Military

Chapter 1

Tactical Unit Operations

This chapter discusses munitions support and tactical unit operations within the theater structure. Munitions directly impact the success of tactical operations. It is the function of ammunition companies and modular ammunition platoons in the theater of operations to best support the operational plans of tactical commanders. Ammunition unit tactical-level operations include activities necessary to support and win in combat as well as activities that precede and follow them.

STRATEGIC, OPERATIONAL, AND TACTICAL FUNCTIONS

1-1. Power projection is the ability of a military force to deploy air, land, and sea forces to any region of the world and to sustain them for any type of mission. Power projection is a central strategic concept of US military strategy. Force projection, the Army's contribution to this joint effort, is the demonstrated ability to rapidly alert, mobilize, and field a force that is deployable, lethal, versatile, expandable, and sustainable.

1-2. Army CSS operates in a seamless continuum throughout the strategic, operational, and tactical environments. Strategic CSS maintains the national sustainment base and supports force projection. Operational CSS accomplishes operational plans by linking tactical requirements to strategic capabilities. Operational level support personnel are aware of the combat commander's theater strategic perspective and requirements at the tactical level. Tactical CSS focuses on coordinated, tailored warfighter support by manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining the soldier and his equipment. The following section briefly describes theater structure to provide context for the discussion of tactical unit operations.

THEATER STRUCTURE

1-3. A theater is a geographical area located OCONUS for which a commander is assigned military responsibility. International military cooperation and the degree of dedicated US forces influence how the Army conducts operations in each theater.

THEATER OF WAR

1-4. When combat operations are authorized, a strategic theater of war is delineated. It may include part or all of the original peacetime theater. Part of the theater may be in a state of war while other areas remain at peace.

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

1-5. To contend with more than one threat, the theater of war may be subdivided into subordinate theaters or areas of operation. Theaters of operation are those portions of an area of war required for military operations and for administering those operations.

COMMUNICATIONS ZONE

1-6. The COMMZ extends from the rear of the combat zone in the theater of operations to the CONUS base. Its size depends on the size of the theater of operations and the size of the force required for operation and sustainment. Within the COMMZ is the theater logistics base. It contains logistic facilities needed to support the theater; these include APOD/SPOD, storage areas, logistics headquarters, and units essential to munitions support.

CORPS/DIVISION OPERATIONS

1-7. A corps and/or division(s) operates in a defined theater as a forward presence to deter or combat threats. A corps normally fights as an element of a joint/combined or multinational force in cooperation with the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and allied forces. It is tailored for the theater and mission operations and can fight only as long as the COSCOM provides munitions and logistical support.

MUNITIONS SUPPORT

1-8. Munitions units are required to provide support for SASO and offensive, defensive, and contingency operations. Also, they support other missions as assigned in both theater and corps areas of operation.

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

1-9. Logistic assets, including ammunition companies/platoons, are essential to maintaining the momentum of offensive operations. The corps goal is to support maneuver and CS units engaged in the main battle. Units that handle, store, and supply munitions must be mobile and prepared to move as often as the combat force requires. Types of offensive operations include movement to attack, hasty attack, deliberate attack, exploitation, and pursuit.

DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

1-10. At any time, combat units defend, delay, move out of contact, or execute withdrawals. The object of defensive operations is failure of an enemy attack. Defensive operations also allow US forces to gain time, to concentrate elsewhere, to hold key objectives, or to wear down the enemy before going on the offensive. Types of defensive operations include support of a covering force, main battle force, or a mixture of heavy, light, and reserve forces.

CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

1-11. US forces may be required to serve as a contingency force in an undeveloped area where a US military infrastructure does not exist. Such an operation typically might be one in which an undeveloped, friendly HN requests military assistance. A contingency force would conduct combat operations short of war but necessary to defeat threat forces or expel them from occupied territory. The size of this force would be tailored to the threat and the environment. Initially, it could be smaller than a division but could be expanded rapidly. The munitions support structure would also be tailored and, depending on METT-TC, may include only elements of DS companies or modular ammunition platoons to operate ASPs or ATPs.

