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Military

*FM 5-424


Field Manual
5-424
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 25 June 1997

FM 5-424

THEATER OF OPERATIONS ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

Table of Contents


Cover

List of Illustrations

Tables
Figures

Preface

Part One. Basic Electrical

Chapter 1. Fundamentals

Usage
Drawing Symbols and Reading Blueprints
Symbols
Schematic Wiring Diagrams
Drawing Notes
Color Coding
Splices
Solderless
Soldered
Taped
Insulation and Wire Connections
Job Sequence
Scope
Roughing-In
Finishing

Chapter 2.Tools and Equipment

Section I. Interior Wiring
Pliers
Fuse Puller
Screwdrivers
Wrenches
Soldering Equipment
Drilling Equipment
Woodworking Tools
Metalworking Tools
Masonry Drills
Conduit Threaders, Reamers, and Cutters
Insulation-Stripping Tools
Hammers
Tape
Friction Tape
Rubber or Varnished Cambric Tape
Plastic Electrical Tape
Fish Tape
Drop Chain
Ruler and Measuring Tape
Wire Grip and Splicing Clamp
Extension Light
Thin-Wall Conduit Impinger
Wire Code Markers
Meters and Test Lamps
Test Lamps
Volt Probe Indicator
Multimeter
Section II. Wiring Materials
Electrical Conductors
Single Conductors
Wire Sizes
Multiconductor Cables
Armored Cable
Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable
Plastic-Sheathed Cable
Lead-Covered Cable
Service-Entrance Cable
Cords
Electrical Boxes
Design
Selection
Outlet Boxes for Rigid and Thin-Wall Conduit and Armored Cable
Outlet Boxes for Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable and Surface Wiring
Steel
Nonmetallic
Special
Attachment Devices for Outlet Boxes
Wooden Cleats
Mounting Straps
Bar Hangers
Patented Supports
Cable and Wire Connectors
Straps and Staples
Policy
Cable Staples
Insulated Staples
Straps
Receptacles
Applicability
Conduit and Cable
Surface Metal Raceways
Plugs and Cord Connectors
Plugs
Cord Connectors
Switches and Covers
Definition
Open and Nonmetallic-Sheathed Wiring
Conduit and Cable Installations
Entrance Switches
Fuses and Fuse Boxes
Fuses
Standard
Special
Fuse Boxes
Circuit Breakers
Lamp Holders and Sockets
Signal Equipment
Reflectors and Shades
Incandescent Lamps
Fluorescent Lamps
Glow Lamps
Transformers
Pole-Line Hardware

Part Two. Wiring Procedures

Chapter 3. Design and Layout

Section I. Interior Wiring
Types of Distribution
Load Per Outlet
Circuiting the Load
Switch Outlets
Receptacle Outlets
Balancing the Power Load on a Circuit
Load Per Building
Maximum Demand
Demand Factor
Balancing the Power Load of a Building
Wire Size
Grounding and Bonding
Requirements
Types of Grounding
Methods of Grounding
Water Pipe
Plate Electrodes
Pipe Electrodes
Rod Electrodes
Ground Resistance
Bonding
Wiring for Hazardous Locations
Class I
Class II
Class III
Installation In Hazardous Locations
Class I
Class II
Class III
Installation of Signal Equipment
Battery Operation
Transformer Operation
Special Switches
Three-Way Switching
Four-Way Switching
Variable-Control Devices
Additions to Existing Wiring
Circuit Capacity
New Circuits
New Load Center
Circuit Diagrams
Section II. Expedient Wiring
Purpose
Wire
Supports
Joints, Splices, Taps, and -Connections
Fixture Drops
Cords or Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable

Chapter 4. Cable Wiring

Section I. Armored Cable Wiring
Advantages and Uses
Materials
Cable
Support
Boxes and Devices
Installation
Cable Support
Damage Protection
Bending
Box Connection
Procedure
Cutting Cable
Unwrapping Paper
Attaching Antishort Bushing
Attaching Cable to a Box
Additions to Existing Wiring
Circuiting
Cable Connections
Armored-Cable Additions
Exposed
Concealed
Section II. Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable Wiring
Advantages and Uses
Materials
Cable
Support
Boxes and Devices
Installation
Cable Support
Damage Protection
Cable Bending
Box Connection
Entering Boxes
Metal Boxes
Nonmetallic Boxes
Additions to Existing Wiring Circuiting
Cable Connections
Type NM Cable Additions
Exposed
Concealed
Section III. Cable Fishing with Access
Section IV. Cable Routing Without Access
Routing Behind a Baseboard
Adding a Light and a Switch
Routing Cable Along a Wall
Routing Cable Around a Doorway
Routing Cable Through Back-to-Back Devices
Section V. Finishing Up
Mounting Boxes
Plain Box with Brackets
Plain Box Without Brackets
Cut-In Box
Ceiling Box on Hanger Bar
Ceiling Box with Offset Hanger
Ceiling Box with Flange
Pancake Box
Wiring Into the Power Source

Chapter 5. Conduit Wiring

Section I. Rigid Conduit
Uses and Advantages
Materials
Conductors
Supports
Fittings
Boxes and Connectors
Devices
Accessories
Procedures
Making Bends
Cutting Conduit
Reaming Conduit
Cutting Threads
Installing Conduit
Connecting Boxes
Pulling Wire
Using Splices
Circuiting
Layout
Conductor Connection
Conduit Capacity
Circuit Wiring
Additions to Existing Wiring
Increase of Circuit Amperage
Addition of New Circuit
Section II. Thin-Wall Conduit
Uses and Advantages
Conduit and Fittings
Conductors
Bends
Construction
Operation
Installation
Section III. Flexible Conduit
Materials
Installation
Grounding
Bending and Supporting
Section IV. Nonmetallic Conduit
Uses
Wiring
Trimming
Bending
Joining

