who confiscated humanitarian relief food were responsible for the world's intervention in that African country in l992.

 

 

 

Americans were not ready for the images they saw in the press of the aftermath

 

of the Baffle of 3 October.14

 

The Persian Gulf War and Somalia certainly were not the first instances of the military's direct involvement with the press, and won't be the last. The United States military and the media have had a tempestuous relationship since reporters started sharing battlefields with soldiers in modem Times. The following summary discusses the evolution of the relationship between the military and the media in modem Times, as well as the evolution of technology and the importance of news from the battlefield.

 

A.    Reporting from the Battlefield

 

A convenient starting point to document the relationship between the military and the media is the Crimean War in l854. There, a British newspaper correspondent reported the ill-advised Charge of the Light Brigade that contributed to Britain's parliament unseating the prime minister with a vote of no confidence.15

The advent of the telegraph during the American Civil War sped up the reporting process which reduced field commander's patience with war correspondents. Union Army General William Tecumseh Sherman was so enraged with a New York Herald reporter's dispatch from Vicksburg that Sherman court-martialed the reporter for violating Sherman's order prohibiting battlefield reporting. The court found the reporter guilty.16

World War I saw a continuation of tension between the military and the media. General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force, became so furious at two reporters' dispatches that he fined one of them $10,000 and expelled the other from Europe.17

This l968 Tet Offensive photograph of Saigon police chief General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a suspected Viet Cong major after allegedly murdering a South Vietnamese soldier's family earned photojournalist Eddie Adams, Associated Press, a Pulitzer Prize. The photo of this South Vietnamese official executing a man whose arms were tied behind his back helped create an uproar in the United States that resulted in a loss of support for the war and eventual withdrawal from Vietnam, a bold example of the media's influence.

 

 

General Dwight D. Eisenhower fared better in World War II. He recognized the importance of press coverage in maintaining public support. Eisenhower embraced reporters, considering them to be quasi-staff officers whose mission commanders must understand and assist.18 His relationship with reporters was so successful that Eisenhower got reporters to embargo then Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr.'s slapping incident of an enlisted soldier in Sicily to prevent the Germans from using it as propaganda.19

Reporting from Vietnam is the example of the military-media relationship that most Americans probably recall the easiest. Images from the l968 North Vietnamese Army's Tet Offensive that gave Americans the mistaken impression that the enemy was winning the war have become legendary. Less heralded was how the military's public affairs posture contributed to that debacle. General William C. Westmoreland's overly-optimistic televised briefing to Americans from the Pentagon that "success lies within our grasp" set the stage for the avalanche

of disbelief that coverage of Tet produced two months later.20

 

B. Reporting in the Persian Gulf War

 

By the Time Operation DESERT SHIELD began in the fall of l99O, relations between the military and the media had hardly improved since Vietnam; some referred to the relationship as "mutual hangovers."21 The media as an institution felt it had been "shut out of Grenada, cooped up in Panama and put on the late plane to Saudi Arabia."22 The press pool that deployed to Saudi Arabia in August l99O was the product of the aftermath of l983's Operation URGENT FURY in Grenada.23 The military had excluded the press in Grenada and afterward, a panel headed by retired Army Major General Winant Sidle, previously the Army's chief of public affairs, concluded the press should pool to cover the initial stages of a military operation.24 A national press pool was formed in the Pentagon that included a representative from each of the major U.S.

news outlets. The pool's first deployment to l989's Operation JUST CAUSE in Panama had failed when reporters were deposited in a hotel and ignored.25 And in Saudi Arabia, in l99O and l99l, the U.S. Defense Department maintained the pool arrangement for months until 24 hours into the 100-hour ground war.26 This arrangement was contrary to Sidle's design that pools are temporary organizations to cover only the initial stages of an operation, not the entire operation.27

The overarching element that influenced the Persian Gulf War coverage, as the press pool arrangement illustrates, was the military's masterful control of the press and, as a result, the message. Silent gun-camera footage from "smart" bomb engagements played at the Riyadh press briefings portrayed the war as sterile and pristine. Some information, like the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division tactic of burying alive Iraqi soldiers in their trenches was not explained publicly although the soldiers in the division knew it.28 Pat Sloyan, defense correspondent for New York's Newsday, reported it months after the war and won the Pulitzer Prize.29 By not disclosing publicly the Army tactic, this evidence suggests that the Defense Department created the conditions for an expose. Had that fact been disclosed, Sloyan likely would not have won a

Pulitzer for that story; rather, the tactic 'likely would have been a non-issue.30

There were positive aspects to press control in the Persian Gulf War. One was the "feint" of a Marine amphibious assault on Kuwait's beaches that, reported in the media, purportedly kept Iraqi military attention focused away from the coalition main effort in the west.31 In another instance, U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Walter Boomer, commander of Marine forces in theater, told reporters that the U.S. response to the speculation of Iraq's use of chemical weapons would be "terrible" when, in fact, he had no idea what that response would be.32 The war's

 

 

This photograph of a U.S. soldier weeping on learning that the body bag holds the remains of a fellow tank crewman was one of the relatively few combat photographs from the l 99 l Persian Gulf War. The U.S. Department of Defense effectively controlled reporters throughout the buildup and air and ground campaigns,with the help of Saudi Arabian hosts. David Turnley took this photograph while a member of a DoD press pool during the ground campaign.

 

 

 

outcome regarding the lack of Iraqi chemical weapon usage suggests Boomer's

 

message may have helped produce the desired effect.33

 

The most enduring aspect of the Defense Department's control of reporters and the message in the Persian Gulf War became apparent in Somalia in the fall of l993. Americans had not seen combat casualties (in a conflict the U.S. was involved in) in the press since Vietnam and they didn't see them in the Persian Gulf War. Instead, the Defense Department offered Americans images of a sanitized battlefield. That factor made the media images of the dead U.S.

soldier being dragged through Mogadishu streets in October l993 all the more shocking to Americans.34

Summary. This chapter's overview of the military-media relationship highlighted the spectrum of the positive and negative aspects of that relationship. This chapter showed both how the media cooperated with the military in World War II and how the media's reporting infuriated the military in Vietnam. It also highlighted the spectrum of philosophy in military public affairs, from General Eisenhower's proactive approach in dealing with the press in World War II to General Westmoreland's overly optimistic "success lies within our grasp" stance. Further, this chapter demonstrated how the Defense Department's control of the media during the Persian Gulf War provided unrealistic expectations in the American people's perception of combat that

significantly influenced Somalia's outcome.

 

 

Chapter Two

 

Press Coverage in Somalia as it Relates to

the Principles of Operations Other Than War

 

 

 

Chapter Two

 

Press Coverage in Somalia as it Relates to the Principles of Operations Other Than War

 

The purpose of this chapter is to outline the principles of operations other than war, as defined in FM lOO-5, Operations, and examine how press coverage in Somalia impacted on those principles in that setting. This documents thesis is that press coverage of operations other than war -- as Somalia characterizes -- so permeates and influences military operations that it should be a principle itself to allow for proper planning. Without this increased emphasis, media coverage of operations other than war may have a negative impact on future military operations as they did on occasion in Somalia.

The media's freedom to move virtually unrestricted on the Mogadishu battlefield gave reporters unprecedented access to cover hostilities. In an interview with the author, CBS news correspondent Bob Simon said the closest he'd seen to Mogadishu's freedom for reporters was Beirut in the early l98Os but that access in Mogadishu was better.35 March l993 to March l994, nearly 6OO journalists from 6O nations passed through Mogadishu to cover the U.N. operation there and benefited from the freedom to cover both sides of hostilities.36

There are three factors that influenced media coverage during UNOSOM II. First, the United Nations has no guidelines for the release of public information or for dealing with the press.37 Unlike the U.S. Defense Department's Principles of Information, the U.N. has none.38 Neither does the U.N. have rules for combat coverage like the Defense Department has, which are guidelines drafted after the Persian Gulf War when national news agencies protested the military's control of war correspondents that they claimed was another form of censorship.39

 

This editorial cartoon, commenting on the U.S. amphibious landing at Mogadishu on December 9, l992, depicts the difficulty military forces have in conducting operations other than war where reporters have complete access to the battlefield.

 

 

Second, the command guidance in UNOSOM II was broad and there was only one person to execute it. Unlike UNITAF's 35-member Joint Information Bureau to handle the press, UNOSOM II had one U.S. Army major later helped by three augmentees from the Pentagon.40 It wasn't until after hostilities ended that the U.N. authorized staffing for a six-member Combined Information Bureau.41 Further, the commander of UNOSOM II, Turkish Lieutenant General Cevik Bir, avoided the media, instead deferring to his deputy, U.S. Army Major General Thomas M. Montgomery, who was dual-hatted as the commander of U.S. Forces Somalia.42 Montgomery reviewed and approved the spokesman's written press briefings only when -/ hostilities produced U.S. or U.N. casualties.43 There was no guidance for day-to-day dealings with the press; Montgomery gave the spokesman wide latitude to use his own judgment.44

Third, in a conventional war setting like the Persian Gulf, a line in the sand existed beyond which the enemy lived. In Somalia, like other operations-other-than-war settings, reporters interviewed both sides' leaders as much as those leaders would permit coverage. Mohamed Farah Aideed, the Somali faction leader at war with the U.N., displayed his deftness at executing a public information strategy.45

The Principles of Operations Other Than War

 

The principles of operations other than war provide general guidance for the conduct of operations other than war at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. But, unlike the principles of war, the principles of operations other than war have not withstood the test of Time; they are a recent creation.46

 

 

The following analysis demonstrates that media relations, too, provides general guidance for the conduct of operations other than war at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. The media's coverage impacted on all the principles of operations other than war.

A. Objective. Direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive and attainable objective.47

This principle, which also applies to war, enables commanders to achieve success by requiring them to attain an overall goal.48 One step toward this success is to maintain public support through the press, which General Eisenhower understood so well. Achieving public support through the media also means maintaining credibility with reporters. Withholding information from the press when reporters view incidents for themselves threatens the credibility

of the entire mission.49

UNOSOM II's mission was long-range: a two-year occupation at the end of which Somalia would hold the first democratic elections in its history.50 Consider these two examples of media coverage in Mogadishu in light of UNOSOM II's objective:

B. Two TOW missiles fired, not one.51 A Reuters television crew videotaped a U.S. Cobra helicopter firing two TOW (Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided) missiles at the rusted hulk of a BM-21 Soviet-made multiple rocket launcher (with 2l tubes that fire 122-millimeter missiles) near the U.N. headquarters on June l4, including footage of the first missile going awry and slamming into a tea shop on a crowded Mogadishu street, killing a woman and her young daughter. The U.N. command insisted it was a one-shot, one-kill engagement. Reporters excused that the engagement was not necessary -- they knew the BM-2l was junk but conceded that the U.N. force couldn't tell it was unfunctional from a distance, and that the U.N. had destroyed a fully-loaded, functional BM-2l just two days before -- but were outraged that the military would not confirm what they had witnessed and videotaped. Operational channels corrected the report after 24 hours, but left the appearance that the U.N.

command had acquiesced only in the face of irrefutable evidence. The U.N. lost

 

credibility temporarily and TOW misfires were a frequent problem in future

 

engagements.

 

Task Force Ranger raids U.N. compound.52 Television crews atop the Sahafi Hotel (where the journalists stayed) took splendid night-scope footage just a few blocks away of the Rangers as they fast-roped from hovering helicopters onto their objective on August 3O, but it wasn't until first light that they learned the target was the U.N. Development Program compound. The temptation to label the operation as a failure based on the perception of mistaken identity was overwhelming, not only for the international reporters in Somalia but for the national reporters in Washington, D.C. Despite the facts presented to reporters that day, it took several days before reasoned reports explained why the Rangers had hit the right target, the hasty ridicule was what dominated press coverage of the incident. The Pentagon hurried to distance itself from perceived failure and contributed to this debacle by providing a background briefing for reporters detailing the "intelligence failure" of the operation.54

Three days later, a U.S. Army Quick Reaction Force patrol approached a suspected militia mortar firing position that was housed in a humanitarian relief organization compound. This Time, these soldiers knocked on the gate and asked the proprietor for permission to search the premises.55 Media coverage of the UNDP raid had influenced how the military conducted subsequent missions.56

Media coverage also influenced how the military planned for those missions. After the UNDP incident, the U.N. military spokesman was consulted regarding the potential media impact when Task Force Ranger was planning an operation.57

B. Unity of Effort. Seek unity of effort toward every objective.58

Upon returning from Somalia, Major General Thomas Montgomery testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee that the premier problem confronting UNOSOM II was poor unity of command which affected the operation's unity of effort.59 In Somalia, press coverage scrutiny cast a public spotlight on the operation's lack of unity of effort.

Consider these two examples:

Italian ambush.60 On July 2, l993, Italian infantry soldiers finished conducting a cordon-and-search mission in North Mogadishu. On their way back to their headquarters, the soldiers were ambushed by a sizable Somali militia force belonging to Aideed's faction. Three Italian soldiers died and 3O were wounded in the firefight by the Time U.S. Army Quick Reaction Force helicopters arrived on the scene. Criticism sprang up in the press when the Italians complained the U.S. had arrived too late. The U.N. balanced the criticism in the media with the

fact that the Italian commander had not informed the U.N. commander of his mission that morning; otherwise, help would have been standing by.61 In an odd twist of logic, the U.N. also reported that the Italian commander had told Aideed's faction of his plan to conduct that mission but he had not told his higher headquarters.62

Nigerian ambush.63 The other incident occurred on September 5 in exactly the same location as the Italian ambush. The Nigerian contingent was replacing the Italian contingent in North Mogadishu. The Italians were banished from the city after the July 2 incident and because the Italian commander would not cease his unilateral press briefings which criticized the U.N.'s operation and contributed to the appearance of a lack of unity of effort.64 The Nigerian force was ambushed and suffered seven killed, seven wounded and one soldier taken hostage while the Italian force apparently refused to assist. This refusal was characterized in a Somali newspaper editorial cartoon the next day with remarkable accuracy -- the newly-established Somali press was learning quickly. (for more on the Somali press, see page 49). The Nigerian commander told the press that his force was ambushed because he had refused to pay Aideed's faction the same financial payment it had been receiving from the Italian contingent to operate in that part of North Mogadishu with impunity.65

Reporters' coverage of these failings highlighted UNOSOM II's lack of unity of effort that widened the chasm of distrust between the U.N. command and the Italian contingent that ultimately resulted in the Italians' expulsion from Mogadishu.

C. Legitimacy. Sustain the willing acceptance by the people of the right of the government to govern or a group or agency to make and carry out decisions.66

Consider these two examples that caused UNOSOM II's legitimacy to come into question in light of its objective:

"Mad" Abdi's house destroyed; press takes sides.67 U.S. Cobras launched 10 TOW missiles on July l2 at the house of one of Aideed's lieutenants, "Mad" Abdi, and all of them hit their intended targets. The house was a command-and-control site where Aideed's hierarchy made key decisions, such as ordering the murder of six Somali U.N. workers five days prior, the first incident of terrorism by Aideed's militia since hostilities had begun.68 U.S. ground forces cleared the objective and videotaped l3 adult male Somalis killed; Somali sources and the International Committee of the Red Cross put the death toll at 75, which included women and children. Reporters included both sets of figures in their stories, but clearly gave more credibility to the Somali claims even though it was impossible to tell if Somali-on-Somali violence in unrelated incidents had caused the casualties in Somali hospitals or if the operation had.69 Reporters' objectivity had ample reason to become clouded; a crowd of Somalis swarmed near the house after the strike and vented their rage on six journalists, killing four and wounding two despite Aideed aides assuring the journalists that day they would not be at risk.

Keith Richburg, Washington Post, and Mark Fineman, Los Angeles Times, who have covered Africa extensively, later cited the "Mad" Abdi house mission as the turning point in hostilities. According to them and other reporters, Somalis accepted retribution as a consequence of their actions. But when the U.N. decried the murder of its six Somali workers as terrorism, the Somalis said the same thing about "Mad" Abdi's house. Further, reporters noted from Somali sources that the U.S.'s predominant involvement in "Mad" Abdi's house was reason enough for Aideed to begin targeting Americans, which he did four Times in August and once in October by detonating explosive devices planted in roads when American vehicles drove over them, a tactic that caused the U.S. to send Task Force Ranger to Somalia to attempt to detain Aideed.