STABILITY AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS

1-12. SASO may be necessary to maintain a negotiated truce or to achieve, restore, or maintain a diplomatic resolution or peace in a hostile area or an area of potential conflict. Forces involved in such operations are traditionally multinational. The munitions force structure may be tailored to support both US and multinational forces for short or extended periods in a bare-base environment in conjunction with HNS. Most likely, the munitions force would consist of DS companies, modular ammunition platoons, or ammunition transfer point sections.

ORGANIZATION FOR AMMUNITION SUPPORT

1-13. The munitions force structure is evolving. This should be remembered, regardless of the type of operation ammunition units are required to support. In the near term, and well into the twenty-first century, ammunition units will continue to become smaller in size. At the same time, they will become more flexible and capable of deploying more rapidly, operating more efficiently at higher levels of productivity. This process will be in cooperation with elements from other services, multinational forces, other governmental and nongovernmental organizations, DOD civilians, and contract personnel.

MODULARITY

1-14. The structure of ammunition units and the munitions support concept is revised as combat doctrine evolves. MOADS doctrine and force structure were designed to support a forward-deployed force. In the near future, MOADS will transition to a more flexible distribution system based on the concept of modularity. A munitions structure based on modularity will more effectively meet the needs of a force projection Army. Under this concept, only the number of soldiers, DOD civilians, and the equipment needed to support the force are deployed.

1-15. The advent of modular munitions units has drastically increased the flexibility of the ASCC and joint commanders during combat and SASO. Unlike MOADS-PLS units, modular companies and platoons are 100 percent mobile (less munitions stocks). This mobility is particularly important for split-based and contingency operations. The ability of a modular platoon to deploy independent of its company headquarters allows the ASCC to right-size his forces for combat and SASO. Although modular platoons and companies are 100 percent mobile, they are not 100 percent sustainable. These units must be attached to a higher headquarters (i.e., company or battalion) for administrative and logistical support and C2.

1-16. The following sections provide a general overview of the typical ordnance company/battalion structure. The C2 structure in a tactical environment may not follow a functional "stovepipe" alignment. Modular ammunition platoons may be required to operate independent of their companies and within a C2 structure that is multifunctional, particularly at battalion and higher.

COMPANY STAFF AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1-17. The company typically has a rudimentary structure and relies on its parent battalion for CSS assets. Key personnel within the structure have major responsibilities that impact unit operations. These personnel, along with their duties and responsibilities are discussed below. Ammunition TOE must be consulted for specific type units.

Company Commander

1-18. The company commander is responsible for unit training, safety, and discipline and directs and supervises all phases of operations and employment. The CO is advised and assisted by his officers and NCOs. Among the most important duties and responsibilities of the company commander are the following:

  • Leads, plans, directs, and supervises company operations; guides the unit in carrying out its mission.
  • Establishes unit policies and procedures.
  • Establishes and maintains operations security consistent with guidance from higher headquarters.
  • Initiates and ensures adherence to the unit safety program.
  • Ensures that unit readiness is maintained.

1-19. The company commander must be personally involved in planning and carrying out unit training IAW FM 25-100 and FM 25-101. Other related duties include the following:

  • Performs periodic inspections to determine unit readiness.
  • Stresses principles of accountability and maintenance.
  • Instructs and cross-trains subordinates.

Executive Officer

1-20. The XO coordinates administrative and logistical support for the company. In the absence of the commander, the XO is in command. During modular or split-based operations, the XO takes command of the portion of the company in the rear location. Supervision of internal security and coordination with the battalion staff are among the XO's responsibilities.

First Sergeant

1-21. The first sergeant is the senior NCO in the company and assists the company commander in carrying out his responsibilities. The first sergeant must fully understand the company's mission and be able to adjust administrative requirements to accomplish that mission. First sergeant duties include the following:

  • Calls formations.
  • Manages the company headquarters.
  • Coordinates company headquarters.
  • Serves as intermediary between the commander and unit enlisted personnel.
  • Assumes duties of the commander in the absence of all other officers.
  • Plans and posts company details in cooperation with operational personnel.
  • Maintains duty rosters.
  • Exercises supervisory responsibility over housekeeping, work details, police, maintenance, and construction projects in the company areas.
  • Assists the commander in advising enlisted personnel on personal matters.
  • Advises the company commander on personnel and morale problems.

