Military

Chapter 4

Roles and Responsibilities

This chapter frames combat service support (CSS) organization roles and responsibilities in the context of the levels of war. The boundaries among the levels of war are not distinct. This is particularly true in CSS, where advances in technology and initiatives to create a more agile CSS force have made the distinctions among levels increasingly difficult to define. The following discussions are reference points.

 

CONTENTS
Reference Points
Strategic-Level Roles
Operational-Level Roles
Tactical-Level Roles

 

REFERENCE POINTS

 

4-1. FM 3-0 discusses the levels of war as doctrinal perspectives that clarify the links between strategic objectives and tactical actions. The levels of war are the strategic, operational, and tactical levels. Levels of command, size of units, types of equipment, or types of forces do not define the levels of war; the effect or contribution of actions on achieving strategic, operational, or tactical objectives define those levels.

4-2. The strategic level is that level at which a nation, often as one of a group of nations, determines national and multinational security objectives and guidance, and develops and uses national resources to accomplish them. The geographic combatant commander has a strategic perspective with respect to his area of responsibility and is responsible for unified actions that integrate joint, multinational, and interagency activities. The theater strategy relates to both U.S. National strategy and operational activities within the theater.

4-3. The operational level is the level at which campaigns and major operations are conducted and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations (AOs). The operational level links the tactical employment of forces to strategic objectives. The focus is on operational art. Commanders of Army service component command (ASCCs) and ARFOR commanders within joint task forces normally operate at this level.

4-4. The tactical level is the realm of close combat, where friendly forces are in immediate contact and use direct and indirect fires to defeat or destroy enemy forces and to seize or retain ground. Exposure to close combat separates Army forces from most of their counterparts. Army forces fight until the purpose of the operation is accomplished. Because of this, they are organized to endure losses, provided with CSS to generate and sustain combat power, and trained to deal with uncertainty. Tactics is the employment of units in combat. It includes the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other, the terrain, and the enemy to translate potential combat power into victorious battles and engagements (FM 3-0).

STRATEGIC-LEVEL ROLES

 

4-5. The strategic level deals with attaining national objectives. It involves the integrated efforts of the President and Secretary of Defense (SECDEF), the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and several National agencies, including the Department of Defense (DOD). However, many of the agencies discussed in this chapter may perform functions associated with the strategic, operational, and tactical levels, either through split-based operations or by deploying elements to the AO.

4-6. Strategic-level support links the global economic base (people, resources, and industry) to military operations in theater. At this level, the joint staff, military departments, U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) , and other DOD agencies focus on force readiness and supporting force projection operations.

4-7. In force-projection operations, strategic-level support elements fill the distribution pipeline with personnel and materiel resources, and possess the capability to provide services required by the supported joint forces commander (JFC). To support both readiness and force projection, they conduct industrial operations, maintain the industrial base, provide information services, provide strategic-level services (such as depot supply and maintenance, and defense-wide base operations support), and manage strategic stockpiles (such as Army prepositioned assets). Other strategic-level functions include-

  • Determining support requirements at global and regional levels.
  • Acquiring resources while forging strategic alliances.
  • Coordinating industrial base activity.
  • Integrating human resources, medical, financial management, materiel, services, and distribution management information systems of the Army with other military services and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
  • Providing home base support and services.
  • Maintaining strategic-level medical services and facilities.
  • Determining requirements for stockpiling and prepositioning resources, afloat and on land around the world.
  • Deploying and maintaining forward-presence forces.
  • Identifying mobilization and demobilization requirements and resources.
  • Providing strategic mobility.

4-8. Strategic-level CSS elements are the links between strategic and operational bases. They consist of agencies and organizations from the private sector and the DOD.

INDUSTRIAL BASE

 

4-9. The Army depends primarily on private industry as the foundation for military materiel production. Therefore, the defense industrial base has a significant impact on the conduct of wars due to the long lead times required to build up the industrial base. Active plants and production lines have some capability to surge. Repair parts manufacturers may be able to surge production for items that sustain deployed weapon systems. Active end-item production lines obtain urgent critical parts and subsystems. National policy requires the use of commercial materiel as much as possible.