Ambush on 2l October Road; Senator Micatin takes sides.73 A Pakistani infantry company and a U.S. Army engineer squad were clearing roadblocks in the afternoon along 2l October Road on September 9 when they were hit with the largest deliberate ambush Aideed's militia had conducted against U.S. or U.N. forces. More than 2OO militiamen poured withering fire on the trapped soldiers and destroyed one of the Pakistanis' M-48 tanks with a 106-millimeter recoilless

rifle round as women and teenagers resupplied the ambushers from behind the cover of nearby walls.74 U.S. Army Cobras arrived and fired into the ambushers as the soldiers extracted.75 CNN and others sent their hired Somali gunmen, drivers and interpreters to the site with cameras as the ambush raged because the Somalis had advised the reporters not to go due to the volume of fire and danger of crowds.76 Nearly all of the media's Somali hires were from Aideed clan and were sympathizers, if not active participants themselves, but correspondents never reported that fact.77

The Somali hires returned to the Sahafi Hotel with reports and footage that the American helicopters had killed innocent women and children,78 reports that, once released, started a maelstrom in the U.S. Congress questioning the U.S.'s mission and role in Somalia. The U.N. military spokesman's quote the next day, "There are no sidelines or spectator seats at an ambush," put the U.S. response to the ambush into perspective,79 but President Bill Clinton was disturbed by the incident. He had loathed American tactics in Vietnam that often killed women and children and now he felt responsible for the same tactics.80 Vietnam veteran, celebrated former Naval aviator and POW Senator John McCain (R-Ariz.) was publicly critical over the characterization of Somali women and children as combatants without confirming its truth.81 McCain likened the incident to Vietnam's Ben Tre incident where a U.S. soldier commented that his unit had to destroy the village in order to save it.82 Somalia wasn't Vietnam, and it was disconcerting to U.S. service members in harm's way in Somalia to read in newspaper reports that a distinguished U.S. public official who served on the Senate Armed Services Committee had difficulty confirming Somalia for what it was; he belonged to the same Congress that had approved the mission's funding.83

D. Perseverance. Prepare for the measured, protracted application of military capability in support of strategic aims.84

In order to carry out a long-range mandate -- in this case, a two-year occupation of Somalia -- the American people deserved an explanation of that mandate.85 That explanation never came. The earlier mission, UNITAF, was something Americans understood: avert the Somali starvation.86 But in the aftermath of the Battle of 3 October, Congress publicly - questioned how the U.S. role changed from salvation to combat.87 The answer is straightforward: U.N. Security Council Resolutions 8l4 and 837 changed the mission and the U.S. wrote both of them.88 Further, Congress had appropriated the funding for the U.S. military to participate in UNOSOM II and several Congressmen paid visits to Somalia before and during hostilities.89

Consider, then, how media images from the aftermath of the Baffle of 3 October affected S the future of U.S. participation in Somalia:

CNN's video and Paul Watson's photograph. A Somali stringer90 had filmed a group of Somalis triumphantly dragging the body of an dead American soldier through Mogadishu streets on the morning of October 4 and an "interview" with captured American pilot Chief Warrant Officer Mike Durant. He sent the Hi-8 cartridge through Nairobi to London where CNN electronically relayed the footage to its headquarters in Atlanta for immediate broadcast.91 Likewise, Toronto Star reporter Paul Watson took the photograph of the dead soldier that appeared on newspaper front pages world wide the next day.92

President Clinton's speech.93 The impact of those images on U.S. foreign policy in Somalia was swift and exacting. On October 7, President Bill Clinton addressed the nation. The following excerpts from that speech clearly indicate that the president's foreign policy and use of the military was directly influenced by the media:

"A year ago, we all watched with horror as Somali children and their families lay dying by the tens of thousands -- dying the slow, agonizing death of starvation. A starvation brought on not only by drought, but also by the anarchy that then prevailed in that country.

"This past weekend we all reacted with anger and horror as an armed Somali gang desecrated the bodies of our American soldiers and displayed a captured American pilot. All of the soldiers who were taking part in an international effort to end the starvation of the Somali people themselves.

"I want to bring our troops home from Somalia...It is my judgment and that of my military advisors that we may need up to six months to complete these steps and to conduct an orderly withdrawal... All American troops will be out of Somalia no later than March 3lst, except for a few hundred support personnel in on-combat roles."

Media images had gotten America into and out of Somalia.94 They had called America's bluff on perseverance because those images of casualties embodied the futility of the mission in Somalia. American people had not been prepared for what they saw in the press, but this was not the first Time brutal images were broadcast from Mogadishu. CNN had broadcast footage in the aftermath of the Nigerian ambush that showed Somalis desecrating Nigerian dead.96 But that footage ran only once on U.S. televisions -- pop singer Michael Jackson's arrest on child molestation charges that same day bumped it from the airwaves -- depriving Americans of the realization of what was happening in Somalia also might occur to American troops.97

E. Restraint. Apply appropriate military capability prudently.98

Of all the principles of operations other than war, the lack of restraint in Somalia was perhaps the most controversial as the following example illustrates. As with the previous examples of the "Mad" Abdi House raid and the debacle over two TOW missiles fired vice one, the use of firepower in a built-up area attracted attention, especially from a press corps with access to the battlefield.99

The following is an example of the media's impact on military tactics when the press publicly questioned the military's lack of restraint:

Mortar response.100 Mortar attacks against the U.N. headquarters at the former American embassy compound increased in frequency during August l993. U.S. radar indicated that several of the attacks came from a field near Digfer Hospital, a Somali facility less than a mile away. As a response, the U.S. Army Quick Reaction Force fired mortars at the field near Digfer when the U.N. headquarters took fire regardless if the U.N. could verify that location as the source of fire.

On September l8, a mortar attack at the U.N. headquarters wounded a U.S. soldier. The U.N. could not verify that Digfer was the source of the fire, but U.S. mortars fired two high-explosive mortar rounds in response.101 The U.S. "spotter" helicopter hovering in the vicinity of Digfer reported not seeing the mortar rounds detonate. It was possible the two rounds could have impacted in the field without detonating.102

At the next daily U.N. press briefing, Sam Kiley of The (London) Times brought a tail fin from an expended U.S. 81-millimeter mortar round as "proof" that the two rounds impacted on the hospital wounding 34 Somalis.103 The international story that day about the incident persuaded the U.N. to rethink and retract its policy about responding with fire near Digfer Hospital unless it could verify that location as the source of fire.104

F. Security. Never permit hostile factions to acquire an unexpected advantage.105

FM lOO-5 expounds on this principle by stating that commanders "should never be lulled into believing that the non-hostile intent of their mission does not put lives at risk. Inherent in this responsibility is the need to be capable of rapid transition from a peaceful to a combat posture should the need arise."106

The following summary of the denial of armor to protect U.S. forces shows how the media's impact influenced that decision.

Armor denial.107 The issue of the denial of armor to protect U.S. forces in Somalia is well known since it contributed to U.S. Defense Secretary Les Aspin's resignation. The primary reason for the denial was that increasing U.S. firepower in Somalia would send the wrong signal since U.S. troops were there for humanitarian reasons.108 But the following evidence suggests that media coverage of Somalia directly impacted on the denial of armor.109

There were two requests for armored vehicles.110 Major General Montgomery requested a battalion task force in August after Aideed began targeting Americans. General Joseph Hoar, commander of U.S. Central Command, disapproved this request because of the improper perception it would broadcast.111 Hoar was in Mogadishu and with Montgomery during the September 9 ambush that President Clinton and Senator McCain later loathed so much, and he told Montgomery to resubmit his request but make it a smaller force.112 Montgomery did and the request went through the chain of command until it was passed to Aspin where it sat and received no action.113 Although this second request was not an actual denial, media requests in the aftermath of the Battle of 3 October portrayed it as such.114 The direct connection between the political upheaval after the much-publicized September 9 ambush and the inaction on the second request for armor is likely.115

Summary. This chapter demonstrated how media coverage in Somalia, an operation other than war, permeated and influenced operations as related to the principles of operations other than war. Two of the most pronounced examples of the media's advantage of freedom of movement in Mogadishu were the June incident of two TOWs fired vice one and Task Force Ranger's raid on the UNDP compound in August. But the pre-eminent example was the images from the aftermath of the Battle of 3 October that reversed U.S. foreign policy in Somalia.

Further, this chapter demonstrates how the media's access to the battlefield is a critical vulnerability, from the press coverage of the Italian-Nigerian debacle after the Nigerian ambush to the press taking sides after the "Mad" Abdi house raid. It also showed how Senator McCain came to oppose Somalia, based on the U.N. military spokesman's characterization of women and children as combatants after the September 9 ambush, regardless of the truth of that characterization. The senator did not check the facts of the ambush prior to conducting his media interviews.116

 

 

Chapter Three

 

Emerging Media Issues from Somalia

 

 

Chapter Three

 

Emerging Media Issues from Somalia

 

The purpose of this chapter is to explore significant lessons learned from Somalia's media relations experience. These lessons complement chapter two's elaboration of how media coverage impacted on the principles of operations other than war in Somalia by providing further examples of how media coverage in Somalia permeated and influenced military operations.

After the last of the U.S. combat troops withdrew from Somalia on March 25, l994, reporters in Mogadishu gathered at the Sahafi Hotel and conducted their own post-mortem.117 Reid Muter, Nairobi bureau chief for the Associated Press and a long-Time Africa correspondent nicknamed "Senator"118 by his colleagues for his calm but in-charge demeanor and his immense credibility, asked the question that everyone in the group had been thinking: Did we, the press, do the right thing by bringing the troops into Somalia? Never mind the stateside debate among editors and politicians pointing fingers over who was responsible,119 the correspondents in Mogadishu knew that ultimately their stories and pictures were responsible. Somalia was as much a story about the media as it was about the famine in that country. Specifically, it was a story about how journalists helped to feed Somalia's famine and created a crisis demanding international attention, then helped turn that crisis into a cause.120

Further, journalist and book author Michael Maren, who served in Somalia in the early l98Os with USAID and covered UNOSOM II and its aftermath, speculates that the press settled on the 300,000-casualty figure (Somalis who died during the famine and civil war) because Mohamed Sahnoun, Special Representative to the Secretary General of the United Nations for Somalia from April to November l992, conveniently gave them the price tag they needed to turn Somali into a cause; the International Committee of the Red Cross' 100,000-casualty figure may have lacked the urgency reporters so eagerly sought.121

While Miller's question should have been asked before Somalia had been turned into a cause, his follow-up question to the group also should have been asked long before: Was the military intervention just a quick fix that ignored the underlying social and political problems that caused the famine in the first place?122 For the military, that question is today's quintessential issue: just how does a military fix social and economic problems since that is what

America wants it to do?123 Specifically, for this document's purposes, that quintessential issue begs the question: What did the military learn about media relations from Somali that it can apply to future operation-other-than-war situations?124

A. Somalia, Persian Gulf War Were Back-to-Back, Opposite Scenarios. The Persian Gulf War was the U.S. military's best-case scenario in media relations: the military corralled the press, pooled reporters and showed them what it wanted them to see, and then reviewed their material before it was released for security reasons.125 Somalia was the complete opposite of the Persian Gulf War; it was the military's worst-case scenario for media relations because of reporters' access to places on the battlefield where the military couldn't go; they did not need any resources from the military; and there was no security review.126 This difference in the way the press was or was not controlled reflects the difference between war and operations other than war, and the military is more likely to face an operation-other-than-war Somalia scenario in the future than it is a Persian Gulf War scenario; Haiti, Bosnia,, Rwanda and Cuba are examples of today's or tomorrow's headline makers.127

B. Somalia's Emerging Press. Despite its problems during the post-civil war period, one of the first institutions that emerged in Mogadishu in l992 was a Somali press, significant primarily because Somalia has had a written language only since l972.l28 The estimates of the extent of illiteracy in Somalia vary, but most agree that it is high.129 Still Somali newspapers contain political cartoons for those who can't read as well as considerable material for those who do. The Somali newspapers are an aid to the fadhi-ku-didr -- which means "those who fight while sitting" in Somali-- who crowd the tea shop stalls brimming with political talk along Mogadishu streets.130

There were three primary daily Somali newspapers in Mogadishu that were

mimeographed newsletters complete with political cartoons.131 The Somali reporters had all of the benefits of the outside press, including identification cards issued by the U.N. that allowed them to enter U.N. compounds for reporting purposes.132 However, the U.N. civilian spokesman frequently did not recognize them as "legitimate" reporters and forfeited the opportunity to speak through them directly to the Somali people.133 Once, with only Somali reporters in attendance at a UNOSOM II press briefing, the U.N.'s civilian briefer canceled the session intoning that "no reporters are here." However, the military briefer presented his portion that day.134

Not only were the Somali reporters allowed to attend the U.N.'s twice-daily press briefings, they also interviewed the U.N. military command and covered troop stories, like Thanksgiving and Christmas, just as the members of the international press corps did.135 There also were several Somali television crew members who major U.S. networks had hired to cover the day-to-day events; only if anything spectacular happened would the networks send in their world-famous reporters.136

 

This front page of the Somali newspaper Qaran (from "Koran") on September 6, l993, depicts with uncanny accuracy the events that surrounded the ambush of Nigerian forces the day before in North Mogadishu. Despite Somalia's recently devised written language (created in l972) and a high illiteracy rate among Somalis, the Somali newspapers were a prime source of news for Mogadishu residents who vented their opinions daily in the tea shop stalls lining Mogadishu streets. Somalis call these arm-chair quarterbacks fahdi-ku-didr, those "who fight while sitting."

 

 

There was no Somali radio, except for Aideed's Radio Mogadishu fixed station that broadcast his propaganda and was destroyed by U.N. forces on June l2, l993, in response to Aideed's unprovoked attacks on U.N. soldiers June 5 (it was rebuilt and re-established several months later).137 Aideed then created a vehicle-mounted "mobile" radio station that continued to broadcast throughout hostilities, but with considerably less wattage than the fixed station.138 Many Somalis own radios, and the other sources of radio news were the British Broadcast Corporation and Voice of America, both broadcast from Nairobi, Kenya, in the Somali language.139

Aideed also had his own newspaper until the U.N. inadvertently destroyed his printing press twice in combat operations.140 Aideed's star reporter, Abdi Abshir, whose father had been a Somali Army general and was one of Aideed's key advisors until he was killed during the July l2 "Mad" Abdi house operation, attended the U.N.'s press briefings until the situation got too uncomfortable for him.141 But for a Time, the U.N. press briefings were life imitating art, in this case Saturday Night Live's l99l spoof of the Persian Gulf War press briefings that included a reporter from the fictitious "Baghdad Times" who chimed in with the other international reporters asking for details on the upcoming allied offensive against Iraq. Like the non-existent "Baghdad Times" correspondent, Abdi Abshir never received the information he asked of the chief U.N. military spokesman.142

Despite being novices, it was obvious that the Somali reporters had learned quickly from the visiting members of the international press corps.143 Somali reporters quickly assimilated into the give-and-take of the briefing process and asked the same probing questions as the international press corps reporters.144 Overall, despite the imposing specter of clan rivalries, the Somali reporters' stories were as accurate as any international stories throughout the hostilities.145

The military briefer made three concessions to the Somali press.146 First, the briefing was recited in a clear, even-paced voice to compensate for the Somalis' English-language difficulties. Second, hard copies of the briefings were provided afterward to Somali reporters if they wanted them. Third, the military briefer polled the Somali reporters after the briefings to ensure they understood the material. Sometimes, even after a briefing, Somali reporters were

hesitant to approach the military briefer and ask questions; approaching the Somali reporters eased their embarrassment.