Ammunition Warrant Officer

1-22. The ammunition warrant officer at the company level is responsible for all technical aspects of munitions operations. His primary focus is the safe receipt, storage, and issue of munitions stocks in support of the operation designated by the ASCC or joint commander. He instructs unit personnel in all aspects of munitions operations. He normally serves as the accountable officer or storage officer for all munitions stocks stored by the company. He will also act as the accountable officer for stocks held by a platoon during split-based operations. During split-based operations he may assume more administrative duties while serving as second in command to the platoon leader. Also, he may be called on to provide technical and munitions doctrinal advise to the ASCC as one of the senior munitions logisticians in the AO. Other specific duties of the ammunition warrant officer include—

  • Directs and coordinates destruction and demilitarization of conventional ammunition, missile explosive components, and other explosive items.
  • Directs and coordinates surveillance tests, modifications, and maintenance of conventional ammunition, missile explosive components, and other explosive items in coordination with QASAS/qualified military ammunition inspectors.
  • Supervises and manages SAAS-MOD (ASP) and its associated ADP equipment.
  • Prepares and/or reviews ammunition storage waivers.
  • Prepares, reviews, and/or implements firefighting procedures.
  • Plans, reviews, and/or implements emergency destruction of ammunition, missiles, and other explosive items.
  • Manages, examines, interprets, disseminates, and verifies requirements for ammunition technical publications in the unit.
  • Plans for and schedules work requirements, observes work practices, detects and corrects unsafe or improper procedures and techniques.
  • Ensures ammunition QA/QC procedures are followed.

Automotive Maintenance Warrant Officer

1-23. The automotive maintenance warrant officer is responsible for maintaining unit automotive equipment and training and supervising maintenance personnel. The maintenance tech coordinates with maintenance support units and performs the following duties:

  • Manages the unit maintenance program.
  • Assists and advises the company commander in assigning maintenance personnel.
  • Advises the commander on maintenance matters and problems.
  • Prepares the maintenance portion of the unit SOP.
  • Ensures that replacement parts are available or are on request.
  • Conducts maintenance inspections, supervises maintenance inspections, and ensures that records are maintained.

Motor Sergeant

1-24. The motor sergeant is chief assistant to the maintenance officer and responsible for the proper maintenance of unit vehicles. The motor sergeant is supervised by the automotive maintenance warrant officer. He assists in organizing the maintenance program and operates it IAW sound maintenance procedure, as follows:

  • Assigns tasks.
  • Implements work schedules established by the maintenance officer.
  • Inspects work performed by unit mechanics.
  • Enforces safety practices.

Platoon Leader

1-25. Much like platoon leaders in any military unit, the munitions unit platoon leader is responsible for training and discipline. Also, the platoon leader of a munitions unit supervises personnel in munitions storage, receipt, issue, and maintenance operations.

1-26. The platoon leader ensures that the platoon carries out the company commander's instructions. He trains the platoon with a dual purpose. First, the platoon must be developed and trained as part of the company team. Second, the platoon must be trained to be self-reliant since it may be detached from the company and operated as a separate unit. In the latter case, the platoon leader functions as commander of an independent detachment and is responsible for the administration, operation, supply, and security.

1-27. The platoon leader must be encouraged to develop and exercise the command and leadership qualities required of the position. When the company operates as a unit, the platoon leader has added duties assigned by the company commander. These duties may include the following:

  • Supervising the training of soldiers in all phases of their duties, including maintenance services.
  • Inspecting platoon members' individual clothing and equipment for serviceability and availability.
  • Inspecting platoon billets and areas to ensure that standards of cleanliness and sanitation are kept.
  • Preparing a daily availability report of platoon personnel.
  • Enforcing discipline and internal control during convoy operations.
  • Conducting preliminary investigations and preparing reports related to accidents.
  • Enforcing environmental laws and regulations.
  • Instructing the platoon or company as prescribed by the unit training schedule.
  • Organizing, in coordination with other platoons, defense of the platoon AO, preparing and submitting sketches of the defense plan to the unit commander.
  • Undertaking additional duties (such as security officer, investigating officer) as may be assigned by the appointing authority.
  • Informing the unit commander of all phases of platoon training and operations; discussing with and advising the company commander on matters regarding training and operations.