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AND DEFENSE AGENCIES

 

4-10. The SECDEF is the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the DOD. DOD performs its functions under the SECDEF's authority, direction, and control. Of particular note in CSS, the SECDEF issues directives, instructions, and memoranda delineating DOD Executive Agency responsibilities under the authority of 10 USC 165(c). The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), as the principal military advisor to the president and the SECDEF, is assigned specific supervisory and joint operation planning responsibilities in the areas of strategic direction, strategic planning, and joint operation planning. JP 0-2 outlines the responsibilities of the DOD and Joint Chiefs of Staff. A number of defense agencies play roles in the overall CSS for military forces. Some of the agencies are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Defense Logistics Agency

 

4-11. The DLA is DOD's major logistics agency. Controlled and directed by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology, DLA functions as an integral element of the DOD military logistics system. It provides worldwide distribution support to the military departments and the combatant commands, and to other DOD components, Federal agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations. DLA is responsible for providing consumable items of common supplies and services within DOD. Its responsibilities include worldwide integrated management of subsistence, petroleum, and property disposal operations. DLA manages or distributes more than 80 percent of existing stocks of defense materiel, including service-owned stocks and nearly all of the fuel and petroleum products for military use. It is the lead DOD organization for automated identification technology (AIT). DLA provides logistics and service support to the services through its supply centers and agencies.

4-12. DLA procures, stores, and distributes items to support the military services and other customers. In addition, it buys and distributes hardware and electronic items used in maintaining and repairing military equipment. The services determine their requirements for supplies and other materiel, and establish their priorities. DLA administers and supervises-

  • The Federal Catalog System.
  • The Defense Personal Property Reutilization Program, including worldwide disposal of excess personal property, recovery of precious metals, and disposal of hazardous waste.
  • The DOD Industrial Plant Equipment Reserve.
  • The Defense National Stockpile.

4-13. DLA provides reutilization and marketing services in the joint rear area (JRA). Initially, salvage and excess materiel destined for the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) is collected in the corps and division areas as the situation permits. As the theater matures, DLA-directed activities may use host-nation support (HNS) to assist in evacuating this materiel to the communications zone (COMMZ) for inspection, classification, and disposal.

4-14. During joint operations, DLA assists the supported combatant commander by establishing a DLA contingency support team (DCST) to consolidate in-theater management of DLA operations and provide a single point of contact. The level of support provided by the DCST is based on the mission and tasks assigned to DLA by the combatant commander. DLA is increasingly provides support in theater operations.

Defense Contract Management Agency

 

4-15. The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) is the DOD contract manager. Controlled and directed by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Logistics and Technology, DCMA supervises and administers contracts with over 20,000 suppliers who deliver goods and services to DOD. DCMA functions as an integral element of the DOD acquisition system by providing worldwide contract administration services to the military departments and the combatant commands, as well as to other DOD components, Federal agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations.

4-16. DCMA provides a range of contract administration services to DOD. Functions include precontract award services to acquisition program offices, on-site surveillance, delivery order compliance (on time, within cost, and quality performance), payment and financial management services, contract close-out services, and acceptance and functional check flights following production, depot maintenance, or modification of aircraft for all services. DCMA serves as the executive agent for DOD in performing independent reviews of procurement practices at other defense agencies.

4-17. DCMA is the combat support agency that provides worldwide post contract award and contract administration services, to include administering civilian augmentation program contracts (including logistics civil augmentation program [LOGCAP]). Contracting officers or a buying activity may delegate to DCMA any or all contract management functions listed in FAR Part 42.302. Additionally, DCMA provides joint and multinational commands a near real-time, reachback look into the industrial base and assists service components, combatant commanders, and the joint staff with analyzing industry capabilities, capacities, and production surge capability to meet contingency needs.

4-18. DCMA assists the service component or combatant commander as follows:

  • During exercises and contingencies, and on request from the supported commander, DCMA provides a tailored contingency contract administration services (CCAS) team to provide a single focus for all DCMA activities.
  • During peacetime and contingencies DCMA provides a headquarters- based contingency operations center (COC) to act as a focal point for deliberate, crisis action and exercise planning, and for policy and doctrine.
  • During peacetime and contingencies, DCMA assigns operations officers to assist the joint staff and combatant commanders in day-to-day DCMA coordination.

Defense Finance and Accounting Service

 

4-19. As the DOD executive agent for finance and accounting, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) plays a critical role in supporting joint operations. However, the services retain tactical finance personnel to provide the finance and limited accounting support required for their deployed forces during operations. DFAS is responsible for DOD finance and accounting policies, procedures, standards, systems, and operations to support combatant commanders and the services. In addition, DFAS is responsible for centralized cost capturing of the operation. DFAS can provide liaison personnel to augment the staff of a joint task force (JTF) J8 (director for force structure, resources, and assessment) and comptroller as required. (See JP 1-06.)