The Somali reporters also helped the military public affairs staff.147 They provided tutorials on the clan system and other background information the military briefers needed to better understand the situation in Mogadishu. Somali reporters were an excellent way for the military spokesman to take the "pulse" of the Mogadishu streets in a way that the visiting international press corps reporters couldn't provide. Obviously, the Somali reporters also provided the same invaluable service to the international journalists.148

C. Training Troops, Commanders to Meet the Press. The chief U.N. military spokesman's office conducted training for all brigade commanders (brigadier-general equivalents) in the U.N. operation, if they desired.149 This training was modeled after the Pentagon's media training for general officers and prepared the Pakistani brigade commander, Brigadier Ikram Ul-Hassan, to answer several tough issues during his tenure, most notably the June 13 incident where his soldiers shot into a crowd of protesters at Kilometer-Four and the September 9 ambush on 2l October Road.150 Each national contingent's liaison officer attended the twice-daily operational briefings in the U.N. headquarters, and the spokesman's office provided occasional updates to the attendees about the media situation and tips concerning how soldiers should interview with members of the media.151 The spokesman's office also trained the liaison officers to serve as a bridge between the U.N. command and their contingent; if a reporter wanted to interview a certain contingent's commander or soldiers, the spokesman's office linked up the reporter with the liaison officer to facilitate the request, monitor the interviews and report back to the spokesman.152 Many contingents, which were never exposed to the press before becoming involved in UNOSOM II, became quite adept at handling reporters' queries.153

A related sub-topic of this category is that the troops were there at the end of the mission were not necessarily the ones who were there throughout the mission.154 As the U.S. began its troop withdrawal from Somalia in early l994, reporters wanted to interview U.S. soldiers for their opinions on the mission.155 The soldiers who were left in Somalia were unable to give the mission any perspective; they had arrived with Joint Task Force Somalia after the war had ended and had neither heard a shot fired in anger nor had the opportunity to meet Somalis and learn their language and culture.156 Troop rotations from the beginning of UNOSOM II were four to six months; some troop units left Somalia before hostilities began, some left in the middle, but few individuals were there throughout.157 The opinions of soldiers at the end of UNOSOM II as reported in the American media represented a compendium that cast an unfair light on the entire mission. Stories such as "Fighting Boredom in Somalia" quoted soldiers who were "bitter and grousing" because they thought they had come to Somalia to fight; these soldiers knew nothing of the mission that had gone before them.158

D. Not All Reporters Knew Somalia, Either. Few reporters were experts on Somalia. The first journalists to report the famine that got the world involved had covered Africa regularly with an average of five years of experience on the continent, and were based primarily in Nairobi.159 This included most of the world's major newspapers and wire services. As interest in Somalia peaked, journalists from around the world traveled there for a story, and eventually reporters from the 29 countries were involved in UNOSOM II.160 Several other reporters arrived in Mogadishu for a short Time even though their countries had no affiliation with the operation; these included reporters from Mexico, Spain, Chile, Peru, Ukraine and Brazil.161 The reporter from Brazil arrived on October 25, l993 to cover the expected Somali-on-Somali clash along the demarcation line separating North from South Mogadishu, called the "Greenline." He represented a television station and operated solo, without a soundman or producer. A bullet shattered his camera as he filmed the fighting that day, dazing him in a near-death experience. Back at the Sahafi Hotel, other reporters consoled him by claiming that close calls can't happen twice in one day, but as they spoke, bullets zinged in through the open windows in his hotel room. The reporter left Mogadishu by sundown.162

When combat action in Mogadishu peaked in October l993, the U.N. experienced a flood of journalists well-known throughout the world: Richard Blystone, Christiane Amanpour and Brent Sadler from CNN; Bob Simon and Allen Pizzey from CBS; Ron Allen from ABC; Tom Aspell from NBC; and others.163 All were quick studies whose roles were to conduct an on-camera standup with Mogadishu in the background; they usually didn't stay in the city long.164 In general, the Africa correspondents disliked networks' opportunism but treated their peers well.165 Still, the infusion of reporters at peak Times -- up to 75 of them would converge in Mogadishu at the U.N.'s press briefings, and at least lO of them were television crews -- made press briefings free-for-alls as the journalists competed for the opportunity to ask questions on the air, something Americans saw live for the first Time during the Persian Gulf War and were repulsed by.166

Most reporters in Mogadishu learned fast but some at the expense of their credibility. One radio reporter from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) in his first night at the Sahafi Hotel joined his comrades on the roof for a beer. A firefight began nearby, as they did with frightening regularity, and the reporter dictated a dramatic story into his tape recorder of descriptions of the Somali-on-Somali fight complete with commentary of "bullets winging over my head." The next day, angry editors from other news outlets called their reporters in Mogadishu, livid that ABC had scooped them with combat coverage. The old hands convinced I their editors that the firefight was not only routine, but it was the ABC correspondent's first. Their editors dropped the issue.167

Some reporters, however, were quite knowledgeable of Somalia. Michael Maren is one. Maren contends that the infusion of humanitarian relief food into Somalia since l977 and the proliferation of Cold War arms into the country have empowered Somali youths to become Third World entrepreneurs, destroying the classic Somali clan culture where the elders were held in esteem and solved the clan's problems. Traditionally, when a Somali clan member has a problem, he turns to the clan elders to solve it. If he needs food, for example, the clan elders ensure he is fed. Guns made the humanitarian food free for the taking and young Somali men took advantage of this opportunity.168 As an example, Associated Press correspondent and Mogadishu regular Paul Alexander wrote a story on the topic that the Washington Times ran on October 27, l993 titled "Somali Youths Shatter Tradition by Firing on Elders."169

E. Even Though Independent, Reporters Will Ask Military for Help. On two occasions, the U.N. military evacuated the Sahafi Hotel under duress when reporters were convinced their lives were in danger. There was no commitment on the military's part, other than moral, to do so, and the topic is controversial among military members.

The first instance occurred on June l7, the last day of the U.N. offensive to destroy Aideed's known and secret weapons caches and to unseat his enclave located in a residential area across Afgoye Road from the U.N. headquarters.170 Crowds in the streets kept most of the reporters behind the Sahafi's walls.171 The correspondents felt that the hotel's armed guards would do little to protect them if the crowd burst in, and were further unnerved when a Somali man ran into the hotel lobby and told them they were all going to die in 3O minutes.172 One CNN reporter panicked and phoned the U.S. White House on his satellite phone in the morning, and the U.N. spokesman's subsequent discussions with cooler heads at the Sahafi, like CNN producer Ingrid Formanek and the Associated Press' Tina Susman, via hand-held radio calmed down the situation.173

Still, the streets grew uglier in the afternoon and the U.N. sent a mounted patrol of Pakistani soldiers, who successfully evacuated without incident some 3O reporters, about half of the hotel's residents, to a nearby Pakistani strongpoint for temporary safekeeping.174 After the incident, the spokesman pointed out to the press that the Pakistanis had not shied away from this mission even though reporters had not initially given the Pakistanis the benefit of the doubt on the June l3 incident at Kilometer-Four when Somali gunmen provoked the soldiers into shooting into a crowd of women and children.175 Pakistanis' professionalism was admirable.176

The second instance occurred on September 3 when five Somali drivers CNN had hired were killed and four others were wounded in a firefight near the Sahafi Hotel with a rival clan over a disputed stolen vehicle.177 Some of the barrage that peppered the hotel was large-caliber machinegun fire that bore easily through the hotel's porous cement walls.178 The U.N. command sent a patrol of Malaysian armored personnel carriers to the hotel where it evacuated without incident some l5 reporters, about half of the hotel's residents, to the U.N. compound for safekeeping.179

CNN's lack of mobility due to its drivers' deaths and the overall increased threat to journalists persuaded the U.N. military spokesman to have reporters moved onto the sprawling U.N. compound in Mogadishu, provided they adhered to strict ground rules, which they did.180 It was a controversial move, opposed by the U.S. ambassador-equivalent whose office and quarters also were on the U.N. compound but not adjacent to CNN's location.181 Other reporters were

given the same option, but some stayed at the hotel. These reporters were told that if they had trouble at any Time, any U.N. compound would take them in for safekeeping without a prerequisite escort being present.182

For a brief Time, CNN's move onto the U.N. compound gave it the unprecedented and tremendous advantage of reporting live from a secure vantage point, which clearly presented some unique challenges on the military's part.183 One notable challenge was the live international press conference CNN held at the U.N. compound the day after the September 9 ambush on 2l October Road. If CNN had not been situated on the compound, the live press conference would not have occurred because CNN would not have had its satellite dish position on the U.N. compound which was necessary to conduct a live broadcast. Still, CNN faced some disadvantages. The CNN producer, Robert Wiener, told the author that he was forced to meet with top Aideed officials and convince them that they were not taking sides by moving in with the U.N.184 Apparently, he was successful.185

Summary. This chapter explored significant lessons learned from Somalia's media relations experience. These lessons further illustrate how media coverage permeates and influences military operations other than war. Military planning for media relations in future operations other than war should consider the extent to which the military can or cannot control the media; the credibility of the press in the target country; training troops and commanders how to meet the

press; the different categories of media and reporters' experience level in the

 

area of operations; and that reporters will turn to the military for help in

 

an emergency.186

 

 

Chapter Four

 

Press Planning for Operation United Shield:

Media Relations as a Principle of

Operations Other Than War

 

 

 

Chapter Four

 

Press Planning for Operation UNITED SHIELD:

Media Relations as a Principle of Operations Other Than War

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight how the staff planning for Operation UNITED SHIELD (the l995 U.S.-led operation to evacuate U.N. forces from Somalia) created a model for media relations in future operations other than war. the architecture for UNITED SHIELD's model was drawn directly from UNOSOM II's media relations experience.187 The plan incorporated: the lack of military control over the press; the use of the Somali press; training troops and commanders; categories of media; and contingencies of reporters ask for help.

A. Public affairs posture. The fifth and final installment of U.S. military involvement in Somalia was Combined Task Force United Shield commanded by USMC Lieutenant General Anthony Zinni that included six other nations. Zinni incorporated media relations into his operational plan in what he described as a precedent-setting move.188

United Shield received oversight from the U.S. Defense Department and U.S. Central Command, two agencies that imposed a "passive" public affairs posture on the operation. The term "passive" is not conventional lexicon, and Zinni, a forward-thinker in media relations who understood that reporters' access in Mogadishu was a critical vulnerability, interpreted "passive" to mean "respond to query," not "do nothing."189 He required his staff to explore how the operation could maximize the press.190

DoD and CENTCOM imposed further constraints on United Shields public affairs plan. DoD planned to constitute the U.S. national press pool and send it to Somalia. Its arrival, planned for shortly before United Shield troops went ashore, would transition the public affairs posture from passive to active.191 Active, according to Zinni, was when the operation could proactively seek press coverage.192 Note that the press pool concept, originally designed to obtain coverage of military operations in their initial stages when there was no other way to obtain such coverage, continued to be misused by the agency that created it.193

B. Categories of media. Besides the press pool, the staff identified five other classifications of media: independent reporters, Somali press, coalition press, ABC's Nightline and media accompanying distinguished visitors. Each had varying degrees of expertise and different audiences.194

Nearly 100 independent reporters were expected to flock to Mogadishu to cover United Shield. Most of these reporters covered previous phases of U.S. involvement in Somalia and knew the background of the country well.195

C. Somali press. The Somali press, discussed in depth in chapter three, was the most obvious venue for United Shield to communicate with the Somali people prior to landing the troops. Zinni insisted that the operational plan contain no deception lest the Somali people misunderstand the military's intentions and attack U.S. or coalition forces. The best way for Zinni to communicate his intent to the Somali people so that they would not misunderstand or misinterpret was through the Somali press.196 In the most unique, forward-thinking posture to

date in an operation other than war, Zinni designated the Somali press as his focus of effort during phase three (the preparation-of-the-battlefield phase) of the operation.197

The coalition media accompanying the other contingents was not perceived as a major influence in the operation but had significant impact in their respective countries. The make-up and intentions of the Italian media was scrutinized in order to obtain a sensing of any left-over angst from UNOSOM II toward the U.S. or U.N. None was detected.198

 

This synchronization matrix from l995's Operation UNITED SHIELD shows, near the bottom, that the staff considered the media a signicant battlefield activity and estimated the media's impact in the planning for the amphibious landing.

 

 

 

ABC's Nightline was not a player for long. USNAVCENT disapproved Nightline's request to accompany Zinni on the operation because an ABC crew would be on the national press pool and that would give one network an unfair advantage over the other networks. The military regarded fairness as granting access to all major media outlets within its capability.199

D. Training and contingency planning. As a result of the staff's analysis, Zinni required emphasis on training and contingency planning. Among them was media training for his commanders and troops. Another was a package of contingency responses to the press in the event things went wrong; in his parlance it was called a "playbook." One of the worst-case scenarios Zinni's staff planned for was if American reporters, in Mogadishu independently, called Zinni for help. This contingency was based on UNOSOM II's two similar occurrences, one in which reporters contacted the military directly and the other in which they phoned the White House.200

The staff further incorporated the media into the plan. "Media impact" was designated as an operational function in both future operations and future plans.201 "Media impact" was added to both decision support and execution matrices.202 This was a refinement from the U.S. Army's 10th Mountain Division's participation in UNITAF when it added "information" to its operational functions which lumped together public affairs and psychological operations. In United Shield's case, the impact of the media was evaluated against every conceivable contingency that could occur.203

Summary. In summary, media relations was recognized as endemic to United Shield's operation to the point that it was added as an operational function. Further, United Shield's commander incorporated UNOSOM II's emerging media themes -- among them the need to train troops and commanders how to deal with the press and maximize that relationship, and the need to use the target country's press to communicate directly to hostile factions -- into his operational design. From a public affairs standpoint, the operation was executed flawlessly.204 Perhaps United Shield's legacy in media relations is that its incorporation of media into operational planning for future operations is the preferred model.205

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

Look at it this way. News is what a chap who doesn't care much about anything wants to read.

Wire service correspondent Corker in Evelyn Waugh's Scoop.

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

Based on the information presented in this document, experience from Somalia demonstrates that media relations has the impact necessary to be considered a principle of operations other than war.

Military-media relations in Somalia created a template for future operations other than war. Somalia reinforced that the center of gravity for operations other than war is public opinion and the media as the military's conduit to win or lose that support. Somali also reinforced that the critical vulnerability in operations other than war is the media's access to the battlefield.

There are numerous examples from Somalia that demonstrate how media coverage permeated and influenced military operations. Several examples were cited in chapter two to show how media coverage affects the principles of operations other than war.

Chapter three discussed media lessons learned from Somalia that further illustrate the media's impact on military operations. The five lessons: the media's access; the importance of the target country's media; media training for the military; analyzing the media; and contingency planning if reporters call for help, were put to practical use in Operation UNITED SHIELD with success. The practical use was examined in chapter four, and is presented as a model for media relations in future operations other than war.

The public affairs annex to an operations order or plan, commonly referred to as Annex F, is clearly obsolete in light of the evidence presented in this document as it pertains to media relations. Media relations needs to be an integral part of operational planning, as the successful execution of Operation UNITED SHIELD shows, and not just an afterthought relegated to an annex.

 

 

As we've seen from both recent and distant history -- as highlighted in chapter one -- correspondents will report on operations other than war with or without the military's help. Helping reporters get their story while safeguarding lives and the mission to get public support makes sense. Making media relations an integral part of the operational order or plan by elevating its prominence to a principle of operations other than war, which maximizes the opportunity for success, makes even more sense.

 

 

Appendix

 

Overview of U.S. Intervention in Somalia, l992-l994

 

 

 

Appendix

 

Overview of U.S. Intervention in Somalia, l992-l994

 

The following narrative was derived from a United Nations reference paper titled "The United Nations and the Situation in Somalia," April 3O, l993, and provides a basic understanding of the events that caused the U.S. and U.N. to intervene in the Horn of Africa.

Civil War. Recall the circumstances that got the world involved in Somalia. The starvation and famine the Somali people suffered during and after their recent civil war caused the United Nations to intervene, the first Time the U.N. did so in a country uninvited. In Somalia's case, there was no government to invite the U.N. in.

The civil war began in January l99l when clan elder and militia faction leaders Mohamed Farah Aideed and Au Mahdi Mohamed ousted Somalia's dictator Siad Barre, who fled to Nigeria. Aideed and Ali Mahdi then fought each other for control of Mogadishu as other militias fought each other for control of regions of the country engulfed in anarchy. Militias seized the sea port and airport with "technicals" -- trucks mounted with machine guns and other weaponry -- and charged fees for the humanitarian aid ships and aircraft to unload their relief

supplies. The usual fee the militias charged was a sizable portion of the relief shipments themselves.