Chapter 6. Foreign Systems

Section I. Wiring Installations
Type of Wiring
Voltages
Domestic
Foreign
Frequency
Materials
Background
Wire
Devices
Section II. Additions to Existing Installations
Procedures
Supply
Modifications
Effects of Voltage Differences
Effects of Frequency Differences
Effects of Material Differences

Chapter 7. Switches and Fuses

Disconnects
Types
Bypass Switches
Gang-Operated Disconnects
Maintenance
Oil Circuit Breakers
Oil Fuse Cutouts
Circuit-Reclosing Fuse Cutouts
Operation
Fuses

Part Three. Power

Chapter 8. Generators

Section I. Mobile Generator Sets and Electric Distribution Systems
Mobile Generator Sets
AC Generator Sets
Small
Medium
Large
DC Generator Sets
Data Plates
Electric Distribution Systems
Single-Phase, Two-Wire
Single-Phase, Three-Wire
Three-Phase, Three-Wire
Three-Phase, Four-Wire
Section II. Generator Selection and Operation Principles
Selecting the Generator
Computing the Load
Computing the Cable Size
Balancing the Load
Single-Phase Systems
Three-Phase Systems
Selecting the Generator
Power and Voltage Requirements
Selection Guides
Load Classification Requirements
Paralleling the Generator Sets
Determining the Grounding System
Grounding Rod
Grounding Pipe
Grounding Plate
Soil Conditions
Selecting the Generator Site
Constructing a Revetment
Dimensions
Foundation and Drainage
Wall Construction
Roof Construction
Miscellaneous Construction
Alignment Instructions

Chapter 9.Controls and Instruments

Engine Controls
Safety Controls
Engine Instruments
AC Generator Controls
AC Generator Meters
Convenience Outlet

Chapter 10.Setup, Installation, and Operation Procedures

Section I. Setup and Installation
Preliminary Instructions
Inspect the Equipment
Service the Equipment
Install the Fuel Supply
Planned Duration
Security Requirements
Potential Fire and Safety Hazards
Potential Sources of Contamination
Maintain the Fuel Supply
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Connection Instructions
Install the Distribution Cable
Overhead
Underground
On the Ground
Connect the Distribution Cable
Section II. Operation
Weather Conditions
Extreme Cold
Checks
Lubrication
Cleaning
Generator Warm-Up Period
Extreme Heat
Geographical Areas
Dusty/Sandy
Rainy/Humid
Saltwater
High-Altitude
Combat Areas
Noise
0.5 to 10 Kilowatts
15 to 500 Kilowatts
Visibility
Infrared Detection
Ice Fog

Part Four. Other Electrical

Chapter 11.Building Attachments and Services

Service Wires
Length
Size
Service Attachment at Buildings

Chapter 12. Pole Climbing and Rescue

Section I. Climbing
Inspection
Pole
Climbing Equipment
Climbing Procedures
Belting In
Unbelting
Ascending
Descending
Hitchhiking
Circling
Procedures
Work Positions
Hoisting Tools and Materials
Safety
Section II. Rescue
Purpose
Equipment
Procedures
Evaluate the Situation
Provide Personal Protection
Climb to the Rescue Position
Assess the Victim's Condition
Tie the Rescue Rope to the Victim
Lower the Victim to the Ground

Part Five. Safety and Maintenance Procedures

Chapter 13. Safety

Section I. Basic Safety Rules
General Working Practices
Keeping the Job Area Clean
Warning Fellow Workers
Acting Recklessly
Wearing Clothing and Jewelry
Reporting Unusual Conditions
Preventing Fires
Using First Aid and Resuscitation
Operational Safety Practices
Wire Stripping
Soldering
Circuit Testing
Switching and Tagging
Notifying Serving Utility
Switching Operation
Tagging Procedure
Tool and Equipment Usage
Hand Tools
Goggles
Scaffolds and Ladders
Scaffolds
Ladders
Using Ladders
Placing Ladders
Ascending and Descending Ladders
Section II. Exterior Safety Rules
Tool and Equipment Usage
Rope
Body Belts and Safety Straps
Rubber Protective Equipment
Inspection
Use
Care
Gaffs
Climbers
Hot-Line Tools
Vehicles
Exterior Working Practices
Excavation
Manholes
Potheads
Poles
Working On
Climbing
Section III. Electrical Safety Rules
Voltage
Low
Intermediate
Checking Energized Conductors
Insulation
High
Circuits
De-energized
Hot
Protection
Overload
Bypassed
Transformers and Circuit Breakers
Wire Markers
Section IV. Electrical Shock
Causes of Electrical Shock
Grounding

Chapter 14. Maintenance

Section I. Preventive Maintenance
Insulation
Loose Fittings
Capacitors
Conductor Connection
Devices
Section II. Circuit Testing
What to Test For
Short Circuits or Grounds
Solid
Partial
Floating
Open Circuits
When to Test
What to Test With
Purchased Continuity Tester
Homemade Continuity Tester
Example of Tester Use
How to Test
Testing for Short Circuits
Testing for Open Circuits
Finding a Short
Determining the Cause of a Short
Troubleshooting
Section III. Generator Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services
Testing
Common Equipment Malfunctions
Section IV. Miscellaneous Equipment Maintenance
Housekeeping
Rotating Equipment
Lighting
Storage
Tools and Equipment
Fluorescent Lamp Repairs
Tubes
Starters
Tube Holders
Ballasts
Pole-Line Hardware
Lubrication

Appendix A. Common Electrical Parts and Equipment

Appendix B. Electric Data

Appendix C. Metric Conversion Chart

Glossary

References

Authorization



Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes TM 5-760, 23 August 1968, and FM20-31, 9 October 1987.



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