Defense Security Cooperation Agency

 

4-20. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), under the authority, direction, and control of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, serves as the DOD focal point and clearinghouse for developing and implementing security assistance plans and programs. DSCA monitors major weapon sales and technology transfer issues, budgetary and financial arrangements, legislative initiatives and activities, and policy and other security assistance matters. It also supports developing cooperative programs with industrialized nations. DSCA's Office of Humanitarian Assistance and Demining is responsible for managing the overseas humanitarian, disaster, and civic aid appropriation; oversight of the combatant commander's operational demining and humanitarian and civic assistance (HCA) programs; and the DOD humanitarian assistance program (HAP). HAP provides excess, nonlethal property to authorized recipients; arranges funding and space-available transportation for NGOs to deliver humanitarian goods to countries in need; coordinates foreign disaster relief missions; and procures, manages, and arranges for delivery of humanitarian daily rations (HDR) to those in need. JP 4-07 and JP 4-09 provide a detailed discussion of the DSCA.

Defense Information Systems Agency

 

4-21. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is responsible for planning, developing, and supporting command, control, communications, computer, and intelligence (C4I) systems that serve the needs of the SECDEF. It provides guidance and support on technical and operational C4I issues affecting the office of the SECDEF, the military departments, the CJCS and the joint staff, the combatant commands, and the defense agencies. DISA ensures the interoperability of the global command and control system--Army (GCCS-A), the global combat service support system-Army (GCSS-A), and the other CSS command and control, asset visibility, and transportation systems (as discussed in chapter 5).

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND STRATEGIC-LEVEL COMMANDS

 

4-22. The Secretary of the Army is responsible for the administration and support of all Army forces. The Secretary of the Army fulfills these responsibilities by exercising administrative control (ADCON) through the commanders of the ASCCs of the combatant commands. (FM 3-0 discusses ADCON.) The military departments exercise authority and responsibilities codified under U.S. law, DOD directives, and joint doctrine that describe the command relationships between combatant and component commanders. The Army, like other military services, is responsible for the following CSS-related functions enumerated in DODD 5100.1 and the applicable sections of Title 10. These include the following:

  • Exercising authority to conduct all of the department affairs, to include organizing, supplying, equipping, training, servicing, mobilizing, demobilizing, administering, and maintaining forces.
  • Preparing forces and establishing reserves of manpower, equipment, and supplies for effectively prosecuting war and military operations other than war.
  • Recruiting, organizing, training, and equipping interoperable forces for assignment to combatant commands.
  • Conducting research; developing tactics, techniques, and organizations; and developing and procuring weapons, equipment, and supplies essential to fulfilling SECDEF-assigned functions.
  • Planning for using other services intrinsic capabilities that may be available. This could include planning for and executing interservice support agreements (ISSAs) for supply, maintenance, and transportation operations.
  • Providing common item support, as directed by the SECDEF, for service forces, including procurement, distribution, supply, equipment, and maintenance.
  • Training, administering, and providing common-item support of Army forces wherever employed. Providing common-item support is accomplished through the CSS planning portion of the crisis action and deliberate planning processes. (See JP 5-0.) Logistics preparation of the theater includes peacetime planning actions taken by CSS personnel at all echelons to maximize support to the supported combatant commander's plan.
  • Operating organic land vehicles, aircraft, and ships or craft. However, the services logistics assets could be subject to the geographic combatant commander exercising directive authority for logistics.
  • Determining service force requirements and recommending force requirements to support national security objectives and strategy, and to meet the combatant commands operational requirements.

4-23. A number of strategic-level CSS commands and agencies provide vital support to Army and other supported forces.

U.S. Army Materiel Command

 

4-24. U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) performs assigned materiel and related functions for research, development, test and evaluation; acquisition, logistics support, and technical assistance for materiel systems; and other materiel-acquisition management functions. It provides Army national-level maintenance support and serves as the DOD single manager for conventional ammunition. USAMC missions include-

  • Providing equipment and services to other nations through the Security Assistance Program.
  • Developing and acquiring nonmajor systems and equipment.
  • Providing development and acquisition support to program managers.
  • Maintaining the industrial mobilization capabilities necessary to support the Army.
  • Managing Army prepositioned stocks (APS), less Class VIII, worldwide.
  • Managing the LOGCAP. (See chapter 5.)