As a result, little relief aid reached beyond Mogadishu. Now-familiar media images of the resulting starvation that killed many innocent Somalis ultimately grabbed the world's attention of the Somali people's plight. The civil war and starvation reportedly caused some 100,000 Somali deaths, but U.N. statements at that Time guessed the death toll at 3OO,OOO even though the International Committee of the Red Cross used the 100,000-casualty figure; 3OO,OOO is the figure that prevailed in the press.206

UNOSOM. On April 24, l 992, the U.N. Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 75l created the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) to provide a secure environment so that humanitarian relief agencies could help avert the starvation. Negotiations between the U.N.'s special representative to the secretary general and militia leaders proved fruitless and UNOSOM was created under the auspices of the U.N. Charter's Chapter VI peacekeeping mandate, a role

with which the world was familiar. A battalion of soldiers from Pakistan's 7th Frontier Force regiment arrived at Mogadishu airport in September l992 with the U.N. mission to protect food convoys, but the heavily-armed Somali militias pinned them down at the airport, rendering them ineffective. Relief supplies could not get through to the Somalis who needed them.

The U.N. Security Council authorized the United States, per the U.S.'s proposal, to send a force of up to 3O,OOO troops to do what UNOSOM could not. This unanimous decision, in the form of UNSCR 794 approved on December 3, l992, was halfway between a Chapter VI peacekeeping mandate and the much stronger Chapter VII peace-making mandate. In common lexicon the mission was referred to as a "Chapter Six-and-a half." The Security Council's decision sought the use of "all necessary means to establish, as soon as possible, a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia." The Security Council created the

Unified Task Force (UNITAF).

Peace making/enforcement. The difference, between Chapter VI and Chapter VII missions is significant. In a Chapter VI mission, soldiers can only fire their weapons when fired upon, and are prohibited from undertaking offensive combat operations. In a Chapter VII mission, soldiers can fire their weapons when they are threatened, a vague condition that purposely offers soldiers wide latitude. Also, a Chapter VII mission authorizes offensive combat operations like, for

example, sweeps of built-up areas to search for weapons. Further, a Chapter VII mission authorizes the military a larger organizational structure, to include combat aircraft and intelligence-gathering capability. A Chapter "Six-and-a-half" mandate provided UNITAF with the authority to use the appropriate level of force to get the job done. The U.N. Security Councils creation of UNITAF forecast positive results. It promised a mighty fist.

UNITAF. The first embodiment of that promise waded ashore at Mogadishu on December 9, l992, as the lead elements of the U.S. Marine Corps-led UNITAF landed on the beach. UNITAF, organized as combat units capable of conducting combat operations, came under sporadic sniper fire within 24 hours of entering Mogadishu and encountered this type of resistance until it departed Somalia on May 4, l993. With Somalia virtually lawless, UNITAF's combat-oriented organization was the right answer. While effective, however, UNITAF was never meant to be the U.N.'s long-term solution for Somalia. UNITAF was comprised of 28,OOO U.S. Marines and, later, 9,OOO soldiers from l2 other nations.

The U.N. studied the problem some more. U.N. Secretary General Boutros

Boutros-Ghali proposed a transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II in a report to the Security Council on March 3, l993. The report addressed several areas.

UNITAF's presence and operations clearly had a positive impact on the security situation and effective delivery of humanitarian assistance. Despite these improvement there was no functioning Somali government, to include an organized police force, capable of sustaining or improving security. Without a continued military presence, the risk to U.N. agencies and humanitarian relief organizations in Somalia would be grave.

There was a need to expand troop presence to the rest of Somalia. UNITAF troops occupied only the southern third of Somalia; there were no U.N.-sanctioned troops in the central, northwest or northeast regions or country, nor in the vicinity of the Somali-Ethiopian border like there were near the vicinity of the Somali-Kenyan border. U.N.-sponsored security in these portions of Somalia was absent.

It was clear that UNITAF's combat unit-oriented structure and Chapter "Six-and-a-half" authority were the proper ingredients for a military force to be successful in Somalia. Boutros-Ghali concluded that precedent-setting Chapter VII powers were a must for UNOSOM II, particularly since it would become involved in disarming Somalia's militias.

The United Nations proposed the military operation in four phases: transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II; consolidate UNITAFs nine humanitarian relief sectors into five UNOSOM II areas of responsibility and expand the force into the central and northern regions of Somalia; transfer military functions to civilian institutions; and redeploy the military force.

UNOSOM II. It was an ambitious military mission which supported UNOSOM II's equally ambitious political goal to have democratic-style elections in Somalia within two years. The Somali militias concurred with the initial plan's concept in effect by unanimously sighing an agreement at a U.N.-sponsored conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in mid-March l993. They gave their assurances they would honor a ceasefire and cooperate in disarmament. These assurances, however, did not constitute a brokered peace. On March 26, l993, UNSCR 8l4 created UNOSOM II On May 4, l993, UNOSOM II took over from UNITAF in a military ceremony in front of the former U.S. Embassy's Chancery Building in Mogadishu.

The UNOSOM II force had only 25 percent of its staff and l6,OOO soldiers, roughly 55 percent of what the U.N. had authorized. At its height the U.N. military force would have 3O,OOOO troops from 29 nations. Only 3,3OO Americans would wear the U.N. blue beret, and they were logisticians. Another l,2OO American combat troops were under strict U.S. control, to assist the U.N. force if it got into a fight with a militia it couldn't handle. Further, the military

was subordinate to UNOSOM II's political and humanitarian divisions, an imposed bureaucracy UNITAF did not have. Later, after hostilities began and U.S. soldiers were killed by Aideed's militia, 4OO U.S. service members comprising Task Force Ranger arrived in Mogadishu with the mission to detain Aideed and his top lieutenants. This mission was under the auspices of UNSCR 837, passed on June 6, l993, the day after Aideed's militia ambushed and killed 24 Pakistani soldiers in Mogadishu.

 

 

Bibliography

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

 

Books

Afrah, M.M. The Somali Tragedy. Nairobi, Kenya: Mohamed Printers, l994.

Arnett, Peter. Live From the Battlefield. New York: Simon & Schuster, l994.

Braestrup, Peter. Big Story. How the American Press and Television Reported and

Interpreted the Crisis of Tet l968 in Vietnam and Washington. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, l977.

Close, Ellis. The Press: Inside America's Most Powerful Newspaper Empires, From

the Newsrooms to the Boardrooms. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., l989.

Delong, Kent and Steven Tuckey. Mogadishu!: Heroism and Tragedy. New York:

Frederick A. Praeger, l994.

Drew, Elizabeth. On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency. New York: Simon &

Schuster, l994.

Drysdale, John. Whatever Happened to Somalia? London: Haan Associates, l994.

Fialka, John. Hotel Warriors: Covering the Gulf War. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow

Wilson Center Press, l992.

Goldstein, Tom. How Journalists Compromise Their Ethics to Shape the News. New

York: Simon & Schuster, l985.

Gussem, Marian Arif. Hostages: The People Who Kidnapped Themselves. Nairobi,

Kenya: Central Graphics Services, Ltd., l994.

Hammond, William M. The Military and the Media, l962-l968. Washington, D.C.:

U.S. Government Printing Office, l988; The Light of Controversy: Five Essays on the Rise of the War Correspondent. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms, l972.

Howard, Michael. The Franco-Prussian War. London: Routledge, Chapman and

Hall,l96l.

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon and Schuster, l994.

MacArthur, John R. Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War. New

York: Hill and Wang, l992.

MacKenzie, Lewis. Peacekeeper: The Road to Sarajevo. Vancouver, Biritish

Columbia: Douglas & McIntyre, l993.

Mathews, Joseph J. Reporting the Wars. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press,

l957.

Matthews, Lloyd J. (editor). Newsmen and National Defense: Is Conflict

Inevitable? McLean, Virginia: Brassey's (US), Incorporated (A Division of Maxwell Macmillian, Inc., New York). Published under the auspices of the U.S. Army War College Foundation, Inc.,

l99l.

Mayer, Martin. Making News. New York: Doubleday, l987.

Moore, Molly. A Woman at War: Storming Kuwait with the U.S. Marines. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, l993.

Nichols, David. Ernie's War: The Best of Ernie Pyle's World War II Dispatches.

New York: Random House, l986.

Oberdorfer, Don. Tet! New York: Plenum Publishing, l97l.

Rodgers, Marion E. (editor). The Impossible H.L. Mencken. New York: Doubleday, 199l.

Rosenblum, Mort. Who Stole the News? New York: John Wiley and Sons, l993.

Russell, William Howard. My Diary in India. London: Routledge, Warner and Routledge, l86O.

Sahnoun, Mohamed. Somalia: The Missed Opportunities. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute for Peace, l994.

Scales, Brigadier General Robert H. Jr. Certain Victory. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, l993.

Schwarzkopf, General (retired) Norman and Peter Petre. It Doesn't Take a Hero. New York: Bantam, l992.

Simon, Bob. Forty Days. New York: Putnam, l992.

Summers, Colonel (retired) Harry G., Jr. On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War. Novato, California: Presidio Press, l982; On Strategy II: A Critical Analysis of the Gulf War. New York: Dell, l992.

Wallechinsky, David and Irving Wallace. The People's Almanac. New York:

Doubleday, l975.

Wiener, Robert. Live From Baghdad: Gathering News at Ground Zero. New York: Doubleday, l992.

 

Government Documents

Congressional Record, "Rangers Lead the Way," Senator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii), November 10, l993.

Defense Department Memorandum for Correspondents, No. 3O2-M, "Secretary of

Defense Aspin's Statement Concerning Major General Thomas Montgomery's Request for Armor," October 7, l993.

Defense Department News Release No. 24l-92, "Pentagon Adopts Combat Coverage Principles," May 2l, l992.

Defense Department News Release, unnumbered, "Four Soldiers Killed In Somalia Explosion," August 8, l993.

Defense Department News Release No. 444-93, "U.S. Army Soldiers Killed in Somalia," September 27, l993.

Defense Secretary Statement on Somalia's battle of October 3, l993.

Defense Secretary Statement on U.S. Army Ranger Death on October 6, l993.

Defense Department Principles of Information, l983.

Joint Universal Lessons Learned on Media Relations during Joint Task Forces Andrew and Iniki (hurricane aftermaths in Florida and Hawaii, respectively), l992."

Presidential Statement to the American People on the Situation in Somalia, October 7, l993.

Sidle, Major General Winant, "The Sidle Panel Report to General John W. Vessey, Jr.," February l983.

State Department Press Guidance on Somalia, October 7, l993.

White House Briefing on Somalia, September 28, l993.

White House Press Release on deaths of American soldiers in Somalia, August 8, 1993.

World Fact Book, The. Central Intelligence Agency, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. l994.

 

 

Journals -- Miscellaneous

Breecher, Maury M. "Meet Only Reporter Court-Martialed in U.S. History." Media History Digest l3, no. 1, Spring/Summer, l993.

Nelson, Dale, "War Coverage Has Changed Since D-Day." Media History Digest l4, no. 1, Spring/Summer l994.

Young, Peter (editor). "Defence and the Media in Time of Limited War." Small

Wars & Insurgencies 2, no. 3, December l99l.

 

 

Miscellaneous Documents

Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice. New York: United Nations, l993.

Hackworth, David. Two personal letters to the author, September and October 1993.

Kiley, Sam, and others. Unpublished letter to Osman Ato requesting an interview with Mohamed Farah Aideed, September l4, l993.

Kirchoffner, Colonel Don. After Action Review, Joint Task Force Los Angeles, unpublished report, July l992; "Dealing with the Media," unpublished article, September l992.

Operation Desert Shield Ground Rules for the Media, January l4, l99l.

Operation Desert Shield Guidelines for News Media, January l4, l99l.

Somali-American's unpublished letter to the author on views of the media,

October 6, l993.

United States Involvement in the United Nations Operation in Somalia II After Action Report, February l993.

United Nations Operation in Somalia II After Action Report, February l993.

United Nations Operation in Somalia II Military's Rules for Media, August l993.

United Nations Operation in Somalia II Military Spokesman's Personal Notes,

March l993 to March l994.

 

Newspapers -- Miscellaneous

Albright, Madeleine K. "Yes There Is A Reason To Be In Somalia." New York Times, August 10, l993.

Byrd, Robert C. "The Perils of Peacekeeping." New York Times, August l9, l993.

Kerrey, Bob. "Not So Fast, Somalia." New York Times, October 7, l993.

Zamichow, Nora. "Marching Orders Include Script for Answering Queries." Los Angeles Times, May 4, l 992 (in support of Joint Task Force Los Angeles in the aftermath of the Los Angeles riots).

Periodicals -- Miscellaneous

Columbia Journalism Review. Promotion for Pulitzer Prizes, May/June l993.

Stein, M.L. "Past Press Pools." Editor and Publisher, November l4, l992.

 

Special Studies

Dennehy, Captain Edward J., and others. "A Blue Helmet Combat Force," National Security Program Policy Analysis paper 93-0l, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, l993.

Fetig, Colonel James L. "Inside Fort Apache: The Army and the Media in the Persian Gulf," unpublished study, June l992.

Goodgame, Charles Daniel. "The Road to Tet: A Case Study of the Press and the President at War," unpublished thesis submitted to Oxford University for degree of Masters in International Relations, April l984.

Reitz, Colonel John. "Public Support and the Three Levels of War: It's More Than the Media and Operational Security;" original manuscript prepared for Military Review, January l993.

United Nations Association (UK), "Memorandum on An Agenda for Peace," U.N. Association, London, l993.

United Nations Operation in Somalia, Letter to the Secretary General from Lieutenant General Cevik Bir, UNOSOM II Military Force Commander, Upon Termination of Command, January 24, l994.

United Nations Reference Paper, "The United Nations and the Situation in Somalia," United Nations Department of Public Information, New York, April 3O, l993. Contains the texts of United Nations Security Council

Resolutions on Somalia.

United Nations Security Council, "Report on Status of Resolution 8l4," August

17, l993.

 

Persian Gulf War

The articles and commentary listed here are almost exclusively about the relationship between the military and the media during the Persian Gulf War. Reporters focused on this relationship because the military tightly controlled them in the theater of the Persian Gulf War, and journalists disliked that control.

 

Journals

Bolton, John R. "Wrong Turn in Somalia." Foreign Affairs 73, no. 1, January/February l994.

Halloran, Richard. "Soldiers and Scribblers Revisited: Working with the Media." Parameters 2l, no. l, Spring l99l.

McLeod, Douglas M., and others. "Conflict and Public Opinion: Rallying Effects

of the Persian Gulf War." Journalism Quarterly 7l, no. l, Spring l994.

Metcalf, Vice Admiral (retired) Joseph III. "The Mother of the Mother." Proceedings 117/08/1, no. 62, August l99l.

Pattullo, E.L. "War and the American Press." Parameters 22, no. 4, Winter l992. Ricchiardi, Sherry. "Women at War." American Journalism Review l6, no.2, March l994.

Shell, Adam. "Military PIOs Direct 'Theater' of War." Public Relations Journal 47, no. 3, March l99l.

Sherman, Captain Mike. "The DoD News Media Pool." Proceedings ll7/O8/l, no. 62, August l99l.

Shotwell, Colonel John M. "The Fourth Estate as a Force Multiplier." Marine Corps Gazette 75, no. 7, July l99l.

Stepp, Carl Sessions. "Muzzling the Press in the Gulf." Reviews of three books

on the topic, Washington Journalism Review l4, no. 10, September l992.

 

Newspapers

Apple, R.W. Jr. "Press and the Military: Old Suspicion." New York Times,

February 4, l99l; "Correspondents Protest Pool System." New York Times, February l2, l99l;"Pentagon Moves to Widen Reporters' Access to Gulf

Ground Units." New York Times, February 25, l99l.

Associated Press. "Judge Backs Pentagon on Media Rules." Washington Post, April l7, l99l.

Berke, Richard L. "Pentagon Defends Coverage Rules While Admitting to Some

Delays." New York Times, February 2l, l99l; "News from Gulf is Good, and Cheney's Press Curbs are Loosened." New York Times, February 25, l99l.

Browne, Malcolm E. "Conflicting Censorship Upsets Many Journalists." New York Times, January 2l, l99l; "The Military vs. the Press." New York Times magazine, March 3, l99l.