Platoon Sergeant

1-28. The platoon sergeant is the assistant to the platoon leader. He assists with the training of the platoon and supervises both tactical and technical operations. Through section sergeants, the platoon sergeant directs and supervises munitions operations, unit maintenance, and tactical operations; trains soldiers in the operation and care of motor vehicles and MHE; and assumes the duties of the platoon leader in the absence of the platoon leader and warrant officer. The platoon sergeant also—

  • Coordinates the duties of his section sergeants.
  • Inspects storage locations to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.
  • Supervises, through his section sergeants, the performance of unit level maintenance of assigned equipment.
  • Inspects vehicles and BIIs for accountability and serviceability.
  • Coordinates with the motor sergeant for the repair of vehicles and equipment that need service beyond the drivers' capability.
  • Coordinates section training and operational activities.
  • Coordinates platoon operations.
  • Inspects the platoon defensive perimeter and bivouac site and takes corrective action.
  • Enforces safety rules and techniques.
  • Enforces environmental laws and regulations.

Section Sergeant

1-29. The section sergeant is directly responsible to the platoon sergeant for the training, discipline, appearance, and performance of assigned soldiers. He directs section personnel in storage operations, safe driving and MHE operating practices, and maintenance of equipment records. Among other duties, the section sergeant—

  • Maintains a record of availability of personnel and equipment under his control.
  • Ensures that each soldier is familiar with his part in storage operations.
  • Supervises the performance of vehicle and equipment maintenance.
  • Reports to the platoon sergeant the mechanical defects beyond the soldiers' ability to repair.
  • Ensures that living areas meet proper standards of cleanliness.
  • Enforces environmental laws and regulations.

BATTALION STAFF AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1-30. Battalions are authorized a headquarters staff organized to meet unit requirements. Staff activities must focus on assisting the commander and will contribute to mission accomplishment. Munitions units may not always be subordinate to an ordnance battalion. Battalion and higher CSS organizations are largely multifunctional and capable of delivering nearly total support. This allows units to deal with a single point of contact for support. Munitions units may be assigned to either a corps support battalion or ordnance battalion. Battalions without organic ammunition surveillance support may be augmented with QASAS personnel upon or after deployment.

Battalion Commander

1-31. The battalion commander commands the battalion and all attached units. He administers, supervises trains, directs, controls, and coordinates activities of the battalion and attached units. Other responsibilities of the battalion commander include:

  • Planning for, making decisions concerning, and publishing orders and directives governing personnel, discipline, operations, training, supply, and maintenance matters.
  • Evaluating and estimating the needs of the organization.
  • Supervising the execution of orders and inspecting completed assignments.
  • Upholding environmental protection standards by conducting all training and operations IAW relevant environmental regulations, SOFAs, and SOPs.
  • Ensuring that risk management and safety procedures are incorporated in all operations.

Executive Officer

1-32. The XO is second in command. He assists the commander in all phases of work and takes command in the commander's absence. The XO assists in interpreting, formulating, and disseminating policy. He takes the commander's decisions to the appropriate staff officers to prepare necessary staff directives. Also, the XO—

  • Exercises staff supervision and direction over all operations and training.
  • Formulates and announces policies for general operation of the staff.
  • Ensures that the commander's orders and instructions are carried out through personal observation and inspection.
  • Studies continually the overall operation of the battalion headquarters and subordinate units.
  • Functions as the principal staff-coordinating agent of the battalion.

Operations Officer

1-33. The S3 handles staff matters pertaining to operations, training, security, and intelligence. He prepares and coordinates operational plans for the battalion and subordinate units and coordinates planning activities of subordinate units. To accomplish his mission, the S3 performs the following duties:

  • Prepares operational SOPs and coordinates them with higher and subordinate units.
  • Maintains operational records and statistical reports.
  • Conducts liaison with supported agencies and activities.
  • Maintains centralized operational control over subordinate units.
  • Studies plans and operations on a regular basis and prepares estimates, plans, and directives.
  • Assigns workloads and specific operational tasks to subordinate units.
  • Plans and supervises training for the battalion and subordinate units.
  • Conducts training inspections.
  • Maintains contact and exchanges information with security and intelligence personnel of higher, adjacent, and subordinate units.
  • Receives and distributes intelligence information.
  • Directs and supervises OPSEC and advises the commander on operational, security, and training matters.
  • Prepares and publishes security directives.
  • Make security inspections of battalion and subordinate units.
  • Prepares and distributes security and intelligence SOPs.
  • Coordinates and supervises security and defense measures for the battalion and subordinate units (with the executive officer).
  • Requests road clearance for convoys and movement of oversize loads.
  • Coordinates and monitors subordinate unit environmental risk assessments and advises the commander on their status and outcome.