4-25. USAMC also manages operational policies, programs, objectives, and resources associated with operational projects worldwide. All of the above functions and capabilities are available to the ASCC/ARFOR through the USAMC logistics support element (LSE). See FM 63-11 for information on the LSE.

4-26. USAMC is the Army's single stock fund (SSF) manager and serves as the single national manager with sole obligation power for the Army Working Capital Fund, Supply Management Army (AWCF-SMA). In this capacity, USAMC consolidates management of current wholesale, theater, corps/installation, and division authorized stockage list (ASL) inventories into a seamless logistics and financial system and creates an integrated supply and maintenance operation in the ACWF-SMA business area. Non-Army managed items (NAMIs) (such as fuel, subsistence, clothing, engineer supplies, and medical items not included in the SSF) bypass the SSF and are transmitted directly to DLA.

4-27. USAMC is also the national maintenance manager (NMM) and oversees the national maintenance program (NMP). The NMP is characterized by single maintenance standards for repairing and returning components to AWCF stocks. The NMP is an enabler of the SSF and eliminates unnecessary maintenance redundancy throughout the Army. Under the NMP, installations compete for contracts to conduct source of repair (SOR) work for reparable exchange (RX) line items that have a National requirement.

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

 

4-28. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) is a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Medical Command (USAMEDCOM). It is responsible for the life-cycle management of medical materiel from basic laboratory research through advanced development, prototyping, procurement, delivery to units, maintenance, and disposal. This command operates six medical research laboratories and institutes within CONUS that make up the core science and technology capability of the command. Further, this command operates subordinate units exclusively focused on medical materiel development, contracting, medical logistics management, health facility planning, and information management and technology.

U.S. Total Army Personnel Command

 

4-29. The U.S. Total Army Personnel Command (USTAPERSCOM) integrates, manages, monitors, and coordinates military personnel systems to develop and optimize the Army human resources in peace and war. The commander of USTAPERSCOM is the Army functional proponent for the military personnel management system within the objectives set by the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. USTAPERSCOM major functions include the following:

  • Carry out the nine major functional categories of the Army personnel life cycle: force structure, acquisition, individual training and development, distribution, deployment, sustainment, professional development, compensation, and transition.
  • Man the force, and provide personnel support and personnel services to soldiers, their families, and organizations.
  • Synchronize all military personnel activities to achieve efficient and cost effective execution of all military personnel processes on an Army-wide basis to ensure current and future personnel requirements are defined.
  • Interact with personnel organizations in the field, including U.S. Army training centers, U.S. Army garrisons, divisions and corps, installations, and forward deployed bases to ensure policy, procedures, and service delivery systems support operational requirements at all levels.

USTRANSCOM and Transportation Component Commands

 

4-30. USTRANSCOM provides air, land, and sea transportation and common-user port management at air/seaports of embarkation and debarkation for DOD. The commander, USTRANSCOM serves as the DOD single worldwide manager for common-user ports of embarkation and debarkation. The single port manager concept ensures the seamless transfer of cargo and equipment in any given theater. Supported combatant commanders determine movement requirements and required delivery dates. The commander, USTRANSCOM is the supporting commander who, with the transportation component commands, provides a complete movement system from origin to initial theater destination. The USTRANSCOM component commands operate the Defense Transportation System (DTS). JP 4-01 covers DTS-specific operations.

4-31. The Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), a major U.S. Army command, is the transportation component command of USTRANSCOM responsible for surface transportation management. MTMC provides common-user ocean terminal and traffic management services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy U.S. forces on a global basis. MTMC conducts transportation engineering to ensure deployability and feasibility of present and future deployment assets. Additionally, MTMC is the worldwide seaport manager under the single port manager concept for all common-user seaports of embarkation (SPOEs) and seaports of debarkation (SPODs). When designated, MTMC may also serve as the port operator, using stevedoring, services contracts, or HNS.

4-32. The Air Mobility Command (AMC) is a major U.S. Air Force command. As a transportation component command of USTRANSCOM, AMC provides common-user airlift, air refueling, and strategic aeromedical evacuation transportation services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy U.S. forces on a global basis. Additionally, AMC is the single aerial port manager and, where designated, operator of common-user aerial ports of embarkation (APOEs) and aerial ports of debarkation (APODs).

4-33. The Military Sealift Command (MSC) is a major command of the U.S. Navy. As a transportation component command of USTRANSCOM, MSC provides common-user and exclusive-use sealift transportation services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy U.S. forces on a global basis.