Ciolli, Rita. "Media's Role Debated in Airing POW Tapes." Newsday, January 22, l99l; "Pentagon Declares Truce With Media." Newsday, February 25, l99l; "Censorship Being Lifted." Newsday, March l, l99l; "Military and News

Media Both Win Praise in Poll." Newsday, March 25, l99l.

Donlon, Brian. "Poll: TV Viewers Devour War News." USA Today, January 24, l99l; "News Shows Evolve in Wake of War." USA Today, February 26, l99l.

Gartner, Michael. Commentary on reporting in Operation Desert Shield from the president of NBC News. Wall Street Journal, August 3O, l99O.

Gay, Verne. "News Circumvents Media Pools." Newsday, February 26, l99l.

Goodman, Walter. "On Television, the Theater of War." New York Times, January l7, l99l.

Gordon, Michael R. "Pentagon Seeks Tight Limits on Reporters in a Gulf War." New York Times, January 4, l99l; "Rules for Journalists: Necessity or Prior Restraint?" New York Times, January 6, l99l.

Hoversten, Paul. "Military, Media and Middle Ground." USA Today, February 8, l99l.

Johnson, Peter. "Satellites Link Home and Front." USA Today, January 9, l99l.

Jolidan, Laurence. "This is a Whole New Battlefield." USA Today, January 11,

199l; "News From Front a War Casualty." USA Today, March 5, l99l.

Jones, Alex S. "Process of News Reporting on Display." New York Times, February l5, l99l.

Lewis, Neil A. "Pentagon Issues Press Rules Authorizing Military Censors." New York Times, January 7, l99l.

Mauro, Tony. "Media Coverage Under the Gun." USA Today, January 24, l99l; "Media

Protest in Congress, Courts." USA Today, February 2O, l99l.

Pace, Eric. "Iraq Frees Captured CBS News Crew." New York Times, March 3, l99l.

Phelps, Timothy M. "Many of Gulf Press Corps in Shallow End of Pool." Newsday, January 23, l99l.

Rabinowitz, Dorothy. "Are Reporters 'Neutral'?" The Wall Street Journal,

February 11, l99l.

Reuters. "Judge Allows Ban on Media at Arrivals of U.S. Dead." Washington Post, March 9, l99l.

Rosenbaum, David E. "Press and U.s. Officials at Odds on News Curbs." New York Times, January 2O, l99l.

Shaw, Gaylord. "President's Men 'Spin' War News." Newsday, January 23, l99l.

Shenon, Philip. "O.K., Flabby Press Corps, 32 Pushups for Uncle Sam." New York Times, January 3, l99l.

Squitieri, Tom. "Media Make Waves About Pool Coverage." USA Today, March 4,

l99l.

Summers, Colonel (retired) Harry G. "Of War Correspondents and Whiners." Army Times, July 22, l99l.

 

Periodicals

Alter, Jonathan. "Will We See the Real War?" Newsweek, January l4, l99l; "Showdown at 'Fact Gap'." Newsweek, February 4, l99l; "Does Bloody Footage Lose Wars?" Newsweek, February 11, l99l; "The Propaganda War." Newsweek, February 25, 199l; "Clippings from the Media War." Newsweek, March 11, l99l.

Boot, William. "The Press Stands Alone." Columbia Journalism Review, March/April l99l.

Bushnell, Colonel William D. "The Media Interview: Don't Be Caught Unprepared." Marine Corps Gazette, October l992.

Capaccio, Tony. "Was Fist Amendment a Gulf War Victim? Media Chief Says No." Defense Week, May 6, l99l.

Columbia Journalism Review. Promotion for Pulitzer Prizes, May/June l99l.

Columbia Journalism Review. Promotion for Pulitzer Prizes, May/June l992.

Cronkite, Walter. "What Is There To Hide?" Newsweek, February 25, l99l.

Diamond, Edwin. "Who Won the Media War?" New York, March l8, l99l.

Dobriansky, Paula J. and Diana A. McCaffrey, "Do the Media Make Foreign Policy?" The World & I, January l994.

Fouhy, Ed. "Huffing and Puffing." Communicator, April l99l.

Galloway, Joseph L. "Who's Afraid of the Truth?" U.S. News & World Report, February 4, l99l.

Gergen, David. "Why America Hates the Press." U.S. News & World Report, March

11, l99l.

Gordon, James R. "The Power of Pictures." News Photographer, February l994.

Henry, William A. III. "Fencing in the Messenger." Time, January l4, l99l.

Kern, Heinz A.J. and Anna Christina Taylor. "The Gulf War and the Media Revisionists." Reviews of five books on the topic, Defense Media Review, October 3l, l992.

McDaniel, Ann and Howard Fineman. "The President's 'Spin' Patrol." Newsweek, February 11, l99l.

Zoglin, Richard. "Volleys on the Information Front." Time, February 4, l99l; "Jumping Out of the Pool." Time, February l8, l99l; "Just Whose Side Are They On?" Time, February 25, l99l; "It Was a Public Relations Rout, Too." Time, March 11, l99l.

 

Somalia

 

Interviews and Tutorials

Nearly 6OO journalists and camera crew members passed through Mogadishu from

March 1993 to March l994. The author met all of them. In addition to discussing the news, they also discussed, on too many occasions to count, the relationship between the media and the military. Some were formal interviews the author conducted near the end of his year-long tour in Somalia, and others were frequent, intense, one-on-one tutorials or small group seminars they had in depth on the topic over a period of months before the author left Somalia and since he has returned to the United States.

 

Abshir, Abdi, correspondent for Bel-Deeq, Mohamed Farah Aideed's Somali-language newspaper. Interviewed by author February l994.

Alberizzi, Massimo, correspondent, Corriere' Della Sera (Italian daily newspaper), and stringer for Reuters. Interviewed by author, March 1994.

Alexander, Paul, correspondent, Associated Press. Interviewed by author, July l993

Amanpour, Christiane, correspondent, CNN and winner of the l994 Peabody Award

for reporting on Somalia and Bosnia. Interviewed by author, October l993.

Atkinson, Rick, correspondent, Washington Post, and author of Crusade: The

Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War and the Pulitzer-Prize winning The Long Grey Line. Interviewed by author October l993 and March l994.

Blystone, Richard, correspondent, CNN. Interviewed by author May l993 and March 1994.

Clancy, Jim, correspondent, CNN. Interviewed by author, June l993.

Copeland, Peter, correspondent, Scripps Howard News Service and author of the book She Went To War with U.S. Army Major Rhonda Cornum, a book about her experiences as a prisoner of war during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author August l99l and April l994.

Eldon, Dan, photojournalist, Reuters, killed in Mogadishu on July l2, l993. Interviewed by author, May l993.

Ewing, Jon, correspondent, Reuters and Agence France Presse. Interviewed by author, July l993 and March l994.

Fineman, Mark, correspondent, Los Angeles Times. Interviewed by author May l993 and March l994.

Formanek, Ingrid, producer, CNN, winner of the l993 Emmy for reporting on Somalia. Interviewed by author, June and July l993.

Gannon, Lieutenant Colonel Mike, deputy director of the U.S. Joint Information Bureau in Somalia, October l993 to March l994. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Grove, Lloyd, correspondent for Washington Post. Interviewed by author, December l994.

Hassan Harun, correspondent for Qaran, a Somali newspaper. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Hearing, Roger, correspondent, BBC. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Hill, Andrew, correspondent, Reuters. Interviewed by author, July l993.

Huband, Mark, correspondent, The Guardian (London). Interviewed by author, October l993.

Icenogle, Lieutenant Colonel Larry, deputy director of the U.S. Joint Information Bureau during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Jehl, Douglas, correspondent, New York Times. Interviewed by author, October l993.

Johnson, Tom, president, CNN. Interviewed by author, October l993.

Keen, Judy, correspondent, USA Today. Interviewed by author, October l993 and April l994.

Kiley, Sam, correspondent, The Times (London). Interviewed by author, August l993.

Kurtz, Howard, correspondent for Washington Post. Interviewed by author, December l994.

Lorch, Donatella, correspondent, New York Times. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Maren, Michael, correspondent, Village Voice, New Republic, Details magazine and the author of the forthcoming book and movie on Somalia, With the Best of Intentions. Interviewed by author, August l993 and April l994.

MacKenzie, Canadian Major General (retired) Lewis, correspondent for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, former U.N. military commander in Bosnia-Hercegovina and author of the best-selling Peacekeeper: The Road to Sarajevo. Interviewed by author, May l993 and March l994.

McCormick, Major Bill, public affairs officer for the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author, May l994.

McWethy, John, correspondent, ABC News. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Miller, Reid, correspondent, Associated Press. Interviewed by author, March 1994.

Montgomery, U.S. Army Major General Thomas M., commander of U.S. Forces Somalia and deputy commander of UNOSOM II military force, March l993 to March l994. Interviewed by author, May l994.

Mohamoud Hassan, Somali stringer for CNN who took the infamous video footage of the U.S. soldier's body being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu in the aftermath of the Battle of 3 October. Interviewed by author, October 1993.

Mulvey, Colonel Bill, director of the U.S. Joint Information Bureau during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author, August l99l.

Naylor, Sean, correspondent, Army Times. Interviewed by author, March l994.

O'Brien, Major Tom, public affairs officer for the US. Army's 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author, March l99l.

Peck, Colonel Fred, director of the U.S. Joint Information Bureau in Somalia, December l992 to May l993. Interviewed by author, April l993.

Pizzey, Allen, correspondent, CBS news. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Pogrund, Jennifer, staff member responsible for sub-Saharan Africa, Committee to Protect Journalists. Interviewed by author, December l994.

Rausch, Colonel Steve, director of the U.S. Joint Information Bureau in Somalia, October l993 to March l994. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Reynolds, Rob, correspondent, CNN. Interviewed by author, September l993.

Richburg, Keith, correspondent, Washington Post, who won the l993 Association of Black Journalists award for foreign reporting, the l994 George Polk Award for international reporting, and was a finalist for the l994 Pulitzer Prize. All three distinctions were based on his reporting on Somalia. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Roberts, Major Ken, deputy director of the U.S. Joint Information Bureau in Somalia, December l992 to May l993. Interviewed by author, April l993.

Simon, Bob, correspondent, CBS news and author of the book Forty Days about his captivity during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author, June l993.

Skoler, Michael, correspondent for National Public Radio. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Susman, Tina, correspondent, Associated Press, was taken hostage by the Somalis on June 2O, l994, and was held 2O days for ransom before being released unharmed. The ransom was not paid. Interviewed by author, June l993.

Watson, Paul, correspondent, Toronto Star, and l994 Pulitzer Prize winner for his photograph taken in Mogadishu on October 4, l993. A former school teacher, he is a print reporter by trade, not a photojournalist. Interviewed by author, October l993.

Wiener, Robert, producer, CNN, and author of the book and movie Live From Baghdad: Gathering News at Ground Zero, about his work with CNN correspondent Peter Arnett during the Persian Gulf War. Interviewed by author, March l994.

Zinni, U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Anthony, commander of Combined Task Force United Shield, military advisor to Ambassador Robert Oakley during post-hostilities UNOSOM II and operations officer for UNITAF. Interviewed by author, February l995.

In contrast to the Persian Gulf War, reporters had complete access to the battlefield in Mogadishu and got their stories. They did not feel compelled to write about their relationship with the military in Somalia like they did in the Persian Gulf War because there was no military impediment to their work in Somalia. The articles and commentary listed here represent a definitive breadth of the stories about UNOSOM II, and in reading them, one can gain an understanding about the relationship the reporters had with the U.S. and U.N. militaries.

 

Another reason so many reports are listed here is because they are listed nowhere else, and the author wanted to capture them in bibliography form for posterity. Posterity is the author's secondary purpose for writing this thesis.

 

Journals

Callahan, Christopher. "I Was Just Waiting to Die." American Journalism Review l6, no. 7, September l994.

Committee to Protect Journalists. Dangerous Assignments 45, Spring l994.

Committee to Protect Journalists. Journalists Survival Guide, October l994.

Dobbie, Charles. "A Concept for Post-Cold War Peacekeeping." Survival: The International Institute for Strategic Studies Quarterly 36, no. 3, Autumn l994.

Roberts, Adam. "The Crisis in U.N. Peacekeeping." Survival: The International Institute for Strategic Studies Quarterly 36, no. 3, Autumn l994.

Sharkey, Jacqueline. "When Pictures Drive Foreign Policy." American Journalism Review l5, no. 10, December l993.

Newspapers

Alberizzi, Massimo. "Somali Fighters Kill 2 Italian Soldiers." Reuters in Washington Post, September l6, l993; "U.N. Office Is Attacked In Somalia." Reuters in Philadelphia Inquirer, September 28, l993.

Alexander, Paul. "Pakistani Soldiers on Patrol." Associated Press in Orange County Register, May 7, l993; "Belgians Clash with Gunmen in Somalia." Associated Press, May 8, l993; "German Advance Team Lands in Somali.," "Associated Press, May l6, l993; "U.S. Action in Somalia Belatedly Approved." Associated Press, May 26, l993; "Soldiers Find Faith in Muslim Somalia." Associated Press in Orange County Register, May 29, l993; "U.N. waits for a Chance to Nab Hiding Warlord." Associated Press in Orange County Register, June 2O, l993; "U.N. Relief Efforts in Southern Mogadishu Faltering." Associated Press in Orange County Register, June 2l, l993; "Somali Youths Shatter Tradition by Firing On Elders." Associated Press in Washington Times, October 27, l993; "As Somali Truce Unravels, U.S. Vows to Send in Troops." Associated Press in Washington Times, November 9, l993.

Associated Press. "U.S. Copter in Somali a Targets Newsman." Washington Post, September l9, l993.

Atkinson, Rick. "Germany Reaffirms Somalia Plans." Washington Post, July l7, l993; "Mogadishu Calm as Attention Turns to Talks." Washington Post, November 28, l993; "Aideed Assails U.N. and Wants It Out." Washington Post, November 3O, l993; "The Raid That Went Wrong." Washington Post, January 3O, l994; "Night of a Thousand Casualties." Washington Post, January 3l, l994.

Beeson, Douglas B. "8OO Drum GIs Being Treated in Malaria Outbreak." Watertown Daily Times, May l6, l993.

Beckwith, Charlie A. "Somalia's Needless Deaths." Wall Street Journal, November l, l993.

Brooks, Geraldine. "Aiding the Somalis Creates New Breed of Relief Workers." Wall Street Journal, October 25, l993.

Clayton, Jonathan. "War Breaks for Lunch, Tour of Aideed Dwelling." Reuters in Orange County Register, June l8, l993.

Crawford, Leslie. Condemn U.N. Air Raids." London Financial Times, June l5, 1993.

Dowden, Richard. "U.N. Troops Died 'Trying to Take Somali Radio Station'." The Independent (U.K.), June 8, l993.

Editorial. "Changing the Guard in Somalia." Baltimore Sun, May 6, l993; "Somali Awakening." Wall Street Journal, June l4, l993; "Killed by U.N. Peacekeepers." Washington Post, June l5, l993; "The U.N.'s Troubled Somalia Mission." Washington Times, June l5, l993; "Somalia's Outlaws: The U.N.'s Credibility Has Been Put to a Dramatic Test." The Times (London), June 8, l993; "Must We Destroy Somalia To Save It?" Boston Globe, July l6, l993; "Americans Under Foreign Command?" Chicago Tribune, August 2O, l993; "Lost in Somalia. Louisville Courier Journal, August 2l, l993; "The U.N. and the U.S." Providence Journal, August 22, l993; "Quagmire In The Sand." Orange County Register, August 25, l993; "Deeper Into Somalia." Boston Globe, August 27, l993; "'Endgame' In Somalia." Washington Times, August 3O, l993; "Somalia: Time to Leave?" New York Times, August 3O, l993; "Congress on Somalia and Bosnia." Baltimore Sun, August 3l, l993; "Is It Time To Get Out Of Somalia?" New York Daily News, August 3O, l993; "The Army Praises Its Snafu." San Francisco Examiner, September l, l993; "U.N. Killing Field." London Financial Times, September 11, l993; "Mogadishu Rooftop Revisited." Wall Street Journal, September l3, l993; "Human Shields in Somalia." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September l5, l993; "A Worn- out Welcome." Las Vegas Review-Journal, September 28, l993; "American Blood Shed in Somalia." Chicago Tribune, October 5, l993; "Withdraw from Somalia Now." Chicago Sun Times, October 5, l993; "Edging Away From Somalia." Boston Globe, October 2, l993; "Stay Put, U.S." Minneapolis Star Tribune, October 6, l993; "Get Out Of Somalia." New York Daily News, October 6, l993; "Out of Somalia." Washington Post, October l5, l993.

