This appendix contains powered survivability equipment used in engineer operations. The operational concepts and capabilities for each system are presented. The following table contains general excavation capabilities for survivability equipment. Outputs depend on operational efficiency, soil conditions, weather, and cycle time. Production estimates determine equipment required, completion time, and best performance methods for the project. Technical Manuals 5-331A and 5-331B provide detailed information on estimates for production, loading, and hauling.
M9 Armored Combat Earthmover (ACE)
The M9 is a highly-mobile, armored, amphibious combat earthmover, capable of performing mobility, countermobility, and survivability tasks in support of light or heavy forces on the integrated battlefield. The vehicle hull is a welded and bolted aluminum structure with four basic compartments: engine compartment, operator's compartment, bowl, and rear platform. The bowl occupying the front half of the hull is the earth and cargo compartment. Directly behind the bowl are the operator's and engine/transmission compartments. Below the platform, in the rear quarter of the hull, is a two-speed winch with 25,000-pound capacity for recovery operations. A towing pintle and airbrake connections are provided for towing loads.
With track pads removed, the M9 has bulldozing and earthmoving characteristics comparable to the D7 dozer. The M9 is equipped with a unique hydropneumatic suspension system which allows the front of the vehicle to be raised, lowered, or tilted to permit dozing, excavating, rough grading, and ditching operations. A self-ballasting capability of the M9 gives it earthmoving characteristics equal to an item of equipment twice its empty weight. The M9 provides light armor and chemical agent protection for the operator, and armor protection for the operator, engine, power train, and other key components. It is capable of 30 miles per hour (mph) road speeds on level terrain, when unballasted, and can swim at 3 mph in calm water. The M9 is airtransportable by C130, C141, and C5A aircraft.
M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle
The combat engineer vehicle (CEV) is a full-tracked armored vehicle which consists of a basic M60Al tank with a front-mounted, hydraulically-operated dozer blade, surmounted by a turret bearing a 165-mm demolition gun, a retractable boom of welded tubular construction, and a winch. The demolition gun is operated from within the vehicle. The winch is housed on the rear of the turret and is used in conjunction with the boom to lift, or without the boom to provide direct pull. The vehicle and dozer blade are operated from the driver's compartment, The demolition gun may be elevated or depressed for use at various ranges of up to 950 meters. A .50-caliber machine gun is cupola-mounted, and a 7.62-mm machine gun is coaxially-mounted with the demolition gun.
The CEV provides engineer troops in the forward combat area with a versatile, armor-protected means of performing engineering tasks under fire. Some of the tasks which are accomplished under fire by the CEV are: reducing roadblocks and obstacles; filling craters, tank ditches, and short, dry gaps; constructing combat trails; preparing fighting or protective positions; assisting in hasty minefield breaching; destroying fortifications; clearing rubble and debris, reducing banks for river crossing operations; and constructing obstacles.
The scoop loader, sometimes referred to as a front loader or bucket loader, is a diesel engine-driven unit mounted on large rubber tires. The hydraulically-operated scoop bucket is attached to the front of the loader by a push frame and lift arms. The loader is used as a one-piece general purpose bucket, a rock bucket, or a multisegment (hinged jaw) bucket. The multisegment bucket is used as a clamshell, dozer, scraper, or scoop shovel. Other available attachments for the loader are the forklift, crank hook, and snowplow. The current military engineer scoop loaders range from 21 ½ - to 5-cubic yard rated capacity, and are employed in the majority of engineer organizations including airborne/air assault units and the combat heavy battalion.
D7/D8 Crawler Tractors
The crawler tractor, commonly referred to as the bulldozer, is used for dozing, excavating, grading, land clearing, and various construction and survivability operations. The military models D7 and D8 tractors are equipped with a power shift transmission, hydraulically-operated dozer blade, and a rear-mounted winch or ripper. The D7 tractor with an operating weight of 50,000 pounds, 200 horsepower diesel engine, and drawbar pull of 39,000 pounds, is classified as a medium tractor. The D8 tractor with an operating weight of 83,000 pounds with ripper, 300 horsepower diesel engine, and drawbar pull of 56,000 pounds, is classified as a heavy tractor.
JD410 Utility Tractor
The John Deere (JD) 410 is a commercial piece of construction equipment used to excavate 2-foot wide ditches up to 15 feet deep. It also has a front loader bucket of 1 ¼-cubic yard capacity for backfilling ditches or loading material into dump trucks. The tractor has front wheel steer and rear wheel drive. The machine is also equipped with hydraulically-driven concrete breaker, tamper, and auger attachments. The tractor has a road speed of approximately 20 mph. For longer distances, the tractor is transported.
The SEE is a highly mobile, all wheel drive, diesel engine-driven tractor equipped with a rear-mounted backhoe, a front-mounted dozer or loader, and portable hand-held auxiliary hydraulic tools such as pavement breakers, rock drills, and chain saws. The front-mounted attachments are interchangeable through a quick hitch mount, and the rear mounted backhoe is easily removed for rapid conversion to other configurations. The tractor is used to rapidly excavate small combat positions such as TOW weapon positions, individual fighting positions, mortar positions, and command posts in the main battle area. The weight of the tractor is limited to 16,000 pounds. The SEE tractor has improved road speeds up to 40 mph and cross-country speeds comparable to supported tracked or wheeled units. The tractor is equipped with a backhoe capable of excavating 14-foot depths at a rate of approximately 30 cubic yards per hour. The dozer and loader buckets provide defilade excavation capabilities in addition to other tasks such as loading or dozing.
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