FEDERAL AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

 

4-34. Numerous other Federal agencies play a role in CSS operations. This section briefly summarizes the CSS role of several key agencies.

Department of State

 

4-35. The Department of State (DOS) is the lead agency for coordinating and distributing Class X items that support nonmilitary programs (such as, economic and agricultural development, civic action, and various relief and education programs).

Department of Transportation

 

4-36. Under the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness (Executive Order 12656), the Secretary of Transportation leads the Federal transportation community. During National defense emergencies and in periods of crisis, the Secretary of Transportation has a wide range of delegated responsibilities, including executive management of the Nation's transportation resources. JP 4-01 contains a detailed account of Department of Transportation (DOT) responsibilities.

Federal Emergency Management Agency

 

4-37. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) coordinates the emergency preparedness actions of all Federal agencies, including distributing military support to civil authority missions. As the key agency for emergency assistance to civil authorities, it coordinates all military support directly with the Director of Military Support (DOMS). Close coordination with FEMA is essential in most domestic support operations (DSO).

U.S. Customs Service

 

4-38. The U.S. Customs Service is a Department of the Treasury bureau responsible for enforcing U.S. laws concerning carriers, cargo, and persons entering and departing the United States. Its responsibilities include assessing and collecting duties; detecting and intercepting contraband, including drugs; and ensuring that imported material meets the requirements for legal entry. All forces and materiel redeploying to CONUS require U.S. customs clearance.

U.S. Postal Service

 

4-39. The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) is part of the global distribution network that supports joint force operations by moving DOD mail, including material shipped via parcel post. The military postal system is an official extension of USPS outside continental United States (OCONUS). The Military Postal Service Agency (MPSA), a joint service staff headquarters under the executive direction of Department of the Army, is the DOD single military mail manager and point of contact with USPS. MPSA conducts DOD contingency planning and provides postal support to combatant commanders. Transporting official and personal mail to and from forces OCONUS is a MPSA responsibility. Mail is moved using a combination of military and commercial carriers through overseas military mail hubs and deployed service postal units.

General Services Administration

 

4-40. The General Services Administration (GSA) provides common-use items to DOD through a network of customer service centers and distribution centers. GSA is a major source for general commodities (such as office supplies and paper products, tools, furniture, paints, and chemicals). GSA also provides vehicle acquisition and leasing service and is the Federal contracting agency for the government purchase card program and domestic express small-package delivery service.

Army and Air Force Exchange Service

 

4-41. Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) mobile field exchanges are deployable truck- or tent-based resale outlets that provide health and comfort merchandise support to deployed forces. AAFES civilian employees operate these nonappropriated fund activities. Merchandise originates from AAFES system stock.

SUPPORTED GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDS

 

4-42. Geographic combatant commanders are responsible for developing joint plans and orders in response to mission taskings in their areas of responsibility (AORs). They are responsible for developing effective and efficient CSS concepts that use various support techniques, to include CUL and other CSS tailored to operation-specific circumstances. Ultimately, geographic combatant commanders are responsible for coordinating with DLA, USTRANSCOM, and service component commanders to provide integrated CSS.

4-43. Combatant commanders are the key to ensuring that CSS to campaigns and other operations conducted within their AOR are properly planned, prepared for, executed, and assessed. One way they accomplish this is through their directive authority for logistics, which includes issuing directives to subordinate commanders. These directives include peacetime measures necessary to ensure effective execution of approved operation plans, effectiveness and economy of operation, and preventing or eliminating unnecessary duplication of facilities, and overlapping functions among service component commands. During peacetime, the scope of the logistics authority exercised by a combatant commander is consistent with the peacetime limitations imposed by legislation, DOD policy or regulations, budgetary considerations, local conditions, and other specific SECDEF- or CJCS-prescribed conditions. During crisis action, wartime, or where critical situations make modifying the normal logistics process necessary, the combatant commander's logistics authority enables him to use all necessary facilities and supplies of all forces assigned to his command to accomplish their missions. Joint CSS doctrine and policy developed by the CJCS establishes wartime support guidance that assists the combatant commander in conducting successful joint operations.