Eldon, Mike. "They Could Have Saved My Son's Life." Washington Post, October l9, l993.

Ellis, Richard. "U.N. Paid Protection Money to Warlord." London Sunday Times, September 5, l993; "Can 'Delta Farce' Get It Right?" London Sunday Times, September 5, l993.

Evans, David. "Heavy Medals." Washington Post, April 3, l994.

Ewing, Jon. "Senior Aide Breaks with Somali Warlord Aideed." Reuters, May l3, l993; "Dead Bodies Litter Hospitals After Mogadishu Violence." Reuters, June l3, l993; "3 French Soldiers Wounded in Somalia." Reuters in Orange County Register, July 11, l993.

Faul, Michelle. 'Somali Protest Poses Threat of Clash Between Rival Clans." Associated Press in Washington Times, October 25, l993.

Fineman, Mark. "U.S. Troops Hand Off Last Somali Area." Los Angeles Times, April 29, l993; "U.S. Unveils $l9O Million Somali Aid Plan." Los Angeles Times, May 2, l993; "Now It's Their Turn." Los Angeles Times, May 4, l993; "Somalia Role Assessed as U.S. Flag is Lowered." Los Angeles Times, May 5, l993; "U.S. Raid Nets 4 Somalis As Mogadishu Awaits 'Big One'." Los Angeles Times, August l6, l993; "Morale Wilts in Heat of Troubled Somali Mission." Los Angeles Times, August l7, l993; "Somali Blasts Stir Fear That U.S. Is Target." Los Angeles Times, August 2O, l993; "The Case of the Missing Warlord," Los Angeles Times, August 2l, l993; "Key U.S. Missile Probed After Somalia Deaths." Los Angeles Times, August 27, l993; "U.N. Funds Go Down the Drain in Somalia." Los Angeles Times, September 27, l993; "In Mogadishu, Bandits Are Again Stealing Away Hope." Los Angeles Times, October l9, l993.

Fitzgerald, Mark, "Controversial Photo." Editor & Publisher, October 23, l993.

Fritz, Sara. "Somalia Intervention Sparks Groundswell of U.S. Dissent." Los Angeles Times, October l7, l993.

Gellman, Barton. "U.N. Forces Lose Mobility in Somalia." Washington Post, October 5, l993; "U.S. Lacked Strong Plan to Aid Besieged Troops." Washington Post, October 6, l993; "The Words Behind a Deadly Decision." Washington Post, October 3l, l993.

Gertz, Bill. "Nunn Questions Somalia Mission." Washington Times, September 27, l993; "Aspin Under Fire For Saying No To Earlier Arms Requests." Washington Times, October 7, l993; "Commander in Somalia Opposed Aideed Manhunt." Washington Times, October l4, l993; "Joint Chiefs Never Debated Granting Armor Request." Washington Times, October l5, l993; "Ex- commander in Somalia Hits Second-Guessing." Washington Times, October 22, l993.

Gordon, Michael. "New Strength for U.N. Peacekeepers; U.S. Might." New York Times, June l3, l993; "In a Shift, U.S. Sees Wider Somalia Role to Stop Clan Leader." New York Times, August 10, l993; "U.S. Supported Hunt for Aideed; Now Calls U.N. Policy Skewed." New York Times with John H. Cushman, Jr., October l8, l993; "Disastrous U.S. Raid in Somalia Nearly Succeeded, Review Finds." New York Times, with Thomas L. Friedman, October 25, l993.

Green, Marilyn. "The Full Report, From A Distance." USA Today, October 5, l993.

Grove, Lloyd, "The Fog of War and Words." Washington Post, October l7, l993.

Hall, Charles W. "Woman Says Dead Soldier Is Her Son." Washington Post, October 8, l993.

Hill, Andrew. "Latest Violence in Somalia Lifts Death Toll of U.N. Forces to 3l." Reuters in Washington Times, June 3O, l993; "U.S. Choppers Hit Arms Cache of Aideed's Financier." Reuters in Washington Times, July l, l993; "33 Years After Independence, Somali Future Again in Doubt." Reuters in Washington Times, July 2, l993; "Somali Fighting Flares After Envoy's Visit." Reuters in Orange County Register, July 4, l993.

Huband, Mark. "Envoy Says U.N.'s Bids to Catch Somali Have Failed." The Guardian (U.K.), July l2, l993; "Captive Recounts Ordeal in Somali Streets." The Guardian, October 9, l993; "U.S. AC-l3O Gunships Thunder Over Somali Capital." The Guardian, October 8, l993.

Jehl, Douglas. "An Elusive Clan Leader Thwarts a U.N. Mission." New York Times, October 7, l993; "Clinton Doubling U.S. Force in Somalia, Vowing Troops Will Come Home in 6 Months." New York Times, October 8, l993; "GIs Pinned Down in Somalia, Not Able, for Most Part, to Patrol." New York Times, October l3, l993; "Somalia GIs: They're Bitter and Grousing." New York Times, October l5, l993; "U.N. Envoy Determined to Disarm Somali Factions." New York Times, October l7, l993; "In a Gesture, Somalis Dismantle Barriers." New York Times, October l8, l993; "Army Goal: Somali Hearts and Minds," New York Times, October l9, l993; "U.S. Shifts Troops To Defensive Role In Somalia Mission." New York Times, October 2O, l993; "For Rangers in Somalia, the Armed Chase Gives Way to Boredom." New York Times, October 2l, l993; "Somali Faction Leader Warns U.N. to Disarm Aideed, His Foe," New York Times, October 22, l993; "U.N. Leader's Visit to Somalia is Met by Angry Protests." New York Times, October 23, l993; "Mogadishu Tense as Rival Clan Fighting Subsides." New York Times, October 27, l993.

Joyce, Larry. "Did My Son Have To Die?" USA Today, October 2O, l993.

Katz, Lee Michael. "Graphic Photos From Somalia Gave 'Urgency'." USA Today, October l3, l993.

Keen, Judy. "U.S. Seeks to 'Finish the Job' in Somalia." USA Today, June 2l, l993; "Public Feels 'Confusion' About Goals." USA Today, October 5, l993; "'We Feed Them, They Get Strong, They Kill Us'." USA Today, October 25, l993.

Kiley, Sam. "U.N. Forces Come Under Renewed Attack in Somalia." The Times (London), June 8, l993; "U.N. Gathers Men and Arms For Final Assault on Aideed." The Times (London), August l5, l993; "Elite U.S. Rangers Blunder Again In Search for Aideed." The Times (London), September l6, l993.

Komarow, Steve. "Somalia Mission Losing Supporters." USA Today, October 4, l993; Down Copters, 5 U.S. Soldiers Die." USA Today, October 4, l993.

Kraft, Scott. "U.N. Seeks to Shift Somalia Focus from Aideed." Los Angeles Times, June l9, l993; "Quelling Aideed tests U.N. Plan for Peace." Los Angeles Times, June 2O, l993.

Kurtz, Howard. "Deaths Spur Media Retreat From Somalia." Washington Post, July l7, l993; "White House Aide Sent To Somalia To Deal With Press." Washington Post, October l4, l993; "No American Journalists Reporting From Scene." Washington Post, October 6, l993.

Lakshumanan, Indira A.R. "Captured GIs Family Predicts His Release." Boston Globe, October 5, l993.

Lancaster, John. "U.S. Misses Warlord In Raid." Washington Post, August 3l, l993; "Exit Plans for Somalia Stepped Up." Washington Post, August lO, l993; "Rangers to Assist in Pacifying Somali Capital, Pentagon Stresses." Washington Post, August 25, l993; "Aspin Lists U.S. Goals in Somalia." Washington Post, August 28, l993; "Five Americans Killed in Somali Attack." Washington Post with Tom Kenworthy, October 4, l993; "U.S. Helicopter Force Maintains 'Eyes Over Mogadishu'." Washington Post, October l9, l993; "U.S. Pulls Rangers Out of Somalia." Washington Post with Ruth Marcus, October 2O, l993; "Combat in Mogadishu Posed a Challenge for Small U.S. Army Hospital." Washington Post, October 2O, l993; "Mission Incomplete, Rangers Pack Up." Washington Post, October 2l, l993; "Somali Clans Fight Anew." Washington Post, October 26, l993; "Fighting Boredom in Somalia." Washington Post October 29, l993; "GIs in Somalia Dig, Duck and Cover." Washington Post, November l, l993.

Lorch, Donatella. "Ravaged Somali Valley Begins to Return to Life Under Wary Peace." New York Times, May 3O, l993; "U.N. Reinforces in Somali Capital and Vows Punishment for Attack." New York Times, June 8 l993; "U.S. Aircraft Again Attack Somali Faction's Arms Sites." New York Times, June l4, l993; "U.N. Wonders What To Do With Somali Clan Chief:" New York Times, June l7, l993; "Disunity Afflicts U.N. Efforts in Somalia." New York Times, July l2, l993; "Italian Troops Fired On Again." New York Times, July l7, l993; "U.S. Bound To Somalia Until Aideed Is Declawed." New York Times, August 10, l993; "Somali Showdown." New York Times, August 11, l993; "U.N. Counts on U.S. Rangers to Find Warlord." New York Times, August 26, l993; "U.N. Still Struggling With Somali General's Militia." New York Times, September l4, l993; "Hunted Somali General Lashes Out." New York Times, September 26, l993; "Somali Chief Frees American Captive; Meets Reporters." New York Times, October 15, l993; "Far From Capital's Brutality, Another Somalia Finds Hope." New York Times, October 24, l993; "U.S. Razes Somali Shacks For New Airport Road." New York Times, October 3l, l993.

Maren, Michael. "Manna From Heaven?" Village Voice, January l9, l993; "Holiday in Somalia." Village Voice, August 10, l993; "A Pound of Flesh." Village Voice, August l7, l993; "The Tale of the Tape: Fighting the Propaganda War in Mogadishu." Village Voice, August 24, l993; "Shortsighted Charity in Somalia." New York Times, August 27, l993; "The Somalia Experiment." Village Voice, September 28, l993; "Video Warriors." Village Voice, October l9, l993; "The Mogadishu Paradox." Village Voice, November l6, l993; "Yankees Go Home." Village Voice, April S, l994.

Meisler, Stanley. "Arrest Aideed? Legal Issues Confront U.N." Los Angeles Times, June 6, l993.

Miller, Reid. "Allies Pound Warlord Again." Associated Press in Tampa Tribune, June l3, l993; "Somali Gunmen Wound 2 U.S. Soldiers." Associated Press in Washington Post, June 27, l993; "Cooling-off Period Sought in Somalia." Associated Press in Orange County Register, July l2, l993; "Somali Leaflets Urge Attacks on U.S. Troops; U.N. Asks Removal of Italian General." Associated Press in Orange County Register, July 15, 1993; "U.N. Boosts Troop Numbers in Somali Weapons Search." Associated Press in Orange County Register, August l6, l993; "U.S. Troops Raid U.N. Workers in Mogadishu." Associated Press in Long Beach Press-Telegram, August 3l, l993; "GIs Mount Raid But This Time They Knock." Associated Press in Washington Post, September 3, l993; "Possible U.N. Fire Wounds Somalis." Associated Press in San Antonio Express-News, September 2O, l993; "U.N. Moves Staff from Somalia as Two More GIs Die." Associated Press in Washington Times, October 8, l993.

Mseteka, Buchizya. "U.S. Aircraft Launch Fresh Strike at Somali Targets." Reuters, June l3, l993; "Arms Bazaar Bounces Back in Mogadishu." Reuters in Washington Times, November l, l993.

Naylor, Sean D. "Violence, Rifts Escalate in Somalia." Army Times, July 26, l993; "Two Killed As Action Continues in Somalia." Army Times, July l2, l993.

Offley, Ed. "Captives in Somalia Not Covered by Geneva Convention." Seattle Post Intelligencer, October 6, l993.

Olohede, Dele. "Grateful Commander" and "Somalia Woes." Newsday, November 15, l993.

Peterson, Scott. "U.S. Backs Up U.N. in Somalia, Protecting Its Investment." Christian Science Monitor, May 25, l993.

Press, Robert. "Relief Agencies in Somalia flack Away From Close U.N. Ties." Christian Science Monitor, June 15, l993; "Outside Mogadishu, Elders 'Talk and Talk and Settle' Their Disputes the Old Way." Christian Science Monitor, August l3, l993; "Somalis See the World go 'Bye'." Christian Science Monitor, November 3, l993.

Preston, Julia. "U.N. Presses Attacks in Somalia as New Role Questioned." Washington Post, June 15, l993.

Price, Joyce. "Coverage of Grisly Scene Criticized." Washington Times, October 6, l993.

Quinn-Judge, Paul. "Film of Somalia Gunfight Shows It Was Not a Rout." Boston Globe, November 3, l993.

Rather, Dan. "Don't Blame TV For Getting Us Into Somali." New York Times, October l4, l993.

Reed, Fred. "Somalia: Nowhere To Go." Army Times, July 26, l993.

Reuters. "Ireland Joins Somali Mission." May l2, l993; "German Troops Go To Somalia." May l3, l993.

Richburg, Keith B. "Mean Mogadishu Streets are not U.N. Territory." Washington Post, May 6, l993; "Americans in Somalia Face Threat." Washington Post, May l4, l993; "Somali Police Force Back on the Beat." Washington Post, May l7, l993; "Mogadishu Erupts in Violence." Washington Post, June 5, l993; "Mogadishu 'Stable but Still Tense'." Washington Post, June 8, l993; "U.N. Said to Plan Counterstrike Against Mogadishu Warlord." Washington Post, June 9, l993; "Large U.S. Force Still in Somalia." Washington Post, June 11, l993; "U.S. Planes Launch U.N. Attack on Somali Warlord." Washington Post, June l2, l993; "U.S. Planes Hit Mogadishu Again." Washington Post, June l3, l993; "U.N. Unit Kills l4 Somali Civilians." Washington Post, June l4, l993; "U.N. Presses Somalia Attacks as New Role Is Questioned." Washington Post, June 15, l993; "Somali Warlord Confounds U.N. by Refusing to Fight Back." Washington Post, June l6, l993; "Italian Troops, Armed Somalis In Mogadishu Street Standoff." Washington Post, June l7, l993; "GIs Learn Perils of City Combat." Washington Post, June 23, l993; "Three Die In Mogadishu Clashes." Washington Post, June 29, l993; "Somali Mob Kills Three Journalists." Washington Post, July l3, l993; "Reality in Mogadishu: A Conflict In Views." Washington Post, July l4, l993; "Criticism Mounts Over Somali Raid." Washington Post, July 15, 1993; U.N. Helicopter Assault in Somalia Targeted Aideed's Top Commanders." Washington Post, July l6, l993; "4 U.S. Soldiers Killed In Somalia." Washington Post, August 9, l993; "U.N.'s Somalia Quandry." Washington Post, August 9, l993; "U.S. Patrol Clashes With Somalis at Rally." Washington Post, August l3, l993; "7 Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia." Washington Post, September 5, 1993; "U.S. Officials in Somalia Defend Raid on U.N. Site." Washington Post, September 7, l993; "Rangers Net l7 But Miss Aideed Again." Washington Post, September 7, l 993; "U.S. Helicopters Fire On Somalis." Washington Post, September 10, l993; "3 U.S. Soldiers Wounded in Baffle at Somali Hospital." Washington Post, September l3, l993; "Stuck in Somalia?"; Washington Post, September l4, l993; "U.S., U.N. Avoid Estimating Somali Deaths in Clashes With Peacekeepers." Washington Post, September 2l, l993; "U.S. Rangers Capture Somali Warlord's Aide; 3 Peacekeepers Killed." Washington Post, September 22, l993; "l2 Americans Killed in Fierce Battle in Somalia." Washington Post, October 5, l993; "Aideed Urban War, Propaganda Victories Echo Vietnam." Washington Post, October 6, l993; "Somalis Seek Trade For U.S. Captive." Washington Post, October 7, l993; "Aideed's Forces May Have Been Underestimated, Officials Concede." Washington Post, October 8, l993; "Somali's Cease-Fire Takes Hold." Washington Post, October 11, l993; "Somalis Say GI Should Be Freed." Washington Post, October l2, l993; "Progress Seen on Defusing Conflict in Somalia." Washington Post, October l3, l993; "U.N. Halts Somalia Drive." Washington Post, October 14, l993; "Somali Faction Frees U.S Pilot." Washington Post, October 15, l993; "U.N. rejected Somali Overture." Washington Post with John Lancaster, October l7, l993; "Somalia's Scapegoat." Washington Post, October l8, l993; Aideed Rival Warns of 'Civil War' in Somalia." Washington Post, October 22, l993; "Pakistani Says U.N. Bungled on Aideed." Washington Post, November 3, 1993; "U.S. Plans to Shift Strategy in Somalia." Washington Post, November 4, l993; "Aideed Warns U.S. Troops Off Streets." Washington Post, November 8, l993; "Bystander's Slaying Symbolizes Somali Tragedy." Washington Post, November 9, l993; "U.S. Envoy to Somalia Urged Policy Shift Before l8 GIs Died." Washington Post, November 11, l993; "Some Detained Somalis Said To Have Killed American Soldiers." Washington Post, November l2, l993.