S3 Operations Sergeant

1-34. The battalion S3 operations sergeant is the senior NCO in the operations section. He supervises the duty performance of the section's enlisted personnel. Other duties of the operations sergeant are as follows:

  • Assists the operations officer and ensures that administrative policies and procedures are properly carried out.
  • Coordinates the functions of the operations section.
  • Maintains statistics on operational capabilities and performance of subordinate units.
  • Establishes and maintains liaison with supported units and activities.
  • Supervises documentation and report procedures and performs such other duties as directed by the operations officer.

Supply Officer

1-35. The S4 maintains accountability for operation and maintenance funds. He also coordinates supply activities with higher headquarters and supporting services and prepares and coordinates supply SOPs and directives. Other duties of the S4 are as follows:

  • Monitors priorities assigned to requisitions by battalion units as well as submission of requests to supporting supply activities.
  • Consolidates requisitions submitted by subordinate units.
  • Receives supplies, establishes schedules for issue, and issues supplies.
  • Designates POL points and makes distribution of POL.
  • Supervises and inspects subordinate unit supply procedures and records.
  • Establishes, supervises, and directs the food service program.
  • Establishes and maintains liaison with supporting services and activities.
  • Prepares and supervises maintenance of battalion property records and accounts.
  • Procures, allocates, and releases billet areas, buildings, and other facilities used by all battalion elements.

The S4 advises the commander concerning supply, mess, and real estate matters; property accountability within the battalion; contracting; and matters pertaining to munitions and hazardous materials.

Materiel Officer

1-36. An ordnance battalion TOE typically includes a materiel section supervised by a materiel officer. This section monitors munitions support requirements and the operational ability of subordinate ordnance units but does not manage munitions stocks. The MATO advises the commander on munitions support planning and equipment and the personnel status of subordinate units. He monitors the equipment and personnel status of subordinate units and recommends actions to maintain support capability. He recommends actions to maintain mission support capability. In a CSB, the support operations officer may assume this function with assistance of a COSCOM materiel management team.

MATO Ammunition Warrant Officer

1-37. The ammunition technician (ammunition warrant officer) at the battalion level is assigned to the materiel section. He is normally the senior ammunition warrant officer in the battalion and is the principal technical advisor to the battalion commander and the materiel officer on requirements for munitions support planning. He monitors equipment and personnel status of subordinate units and recommends actions to maintain support capability. He also monitors the stock status of SSAs, ensures that subordinate units are conducting safe and efficient operations IAW SOPs, and ensures compliance with theater reporting requirements and munitions policy. As a senior munitions logistician, he may be called on to provide technical and doctrinal advice to the ASCC or joint commander in a contingency or SASO environment.

MATO Operations Sergeant

1-38. The MATO operations sergeant is the senior NCO assigned to the MATO. He supervises the duty performance of the assigned enlisted personnel. He assists the materiel officer and the ammunition warrant officer and ensures those administrative policies and procedures are properly conducted. The MATO operations sergeant maintains statistics on ammunition support performance and the capabilities of assigned ammunition companies and/or platoons. He manages subordinate unit through higher headquarters reporting procedures. Also, he performs other duties as directed by the materiel officer and ammunition warrant officer. Under certain TOE, the MATO operations sergeant's duties may be combined with those of the battalion S3 operations sergeant.

TACTICAL MOVEMENT OPERATIONS

1-39. Units are required to plan and execute tactical operations when moving to a new location. When a move is to be made, site selection, area preparation and layout, defense, security, and area damage control are important considerations. The warning order for displacement normally includes the general area in which the unit will conduct future operations, the movement date, and a list of any special requirements or instructions deemed necessary. Upon receipt of notification of impending move, the company commander alerts unit personnel and begins planning for the move.