4-44. As units transfer to the supported combatant commander, the combatant commander's activities and roles change. Specifically, combatant commanders-

  • Ensure overall effectiveness and economy of the joint force, service component, and applicable agency CSS plans.
  • Establish the critical item list and allocate critical resources.
  • Coordinate supply support among service components.
  • Establish supply build-up rates.
  • Establish stockage levels for selected critical items.
  • Prioritize joint theater distribution and CSS effort.
  • Manage all intratheater movement.
  • Manage the deployment, employment, and redeployment of forces, and the retrograde of materiel.
  • Coordinate the overall logistics preparation of the theater effort.
  • Prevent or eliminate unnecessary duplication of facilities and overlapping functions among the service component commands.
  • Achieve required economies by clearly identifying detailed CSS planning and specific lead service or agency CUL designations in the operations plan (OPLAN)/operations order (OPORD) or directives.
  • Ensure proper and detailed delegation of directive authority for common-item support to the appropriate joint force, service component, or agency as either a CUL lead or a formal single integrated theater logistics manager (SITLM).

4-45. The combatant commander delegates to service component commanders directive authority for logistics (DAL) for specific, common-item support. Overall authority for CSS remains with each of the service component commanders. Delegated common item support authority-accomplished through either temporary CUL lead or long-term SITLM responsibilities-must be clearly delineated in, and executed in accordance with, combatant commanders' OPLANs/OPORDs or directives.

SUBORDINATE JOINT FORCE COMMANDS

 

4-46. The subordinate joint force commander (JFC), normally a subordinate unified command or JTF, works for a combatant commander who has overall responsibility for conducting CSS for joint operations. However, the JFC establishes a manpower and personnel directorate (J1) and logistics directorate (J4) that coordinate personnel and logistics support through the combatant commander. They also coordinate with any subordinate JTFs, service components, and agency J1 and J4s or equivalent staff officers. While each service is responsible for the CSS of its own forces, the service components will use the common distribution network and other combatant commander-directed CUL support to execute the overall CSS mission. The subordinate JFC plays a major role in optimizing resources and synchronizing support to the assigned forces. To execute these responsibilities effectively, the joint force J1 and J4 need to fully understand the force CSS requirements, the operations required to sustain them, and specific CUL and DAL designations from the combatant commander. They must also actively manage the conduct of CSS operations to meet the JFC's intent. JP 4-07 has a more detailed discussion on the combatant commander's directive authority for logistics.

OPERATIONAL-LEVEL ROLES

 

4-47. CSS at the operational level links strategic- and tactical-level CSS. Support personnel at the operational level coordinate support from the strategic level to meet requirements at the tactical level. Operational CSS includes the support required to conduct campaigns and major operations. A campaign is a related series of military operations aimed at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a given time and space (JP 1-02). A major operation is a series of tactical actions (battles, engagements, strikes) conducted by various combat forces of a single or several services, coordinated in time and place, to accomplish operational, and sometimes strategic objectives in an operational area (FM 3-0).

4-48. The combatant commander's concept for the campaign or major operation is the basis for support planning. Like strategic-level CSS, operational-level CSS is usually a joint effort and often a multinational effort. Army support at this level is integrated into the total support system required to conduct joint/multinational campaigns and other military activities. The combatant commander's strategic logistics concept will focus on the ability to generate and move forces and materiel in the theater base and to desired operating locations, where operational-level logistics concepts are employed.

4-49. Operational-level CSS focuses on theater support operations that involve force generation, force sustainment, and redeployment. The initial focus is on generating a force ready to conduct operations. Sustainment begins during force generation but becomes the primary focus once operations begin. Key Army functions associated with operational-level CSS include the following (numbers refer to Universal Joint Task List tasks)-

  • Coordinating supply of arms, munitions, and equipment (OP 4.1).
  • Synchronizing supply of fuel (OP 4.2).
  • Maintaining equipment and stocks that support the supply system (OP 4.3).
  • Coordinating support of forces (OP 4.4); including, human resources (OP 4.4.1.1), field services (OP 4.4.1), health services (4.4.3), religious (OP 4.4.6), financial (OP 4.4.2), and legal (OP 4.4.7).
  • Managing materiel (OP 4.5), controlling movement (OP 4.5.1), and managing distribution (OP 4.5).
  • Providing lead service CUL to other services, multinational partners, and civilian agencies (OP 4.5).
  • Establishing, managing, and maintaining sustainment facilities, including storage areas (OP 4.6) and medical facilities (OP 4.4.3.3).
  • Planning, coordinating, managing, and supervising the positioning (OP 1.2) and security (OP 6.2) of CSS activities.
  • Acquiring, managing, and distributing funds to conduct in-theater contracting to acquire supplies and services to support the mission (OP 4.8).