Ricks, Thomas. "U.S. Is Investigating Alleged Torture of Two Somalis by Angered Soldiers." Wall Street Journal, June 8, l993; "Air Strikes in Somalia Over Weekend Raise Questions About U.S. Intentions." Wall Street Journal, June l4, l993; "U.S., With 5,000 Troops in Somalia, Is Finding It Tough to Find Way Out." Wall Street Journal, September 2, l993.

Schmitt, Eric. "U.S. Expresses Regret at Shooting of Somalis." New York Times, June l4, l993; "Somalia Role: Why?" New York Times, August 27, l993; "U.S. Forces To Stay In Somalia To End Warlord Violence." New York Times, August 28, l993; "U.S. Vows To Stay In Somalia Force Despite An Attack." New York Times, September 26, l993; "Clinton Reviews Policy in Somalia as Unease Grows." New York Times, October 6, l993.

Sciolino, Elaine. "Pentagon Alters Goals in Somalia, Signalling Failure." New York Times, September 28, l993.

Shaw, Angus. "U.N. Envoy Resists Calls To Negotiate With Aideed." Associated Press in Orange County Register, July l4, l993; "U.S. Patrol Fires On Stone-Throwing Somali Protesters." Associated Press in Orange County Register, August l3, l993. Shields, Todd. "U.N. Expands Battle Against Somali Warlord." Los Angeles Times, June 15, l993.

Sloyan, Patrick J. "How the Warlord Outwitted Clinton's Spooks." Washington Post, April 3, l994.

Spitzer, Kirk. "Special Forces' Fate Rides on Somalia Units' Backs." Gannett News Service in Washington Times, September 27, l993; "A Desperate Battle." Gannett News Service, December 3, l993.

Susman, Tina. "GI Reportedly Injured in Mogadishu." Associated Press in Stars and Stripes, June 6, l993; "Up to 26 U.N. Peacekeeper Die in Somalia." Associated Press in Orange County Register, June 6, l993; "Somalia a Raw Nerve Again." Associated Press in Orange County Register, June l2, l993; "l2 Somalis Injured in Day Assault." Associated Press in Savannah Morning News, June l5, l993; "Errant Missile Admitted by U.S." Associated Press in Washington Times, June l6, l993; "U.S. Renews Attack on Somali Warlord." Associated Press in Orange County Register, July l, l993; "Three Italians Die, 3O Injured as Peacekeepers Ambushed in Somalia." Associated Press in San Antonio Express-News, July 4, l993; "U.N. Troops, Somali Gunmen Battle Again Near Mogadishu." Associated Press in Orange County Register, July 5, l993.

Taylor, Ronald A. "Clinton Salutes Somalia Veterans." Washington Times, May 6, l993.

Thompson, Mark. "U.N. Shootings Anger Some U.S. Military Officials." Knight- Ridder News Service in Orange County Register, June l5, l993.

Tyson, Remer. "Help Us To Rebuild, Somalis Say." Knight-Ridder News Service in Orange County Register, October l4, l993; "Somali Warlord Releases U.S., Nigerian Hostages." Knight-Ridder News Service in Orange County Register, October l5, l993; "With Heat Off, Aideed May Lose Ex-foes' Support." Knight-Ridder News Service in Orange County Register, October 2O, l993.

Waite, Juan. "U.N. Takes Aim at 'Greedy' Somalia Warlord." USA Today, June l4, l993.

Washington Times, "Military Support," October l4, l993.

Watson, Paul. "U.N.'s Big Tobacco Becomes Somalia's Most Wanted Man." London Sunday Times, September 26, l993; "Somalis May Let Red Cross Visit Pilot Held As Hostage." Toronto Star, October 7, l993; "U.S. Troops Continue Hunt For Missing Army Rangers." Toronto Star, October 8, l993.

Williams, Daniel. "Raid on Warlord is Meant to Cut Him From Somali Race for Power, U.S. Says." Washington Post, June l5, l993.

Wright, Robin. "Dozens Killed, l5O Injured in Somalia.' Los Angeles Times, June 6, l993; "U.N. Votes for Tough Action on Somali Killings." Los Angeles Times, June 7, l993.

 

Periodicals

Alter, Jonathan. "Did the Press Push Us Into Somalia?" Newsweek, December 2l, l992. Columbia Journalism Review. Promotion for Pulitzer Prizes, May/June l994.

Eldon, Daniel. Somalia (a photojournalist's compilation), self-published magazine, Nairobi, Kenya, March l993.

Foos, John. "Darts and Laurels." Armed Forces Journal International, October l993.

Hackworth, David. "Rancor in the Ranks: The Troops vs. the President." Newsweek, June 28, l993; "Making the Same Dumb Mistakes." Newsweek, October l8, l993.

Hammer, Joshua. "Trying to Break Aideed." Newsweek, June 28, l993; "A Starring Role In the Fugitive." Newsweek, September 6, l993; "The Renewal of Hostilities." Newsweek, November 8, l993.

Kilpatrick, Sergeant First Class Dawn. "Media Relations Under Fire in Somalia." Public Affairs Update, January/February l994.

Maren, Michael. "The Food-Aid Racket." Harper's Magazine, August l993; "Spinning Dunkirk." New Republic, December 6, l993; "Two Tribes Go To War." Details, February l994; "Feeding a Famine." Forbes Media Critic, Fall l994.

McAllister, J.F.O. "Pity the Peacemakers." Time, June 28, l993; "When To Go, When To Stay." Time, October 4, l993.

Newsweek, Letters-to-the-Editor rebuttal from the author to David Hackworth's October l8, l993 article "Making the Same Dumb Mistakes," November 8, l993.

Purvis, Andrew. "Wanted: Warlord No. 1." Time, June 28, l993.

Rhodes, Master Sergeant Philip F. "No Time For Fear." Airman, May l994.

Van Voorst, Bruce and Kevin Fedarko. "Amid Disaster, Amazing Valor." Time, February 28, l994.

 

Photographs

There were many fine photographs taken in Somalia by exceptionally brave

photojournalists. The drama of Paul Watson's l994 Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph, however, eclipses them all, and listing the others here would have been superfluous.

 

Watson, Paul. Toronto Star, October 4, l993. Depicts Somalis dragging the dead body of an American soldier through Mogadishu streets.

 

Political Cartoons

Political cartoons are often overlooked as sources of information, and are considerably different forms of expression than other media; the artist can communicate a lot in a small space. Newspapers and magazines prioritize their news coverage so that a minor story on Somalia might receive mention in a couple of paragraphs buried deep in the publication. A major story on Somalia might rate front-page coverage with one or more photographs and follow-up stories in subsequent editions. But major newspapers generally run one political cartoon a day, some not at all, and the cartoon has to be exceptionally topical to run. Most of the cartoons listed here scrutinized the evasive U.S. political objectives for Somalia that plagued the operation.

 

Alif. Xog-Ogaal and Qaran (Somali newspapers), September 6, l993. Depicts airborne U.S. and ground-based Italian soldiers idly watching Nigerian soldiers get ambushed; September 6, l993, depicts an Italian troop lounging on a tank and a Pakistani troops stopping at a stop sign while a Somali clubs a Nigerian soldier to death in the street.

Anderson, Nick. USA Today, October 4, l993. Titled "A line drawn in the sand," depicts a U.N. soldier drawing a box in the sand around him in Somalia.

Auth, Tony. Philadelphia Inquirer, October, l993. Depicts Americans viewing Mike Durant's image on television screaming, "We've got to get out of Somalia! My God, a hostage! Withdraw now!" while a Haitian military officer watches their reaction on a television set marked "educational television"; October l993, depicts two U.S. soldiers pinned down by fire at night with one saying to the other, "What's all this, don't they realize we're armed with good intentions?"

Brooks, Peter. The Times (London), June l5, l993. Depicts the U.N. seal transforming into a gun sight zeroed in on dead Somalis.

Herblock (Herbert Block). Washington Post, October l3. Depicts two men in a sack, each hopping in the opposite direction, one marked U.S. and the other marked U.N., with the U.N. person holding a sign that says, "We're in this together"; October l5, l993. Depicts an American administrator in Washington, D.C., switching a file marked "More troops, more armor," from his out-box to his in-box, and a file marked "By March 31" from his in- box to his out-box.

Hulme, Gretta. Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 26, l993. Depicts soldiers stealthily moving down a road at night followed by a bus full of reporters marked "Press, Secret Raid Charters."

Keefe, Mike. USA Today, October 5, l993. Titled "The Mohamed Farah Aideed Mole Hunt," depicts U.N. soldiers shooting their weapons frantically into holes in the ground.

McNeely, Jeff. Chicago Tribune, October l993. Depicts President Clinton bailing out of a shot-down jet marked "Somalia" while President Carter floats down alongside him beneath an umbrella marked "Carter legacy"; October l993, depicts U.S. troops on a tank in Vietnam with one soldier saying to the other soldier with the map marked "Somalia," "Check the map again. Somewhere back there we took a wrong turn."

Oliphant, Pat. Universal Press Syndicate in Washington Post, October l993. Depicts Somalis staring at a bombed out wall on which they'd written earlier "Yank go home." An American soldiers has written the reply "You got it, I'm outa here" and is walking away down the alley; October l993, in frame one, depicts a U.S. soldier feeding a starving Somalia child, in frame two, the child, having recovered from its hunger, shoots the soldier.

Ramirez, Michael. Winner of the l994 Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning. Copley News Service in Orange County Register, September l993, titled "The blind leading the naive," depicts U.N. dog headed toward the edge of a cliff, leading U.S. policy soldier saying, "I know, I know, but he says he knows where he is going," to a U.S. soldier trailing behind; October, l993, depicts a broke U.N. soldier modifying a backboard message from "Today's Mission: Pursue Aideed" to "Today's Mission: Pursue Aid"; October l993, depicts Aideed as "Butt-head" saying, "My military strategy is to use women and children as shields ... heh ... heh," to Aspin, also as "Butt-head," saying, "What's a military strategy? ... heh ... heh."; October l993, depicts Somalia as a person drowning. A U.S. helicopter marked "Humanitarian Aid" arrives and lowers a ladder. The helicopter's marking changes from "Humanitarian Aid" to "Police Action." The drowning person grabs the ladder and pulls the helicopter down into the water; October l993, in a cartoon mocking Gen. Schwarzkopfs Gulf War Mother of All Briefings, a military briefer pointing to a map says, "And here we exchange Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Les Aspin and Warren Christopher for the captured U.S. forces"; October l993, barking U.N. dogs are eagerly dragging a U.S. soldier into a crocodile's open jaws marked "Protracted Engagement."

Shelton, Mike. Orange County Register, October 8, l993. Depicts President Clinton carrying a wounded soldier saying, "Maybe Somalia isn't such a good idea. Let's go to Haiti!"

Smith, Mike. Las Vegas Sun, October l993. Depicts two voices emanating from the White House: "General Aideed is on the loose in Somalia, the war in Bosnia rages on and Russia is still a mess. When will it all end?" "That's a good question, President Powell."

U.N. Military Headquarters, unpublished, October l993. Titled, "Somalia, a Joint Operation, the True Story," depicts Special Operations soldier in the rain saying, "I wish it would suck some more here," the Army saying, "It sucks here," the Marines saying, "I love how it sucks here," the Navy saying, "I bet it sure sucks over there," and the Air Force saying, "What? No Cable? That sucks!"

Wilkinson, Signe. Philadelphia Daily News, June l8. Depicts gang members in typical American big city. One is in shock, reading the newspaper headline, "U.N. Attacks Armed Gangs, weapons Destroyed," while his composed compatriot says, "Relax, it's only Somalia"; October l993, depicts a crocodile marked "Somalia" swallowing Uncle Sam who exclaims, "Aha! An exit strategy!"

Wright. Providence Journal Bulletin, October 1993. Titled "A chain is only as strong as it's weakest link," depicts Clinton as the link between Somalia" and "Policy"; October l993, depicts a human hand holding a bowl of U.N. aid and protruding from the barrel of a U.S. tank, being bitten by a ferocious cat marked "Somali warlords."

 

Leaflets

The author considered this a sub-category of Political Cartoons, but it does not include those leaflets produced by the U.S. Army's Psychological Operations, and there were many leaflets that PSYOP produced. Among the leaflets not included here were messages persuading Somalis to stay away from an on-going U.S. or U.N. military operation, or not to point anything at a helicopter or ground vehicle that might be perceived as a weapon.

The leaflets detailed here were produced by the United Nations International Children's Education Fund (UNICEF) cartoonist Christian Clark from January to March l994, and were titled "The Kids." While they were persuasive, they also provided a running commentary on the political situation in Mogadishu from a universal, non-Somali point of view.

In March l994, Clark illustrated several anti-cholera leaflets for the Somali- United Nations Cholera Crisis Group to help combat the epidemic.

 

 

l. A Somali man tries to hand an AK-47 to a Somali youth who responds, "No, no, no. I asked if I could have some gum."

2. A Somali man tries to hand an AK-47 to a Somali youth who responds, "Thanks, really, but would it be possible to get an education instead?"

3. A Somali man with an AK-47 slung across his back gestures to a destroyed urban landscape and explains to a Somali youth, "Some day, son, this will all be yours."

4. A Somali U.N. worker sits beneath a UNICEF banner at a desk with an in-box labeled "IN DANGER" and "OUT DANGER."

5. Two Somali youths stand amongst urban ruins, and one says to the other, "Actually, no, I don't think I really want to play war today."

6. Two Somali youth amputees lie in side-by-side beds in a Somali hospital. One says to the other, "Maybe we could ask the government which provided the guns to the men who did this to us if they could now supply us with arms." (The original copy read, "Maybe we could ask the foreign government which provided the guns to the men who did this to us is they could be so kind as to now supply us with arms.")

7. A Somali youth sits on Santa Claus' lap and explains, "Clean water, access to education and health care and a future..."

 

Radio

BBC's Roger Hearing Reports on Americans Missing in Action, October 4, l993.

BBC's Mark Doyle Reports on Mike Durant, October 8, l993.

National Public Radio's All Things Considered. "Secretary Aspin Interview," September 28, l993.

 

Television

ABC's Good Morning America. "Secretary Aspin Interview," September 29, l993; "Jonathan Howe Interview," October 7, l993.

ABC's Nightline. "Interview with Secretary Les Aspin," October 7, l993; "Analysis of Somalia Policy," October 6, l993.

ABC World News Tonight. "4 GIs Killed," August 9, l993; "Rangers Arrive in Mogadishu," August 27, l993; "Ambush," September 10, l993; "Helicopter Shot Down," September 28, l993; "Rangers Killed," October 4, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 5, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 6, l993; "Crisis in Somalia," October 7, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October l9, l993; "Pullout," March 11, l994; "Coming Home," March l3, l994; "Lessons Learned," March l8 and 28, l994; "Lessons from Mozambique," April 4 and 5, l994; "Medal of Honor Ceremony," May 25, l994.