SOP PREPARATION

1-40. A detailed field SOP must be prepared to cover movement operations. To ensure a successful move under stressful conditions, units must train on movement operations until they become proficient. The following items must be addressed in the field SOP:

  • Organization of march units.
  • Organization and duties of the advance party, the rear party, and reconnaissance element.
  • Densities and speeds for different types of moves.
  • Control measures.
  • Actions in event of enemy attack.
  • Refueling procedures.
  • Mess procedures.
  • Communications methods.
  • Vehicle loading plans for personnel and equipment.

TRANSPORTATION

1-41. Units organized under the MOADS-PLS TOE have limited mobility. Since organic transportation is not sufficient to permit movement of the unit in one lift, additional transportation must be requested. Transportation requests are normally made to the battalion headquarters operations section. The operations section places the requirement with the supporting MCT. The request will contain the following relevant information:

  • Date of move.
  • Routes.
  • Destination.
  • Time and place transportation is required.
  • Number of personnel to be moved.
  • Quantity, type, weight, and volume of materiel to be moved (see FM 55-30).

Modular units are fully capable of moving all TOE equipment and personnel, less munitions stocks. Both MOADS-PLS and modular units require augmentation to move munitions stocks stored in their locations.

AREA SELECTION

1-42. The area selected for unit operations must be capable of being defended, yet suitable for technical operations. Often these considerations are not compatible, and defense risks must be weighed against the operational mission. An alternate area is selected in case the unit position becomes unsustainable due to enemy action or effects of weather on the terrain.

AREA LAYOUT

1-43. Area layout requirements for each unit vary according to the tactical situation, the proximity to forward areas, and the type and amount of munitions handled. A good layout is one that achieves the following:

  • Facilitates the workflow.
  • Minimizes the movement of munitions, tools, and equipment.
  • Permits easy entry and exit for heavy traffic.
  • Provides for effective control of unit operations.
  • Permits defense of the area.
  • Provides for easy access to a communications node.

Proper positioning of weapons, construction of defensive works and obstacles, organization of unit defense, and security are prime considerations.

1-44. An overlay is prepared to include the defense plan and operational layout for new area. If appropriate, route overlays or schematic diagrams are also prepared. The overlays are used by the advanced, main, and rear parties. A copy is submitted to higher headquarters.

RECONNAISSANCE

1-45. After the new area is selected, the commander or platoon leader makes a personal reconnaissance of the route to the new area. If this is not possible, a map reconnaissance is made. The route, the surrounding terrain, and road network in the new area must be evaluated for suitability. The following route characteristics must be noted:

  • Strength and clearance of underpasses.
  • Durability, capacity, and width of roads and bridges.
  • Terrain characteristics that would favor an ambush of the convoy.

A thorough reconnaissance is extremely important, as the results determine planning for the unit move, and may dictate the use of alternate routes.

ADVANCE PARTY

1-46. Once reconnaissance of the route and new area is complete, an advance party is dispatched to prepare the area for occupancy and to mark the route. The advance party usually consists of personnel representing all sections of the unit. The number of personnel included must be sufficient to carry out the following tasks:

  • Clear the route of obstacles and warn the main body of known or suspected enemy activity along the route.
  • Check the area for chemical contamination by conducting monitoring operations, if required.
  • Place route markers.
  • Provide platoon and section guides from the release point to guide vehicles to their assigned areas.
  • Secure the area.
  • Check area for mines, booby traps, and enemy activity.
  • Set up and man temporary outposts.
  • Lay communication wire from the CPs to the defense positions and work areas.
  • Prepare positions for crew-served weapons.
  • Prepare hasty fortifications to cover likely avenues of approach.

PRIORITY OF ACTIONS

1-47. After moving into the new area, the commander of the battalion headquarters is informed of the new location. The commander is briefed on the situation in the area, the units supported, and any problems or specific requirements relating to the support mission. Other tasks to be performed upon arrival in the area include the following:

  • Complete perimeter defense and coordinate with base defense operations center or base cluster operations center.
  • Prepare for operations and concurrently establish liaison with supported units.
  • Complete billeting for unit personnel.
  • Coordinate defenses with adjacent units.

REAR PARTY

1-48. The rear party closes out operations in the old area. Composition of the party depends upon the work required to complete these operations. Communication is maintained between the rear party and higher headquarters until the CP in the new area becomes operational.