4-50. Key elements of the Army's CSS structure at the operational level include dedicated transportation, general support supply, sustainment maintenance, Level III health service support (with in-theater hospital facilities, see chapter 9), and personnel support elements. Direct support elements also provide support. Many of the stocks to support the AO are stored by operational-level CSS units, allowing tactical-level CSS units to remain as mobile as possible. Support at this level includes common support to joint and multinational forces, as required. Many different sources contribute to these support functions, including contractors, DA and DOD civilians, U.S. and multinational military organizations, and host nation (HN) resources.

ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMAND

 

4-51. At the combatant command level, the ASCC consists of the Army service component commander and all the Army forces assigned to the combatant command or further assigned/attached to a subordinate unified command or JTF. The ASCC has responsibilities that derive from Title 10. (See paragraph 2-19.) These Title-10 responsibilities include planning, preparing, training, equipping, administering, and providing CSS to Army forces assigned to combatant commands.


Note: Attached, in joint lexicon, simply means a temporary C2 relationship.


 

4-52. The ASCC may be required to support the geographic combatant commander by conducting land operations to support or attain the combatant commander's objectives. These land operations often are conducted by a subordinate ARFOR headquarters, such as an augmented corps or division, as part of a JTF. Even in operations where the ASCC commander is not exercising operational control over Army forces, he remains responsible for providing the necessary capabilities, including CSS. Chapter 2 discusses in more detail the ASCC and ARFOR commander roles in providing common support within unified action.

4-53. Initiating and sustaining operations depends on CSS technology enablers and effective distribution, including accurate and timely total asset visibility (TAV)/in-transit visibility (ITV). The main components of an ARFOR CSS operations are continued flow of supplies contained within the deployment airflow and using prepositioned stocks until the sea lines of communication (SLOC) are opened. In addition to synchronizing the activities of the EAC organizations (discussed in paragraph 4-54), the ARFOR headquarters leverages CSS capabilities not initially deployed (such as personnel services) until these capabilities can close. Planners tailor ARFOR sustainment operations to the mission and force requirements, and rely on intratheater lift and distribution-based CSS. The goal is providing effective and responsive CSS while minimizing the CSS footprint in the AO. The ASCC, along with the subordinate ARFOR, if applicable, ensures proper balance between combat and support forces during deployment planning. Key to this balance is achieving enhanced strategic responsiveness without undue risk in the supportability of the operation

4-54. An ARFOR headquarters plans how to leverage the support provided by different CSS agencies from CONUS and other global providers into the AO to meet its units needs. This includes reaching back to National-level assets, as necessary, for such things as forward repair activities (FRAs) or other critical strategic-level support. The ARFOR headquarters must be able to integrate the capabilities provided by Army forces, contractors, multinational military partners and HNS to build and sustain combat power.

MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND SPECIALIZED COMMANDS

 

4-55. A number of Army commands habitually operate at the operational level. In some situations, especially at the lower end of the spectrum of conflict, tactical-level CSS organizations may perform operational-level support missions. If so, they require augmentation, typically from the EAC organizations described in paragraph 4-66 or their subordinate units. As described in the next section, tactical CSS organization capabilities are limited and generally focused on direct support to tactical forces.

4-56. The support structure starts with a nucleus of minimum essential support functions and capabilities focused on force generation. As the deployed force grows, the support structure gains required capabilities. The theater support structure must provide support to engaged forces; to units in or passing through the JRA; and to other units, activities, forces, and individuals as the JFC directs. FM 4-93.4 describes an operational-level theater force opening package and possible build-up of operational-level CSS forces.

4-57. Army CSS organizations at the operational level often interface with elements of the strategic sustainment base that may deploy into the theater of operations. National sustainment base operational-level and tactical-level contingency support may include the DLA's and DCMA's contingency support teams, USAMC LSE, contractors supporting a military force, and USTRANSCOM (through its transportation components, MTMC, and MSC). Key to integrating these support elements is establishing proper and well understood C2 relationships among these organizations, the subordinate JTF, and service components.

Theater Support Command

 

4-58. This multifunctional logistics command provides area support to designated elements in the JRA and sustainment support to tactical forces. The TSC provides C2 of EAC logistics organizations and other organizations, as directed by the ASCC commander. FM 4-93.4 details the organization (including the structure and capabilities of organizations that may be assigned or attached), functions, and build-up of a TSC in a force-projection operation.