CBS Evening News. "Outbreak of Violence in Somalia," June 7, l993; "4 GIs Killed," August 9, l993; "Rangers Arrive in Somalia," August 27, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," August 3l, l993; "Ambush," September 10, l993; "Helicopter Shot Down," September 28, l993; "Rangers Killed," October 4, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 5, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 6, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October l9, l993; "AC-l3O Crash," March l4, l994; "Medal of Honor Ceremony," May 25, l994.

CBS's Face the Nation. "U.S. Troops Go On the Attack," June l3, l993.

CBS's This Morning. "Pakistanis Shoot Into Crowd," June l4, l993; "Senator McCain Says Time To Leave Somalia," September 28, l993.

CNN's The World Today. "4 GIs Killed,", August 9, l993; U.N. Operations in Somalia," August l7, l993; "Rangers Arrive in Somalia," August 27, l993; "U.N. Operations in Somalia," September l, l993; "Ambush," September 10, l993; "Three Americans Killed In Somalia," September 26, l993; "Helicopter Show Down," September 28, l993; "Rangers Killed," October 4, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 5, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 6, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October l9, l993; "Somali Clans Clash in Mogadishu," October 25, l993; "General Shalikashvili Visits Somalia," March l5, l994; "Cholera," March 2O, l994; "Two Journalists Killed," March 23, l994; "Major General Thomas Montgomery Returns Home from Somalia," March 25, l994; "Congressional Testimony," May l2, l994; "Medal of Honor Ceremony," May 25, l994.

C-Span. "Major General Thomas Montgomery Returns Home from Somalia," March 28, l994; "Medal of Honor Ceremony," May 23, l994; Pierre Salinger Addresses The Washington Forum, December 26, l994.

MacNeil-Lehrer Newshour. "Jonathan Howe Interview,' September l6, l993; "Secretary Aspin Interview," September 28, l993; "Congressional Views on Somalia," October 5, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 6, l993.

NBC's Dateline. "Battle of October 3," July l9, l994.

NBC Nightly News. "Outbreak of Violence in Somalia," June 7, l993; "4 GIs Killed," August 9, l993; "Rangers Arrive in Somalia, August 27, l993; "Ambush," September 10, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," September l4, l993; "Three Americans Killed in Somalia," September 25 l993; "U.S. Role in Peacekeeping Operations," September 26, l993; "Helicopter Shot Down," September 28, l993; "Rangers Killed," October 4, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 5, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October 6, l993; "U.S. Involvement in Somalia," October l9, l993; "AC-l3O Crash," March l4, l994; "General Shalikashvili Visits Somalia," March l5, l993; "Major General Thomas Montgomery Returns Home from Somalia," March 28, l994; "Congressional Testimony," May l2, l994.

NBC's Today. "Report on 3 October," October 4, l993; "Jonathan Howe Interview," October 7, l993.

Soldier's Radio and Television, U.S. Army. "Medal of Honor Ceremony," May 25, l994.

Tg3 (Italian television). "Mortar Fire, Shelling Reported in Mogadishu," by Ilaria Alpi, July l9, l993.

 

 

 

Endnotes

 

 

1 U.S. Army Field manual lOO-5, Operations, dated June l993, pages l3-3 and l3-4.

2 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

3 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

4 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

5 Jacqueline Sharkey, "When Pictures Drive Foreign Policy," American Journalism Review, December l993, l4-l9.

6 Sharkey, l4-l9.

7 UNOSOM II After Action Review, Executive Summary, February l993, 110.

8 Chief UNOSOM II military spokesman s unpublished notes, l993-l994, referred to hereafter as "spokesman's notes."

9 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

10 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

11 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

12 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here and spokesman's notes.

13 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

14 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

l5 William M. Hammon, The Light of Controversy: Five Essays on the Rise of the War Correspondent, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, l972; and Joseph J. Mathews, Reporting the Wars, University of Minnesota Press, Minnesota, 1957, 31-51.

16 Maury M. Breecher, "Meet Only Reporter Court-Martialed in U.S. History," Media History Digest, Spring/Summer, l993, 48.

17 William J. Hammond, The Military and the Media, l962-l968, U.S. Government

Printing Office, Washington, D.C., l988, 5.

18 Dale Nelson, "War Coverage Has Changed Since D-Day," Media History Digest, Spring/Summer, l994, 57.

19 Hammond, The Military and the Media, l962-l968, 6.

2O Don Oberdorfer, Tet! Plenum Publishing, New York, l97l, 158.

21 John Fialka, Hotel Warriors, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C., l992, with forward by Peter Braestrup, xi.

22 Mike Gartner, president of NBC news, commentary in Wall Street Journal, August 3O, l99O.

23 Joseph Metcalf, "The Mother of the Mother," Proceedings, August l99l, 56.

24 Winant Sidle, "The Sidle Panel Report to General John W. Vessey, Jr., February l983, 4. Panel findings included eight recommendations: Military public affairs planning must occur concurrently with operational planning; if a pool appears necessary during planning, make it the largest possible pool; DoD must establish and update an accredited list of reporters who comprise the pool; pool reporters must submit to guidelines, expulsion from the pool may occur if those

guidelines are violated; planning should include sufficient equipment and qualified military escorts; planning should include communications facilities for reporters to file their stories but not at the expense of the mission; planning should include transportation for intra- and inter-theater needs; and the assistant secretary of defense for public affairs should hold regular meetings with representatives from major news organizations to discuss and resolve mutual problems and assist the military in seeking more understanding of the media through training.

25 John R. MacArthur, Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War, Hill and Wang New York, l992, 45.

26 R.W. Apple, Jr., "Pentagon Moves to Widen Reporters' Access to Gulf Ground Units," New York Times, February 26, l99l.

27 Sidle, 7-l7.

28 U.S. Army Major Bill McCormick, public affairs officer for 1st Infantry Division during the Persian Gulf War, interviewed by the author, May l994.

29 Columbia Journalism Review, May l992.

3O Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

3l Jonathan Alter, "The Propaganda War," Newsweek, February 25, l99l.

32 Molly Moore, A Woman at War, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, l993, 3l8.

33 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

34 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

35 Bob Simon, CBS news correspondent, interviewed by the author, June l993.

36 UNOSOM II journalist pass log book and spokesman's notes.

37 Spokesman's notes.

38 The DoD Principles of Information are: Information will be made fully and readily available, consistent with statutory requirements, unless its release is precluded by current and valid security classification. The provisions of the Freedom of Information Act will be supported in both letter and spirit. A free flow of general and military information will be made available, without censorship or propaganda, to men and women of the Armed Forces and their dependents. Information will not be classified or otherwise withheld to protect the government from criticism or embarrassment. Information will only be withheld when disclosure would adversely affect national security or threaten the safety or privacy of the men and women of the Armed Forces. The Department's obligation to provide the public with information on major programs may require detained public affairs planning and coordination within the Department and with other government agencies. The sole purpose of such activity is to expedite the flow of information to the public: propaganda has no place in the Defense Department's programs.

39 Spokesman's notes and Fialka, 6. The rules for combat coverage are: Open reporting is the principle means of coverage of U.S. operations; pools may be the only access early in an operation and will be discarded at the earliest opportunity; pools may be appropriate for coverage in remote locations or when space is limited; the U.S. military will credential journalists to cover U.S. military operations in a combat zone and journalists must adhere to ground rules, the violation of which may result in suspension of credentials or expulsion from the combat zone; access will be granted to all major military units, but special operations units may limit access in some cases; military public affairs personnel should act as liaisons and not interfere with the reporting process; when there is open coverage, commanders should permit reporters to ride on military vehicles and aircraft whenever feasible; public affairs personnel must, within their capabilities, furnish journalists Timely transmission of pool material that may be limited due to electromagnetic operational security needs within a combat zone; and these principles apply to the standing DoD press pool system. The military and the media could not agree on the principle of security review and one was not adopted.

40 Spokesman's notes.

4l Spokesman's notes.

42 Spokesman's notes.

43 Spokesman's notes.

44 Spokesman's notes.

45 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

46 Field Manual lOO-5, Operations, Headquarters, Department of the Army, June l993, 2-4.

47 FM lOO-5, l3-3.

48 FM lOO-5, l3-3.

49 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

50 Spokesman's notes.

51 Spokesman's notes.

52 Spokesman's notes.

53 Keith Richburg, "U.S. Officials in Somalia Defend Raid on U.N. Site," Washington Post, September 7, l993.

54 Comments passed anonymously from U.S. Defense Department and U.S. Central

Command public affairs to the author. November 1993.

55 Reid Miller, "GIs mount Raid But This Time They Knock," Associated Press in the Washington Post, September 3, 1993.

56 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

57 Spokesman's notes.

58 FM lOO-5, l3-4.

59 U.S. Army Major General Thomas Montgomery, commander of U.S. Forces Somalia and deputy commander UNOSOM II, interviewed by the author, May l994.

6O Tina Susman, "Three Italians Die, 3O injured as Peacekeepers Ambushed in Somalia," Associated Press in San Antonio News-Express, July 4, 1993.

6l Spokesman's notes.

62 Spokesman's notes.

63 Keith Richburg "7 Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia," Washington Post, September 6, l993.

64 Spokesman's notes.

65 Richburg, "7 Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia," Washington Post, September 6, l993.

66 FM 100-5, l3-4.

67 Spokesman's notes.

68 Spokesman's notes.

69 Keith Richburg, "Somali Mob Kills 3 Journalists," Washington Post, July l3, l993.

7O Richburg, "Somali Mob Kills 3 Journalists," Washington Post, July l3, l993.

71 Keith Richburg, correspondent for Washington Post, and Mark Fineman, correspondent for Los Angeles Times, interviewed by the author, March 1993.

72 Keith Richburg, correspondent for Washington Post, and Mark Fineman, correspondent for Los Angeles Times, interviewed by the author, March l993.

73 Spokesman's notes.

74 Spokesman's notes.

75 Spokesman's notes.

76 Robert Wiener, producer for CNN, interviewed by the author, March l993.

77 Robert Wiener, producer for CNN, interviewed by the author, March l993.

78 Robert Wiener, producer for CNN, interviewed by the author, March l993.

79 Spokesman's notes.

8O Patrick Sloyan, "How the Warlord Outwitted Clinton's Spooks," Washington Post, April 3, l994.

8l Lloyd Grove, correspondent for Washington Post, interviewed by author, December l994.

82 Lloyd Grove, "The Fog of War and Words," Washington Post, October l7, l993.

83 Spokesman's notes.

84 FM lOO-5, l3-4.

85 Author's conclusion based on the evidence.

86 Michael Maren, "Feeding a Famine," Forbes Media Critic, Fall l994.

87 Grove, "The Fog of War and Words."

88 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

89 Spokesman's notes.

9O A "stringer" is a part-time journalist hired by a news agency for a specific time period or to accomplish a specific task. A "stringer" is not a full-time member of that news agency.

9l Mohamoud Hassan, Somali stringer cameraman, interviewed by author, October l993.

92 Paul Watson, correspondent for Toronto Star, interviewed by author, October l993.

93 Presidential Statement to the American People on the Situation in Somalia, October 7, l993.

94 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

95 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

96 Robert Wiener, producer for CNN, interviewed by author, March l993.

97 Michael Maren, correspondent for Village Voice, interviewed by author, March l993.

98 FM lOO-5, l3-4.

99 Spokesman's notes.

100 Spokesman's notes.

101 Spokesman's notes.

1O2 Spokesman's notes.

O3 Sam Kiley, correspondent for (London) The Times, interviewed by author, September l993.

1O4 Spokesman's notes.

105 FM lOO-5, l3-4.

1O6 FM lOO-5, l3-4.

1O7 Spokesman's notes.

1O8 Barton Gellman, "The Words Behind a Deadly Decision," Washington Post, October 3l, l993.

1O9 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

110 Gellman, "The Words Behind a Deadly Decision."

111 Gellman, "The Words Behind a Deadly Decision."

1l2 Spokesman's notes.

1l3 Gellman, "The Words Behind a Deadly Decision."

1l4 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

115 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

116 Lloyd Grove, correspondent for Washington Post, interviewed by author, December l994.

117 Michael Maren, "Feeding a Famine," Forbes Media Critic, Fall l994.

118 Spokesman's notes.

119 Dan Rather, "Don't Blame TV For Getting Us Into Somalia," New York Times, October l4, l993

120 Michael Maren, "Feeding a Famine," Forbes Media Critic, Fall l994.

12l Michael Maren, correspondent for Village Voice, interviewed by author, March l993.

122 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

123 Michael Maren, "Feeding a Famine," Forbes Media Critic, Fall l994.

124 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

125 Richard Zoglin, "Just Whose Side Are They On?" Time, February 25, l99l.

126 Spokesman's notes.

127 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

128 Spokesman's notes.

129 Spokesman's notes.

13O Hassan Harun, correspondent for Qaran (Somali newspaper), interviewed by author, March l993.

131 Spokesman's notes.

132 Spokesman's notes.

133 Spokesman's notes.

134 Spokesman's notes.

135 Spokesman's notes.

136 Spokesman's notes.

137 Spokesman's notes.

138 Spokesman's notes.

139 Hassan Harun interview.

140 Spokesman's notes.

141 Abdi Abshir, correspondent for Bel-Deeq (Somali newspaper owned by Aideed), interviewed by author, February l994.

142 Spokesman's notes.

143 Spokesman's notes.

144 Spokesman's notes.

145 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

146 Spokesman's notes.

147 Spokesman's notes.

148 Hassan Harun, correspondent for Qaran (Somali newspaper), interviewed by author, March l993.

149 Spokesman's notes.

15O Spokesman's notes.

151 Spokesman's notes.

152 Spokesman's notes.

153 Spokesman's notes.

154 Spokesman's notes.

155 Rick Atkinson, correspondent for Washington Post, interviewed by author, March l993.

156 Rick Atkinson, correspondent for Washington Post, interviewed by author, March l993.

157 Spokesman's notes.

158 John Lancaster, "Fighting Boredom In Somalia," Washington Post, October 29, l993.

159 Reid Miller, correspondent for Associated Press, interviewed by author, March l993.

16O Spokesman's notes.

16l Spokesman's notes.

162 Michael Maren, correspondent for Village Voice, interviewed by author, March l993.

163 Spokesman's notes.

164 Spokesman's notes.

165 Spokesman's notes.

166 Spokesman's notes.

167 Michael Maren, correspondent for Village Voice, interviewed by author, March l993.

168 Michael Maren, correspondent for Village Voice, interviewed by author, March l993.

169 Paul Alexander, "Somali Youths Shatter Tradition By Firing On Elders," Associated Press in the Washington Times, October 27, l993.

170 Spokesman's notes.

171 Ingrid Formanek, producer for CNN, interviewed by author, June l993.

172 Ingrid Formanek, producer for CNN, interviewed by author, June l993.

173 Ingrid Formanek, producer for CNN, and Tina Susman, correspondent for Associated Press, interviewed by author, June l993.

174 Spokesman's notes.

175 Spokesman's notes.

176 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

177 Robert Wiener, producer for CNN, interviewed by author, March l993.

178 Robert Wiener, producer for CNN, interviewed by author, March l993.

179 Spokesman's notes.

18O Spokesman's notes.

181 Spokesman's notes.

182 Spokesman's notes.

183 Spokesman's notes.

184 Spokesman's notes.

185 Spokesman's notes.

186 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

187 Spokesman's notes.

188 U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Anthony Zinni's unclassified presentation to U.S. Marine Corps University, Quantico, Virginia, on April 3, l995.

189 U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Anthony Zinni, commander of Operation

UNITED SHIELD, interviewed by author, February l995.

19O Spokesman's notes.

191 Spokesman's notes.

192 U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Anthony Zinni, commander of Operation

UNITED SHIELD, interviewed by author, February l995.

193 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

194 Spokesman's notes.

195 Spokesman's notes.

196 U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Anthony Zinni, commander of Operation

UNITED SHIELD, interviewed by author, February l995.

197 U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Anthony Zinni, commander of Operation

UNITED SHIELD, interviewed by author, February l995.

198 Spokesman's notes.

199 Spokesman's notes.

2OO Spokesman's notes.

2O1 Spokesman's notes.

2O2 Spokesman's notes.

2O3 Spokesman's notes.

2O4 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

2O5 Author's conclusion based on the evidence presented here.

2O6 Michael Maren, "Feeding a Famine," Forbes Media Critic, Fall l994.



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