UNIT DEFENSE AND SECURITY

1-49. Detailed planning and training in conducting defense operations is required. Rapidly moving tactical operations, pockets of enemy resistance, and enemy infiltration that result from widely spread tactical formations are the rule rather than the exception. Units in rear areas are targets of enemy actions.

1-50. Defense planning must take into account all technical mission requirements so that operations will run as smoothly as possible in adverse conditions. Plans to meet any type of enemy attack will be incorporated in the unit security SOP. These plans are revised as necessary and are rehearsed regularly to ensure that all individuals know their duties and responsibilities.

1-51. At times, defense of a conventional ammunition unit will be at the expense of mission activities. The commander must continually evaluate mission requirements in light of the enemy situation. Security must provide early warning to allow unit personnel sufficient time to move to prepare defensive positions and reserve assembly areas.

Defense Plan

1-52. A defense plan is published as an integral part of the unit security SOP. The RAOC reviews and coordinates defense plans and area damage control plans. The defense plan includes all routine security and defense activities/procedures to include:

  • Designation of specific responsibilities.
  • Primary and alternate means of communications.
  • Emergency destruction procedures.
  • Coordination and identification of mutually defensive procedures with local unit higher headquarters.
  • Active and passive individual and unit security and defense measures, such as communications security, operations security, and noise and light discipline.
  • NBC defenses.

1-53. The defense plan must incorporate the fundamentals of defense. However, these fundamentals will be adapted to the peculiarities of the ammunition unit. At minimum, the plan must detail procedures and responsibilities, including the following:

  • Surveillance and security.
  • Organic and supporting weapons.
  • Preparation of positions.
  • Communications.
  • Reserve forces such as QRF or TCF.
  • Rear area protection.
  • NBC defense plan.

1-54. The ASCC and others commanding joint operations must understand that the requirements and size of munitions operations will demand some type of augmentation for physical security of an ASA. This does not absolve the ammunition unit commander of the responsibility to plan and coordinate the ASA defense. Often, due to the scale of the operation, the ammunition unit commander is the base or base cluster commander responsible for security of the entire base.

AREA DAMAGE CONTROL

1-55. The unit commander develops an area damage control plan as part of the defense plan. The plan lists those measures to be taken by the unit before, during, and after an attack or natural disaster. The area damage control plan addresses actions required in the event of an NBC attack, including composition of the NBC monitoring and decontamination teams. The object of this plan is to minimize casualties and destruction, speed recovery, and reestablish support.

1-56. Planning, training, and practice alerts must be conducted before an attack or natural disaster occurs. Dispersion, camouflage, construction of fortifications and emplacements, and other actions common to defensive operations must be covered if training is to be effective. During the attack or disaster, emphasis is on survival and assistance to the injured. After the attack the emphasis is on resuming operations, which includes the following:

  • Regaining control.
  • Assessing damage.
  • Treating and evaluating casualties.
  • Clearing isolated and danger areas.
  • Conducting chemical agent detection and radiological monitoring and surveys and reporting results.
  • Conducting salvage and emergency resupply operations.
  • Reestablishing communications.

1-57. Furthermore, the unit must remain alert to the possibility of a follow-up attack by enemy forces. The unit must be prepared to defend itself and to provide personnel to area damage control forces. Regular enemy forces may try to surprise or capitalize on the surprise and confusion caused by an attack or disaster. The unit must be capable of quick and proper action. Company plans for area damage control must be a part of the battalion plan. The area security controller coordinates these plans with other units and is responsible for preparing and implementing plans for a specific area. The battalion or the RAOC may direct that unit plans be modified. Battalion headquarters provides instructions on submitting unit plans and necessary modifications to the submitted plans.

SUMMARY

1-58. Offensive, defensive, and contingency operations and SASO discussed earlier in this chapter require that munitions units be capable of conducting efficient tactical moves. This efficiency ensures that personnel and equipment are in the right place at the right time to support mission requirements. Other chapters in this manual discuss specific technical support requirements that must be completed to provide safe, efficient, and timely supply of munitions to the user. The command must emphasize training and leadership at all levels to ensure that munitions units are thoroughly familiar with munitions support in a tactical environment.



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