Area Support Group

 

4-59. Area support groups (ASGs) are subordinate units assigned to the TSC. They are responsible for area support in an AO and may provide support to corps or other forces. The mission of the ASG is to provide direct support (DS) logistics support to designated units and elements within its AO. This support typically includes DS supply (less ammunition, classified map supply, and medical supply and support), DS maintenance, and field services, as well as other support directed by the ARFOR commander through the TSC. ASGs can also provide GS supply and sustainment maintenance support to TSC and DS supply organizations, and sustainment maintenance to support the theater. If an operational-level ammunition group is not established, specialized battalions assigned to the ASG provide ammunition support. ASGs can support ISB and RSO&I operations. Early entry modules (EEMs) of specialized units may be attached to an ASG headquarters EEM during initial stages of an operation.

4-60. ASGs provide a variety of support to units stationed in or passing through their AOs. The AO assigned to an ASG depends on the density of military units and materiel to support, and on political boundaries and identifiable terrain features. ASGs are located along LOC to take advantage of the transportation network and provide responsive support. FM 54-40 contains additional details on the composition and capabilities of ASGs.

Transportation Command

 

4-61. Through subordinate transportation units, the Army TRANSCOM provides transportation support to Army, joint, and multinational forces as directed by the JFC/ASCC commander. It provides policy and technical guidance to all Army transportation units in theater and directs allocation of Army transportation resources in coordination with the ASCC/ARFOR headquarters and the theater joint transportation board. FM 55-1 and FM 4-93.4 have more information on the Army TRANSCOM.

Medical Command

 

4-62. The Medical Command (MEDCOM) directs health service support to designated elements in theater. It provides policy and technical guidance to in-theater Army medical units and maintains technical links to the ASCC/ARFOR staff surgeon and to strategic-level medical activities. The MEDCOM provides a wide range of medical capabilities; develops policies, plans, procedures, and programs; and supervises training and administrative support of medical brigades. FM 4-02, FM 8-42, and FM 8-55 describe these and other functions.

Personnel Command

 

4-63. The theater personnel command (PERSCOM) maintains and reports on personnel readiness of theater forces, conducts theater sustainment operations necessary to man the force, and provides personnel services and support. It exercises C2 over assigned and attached theater-level Army personnel units. FM 12-6 covers the units, operations, and relationships involved in providing personnel support at this level.

Finance Command

 

4-64. The Finance Command (FINCOM) conducts operational-level finance operations. In coordination with the ASCC/ARFOR Deputy Chief of Staff for Resource Management, it provides staff advice on financial management matters and provides financial management policies and procedures for Army financial management activities in the theater. It may also exercise C2 over finance battalions not assigned to finance groups. FM 14-100 contains details on the FINCOM and other finance organizations that operate within the theater.

Engineer Command

 

4-65. Engineer command (ENCOM) C2 engineer units provide the full spectrum of engineering support. This includes general engineering, topographic support, and operational-level mobility/ countermobility/survivability support to Army, joint, and multinational forces. The ENCOM and subordinate EAC engineer units normally provide either general support or direct support to the TSC and other CSS units. Technical engineering services include construction design/management, real estate acquisition and management, real property maintenance activities (RPMA), electric-power generation/distribution, troop construction, facility rehabilitation and repair, environmental engineering support, and transportation engineering support. ENCOMs typically push the engineer work lines of EAC engineer assets forward into the combat zone to facilitate the forward focus of corps engineer assets and to accomplish tasks beyond the corps engineer's capabilities. Examples of such tasks are constructing/maintaining main supply routes (MSRs) (with specific emphasis on LOC bridges), inland petroleum distribution systems (IPDS), forward landing strips, and forward-positioned medical facilities. (See FM 5-116.)

TACTICAL-LEVEL ROLES

 

4-66. The goal of CSS at all levels is to generate and sustain combat power at the tactical level. This discussion covers multifunctional organizations and staff functions providing CSS at this level. Detailed discussions of various functional CSS units are in the associated functional chapters of this manual. CSS at the tactical level includes all functions necessary to support battles and engagements. (FM 3-0 and FM 3-90 discuss battles and engagements.) The focus of tactical-level CSS is to provide the CSS necessary to meet the commander's intent and concept of operations, and to maximize his freedom of action. It involves synchronizing all CSS functions. Tactical-level CSS is more immediate than operational-level CSS. Support personnel operate at the forward end of the support pipeline. They rely heavily on the effective application of agility, velocity, and situational understanding. Effective tactical CSS depends on-

  • An effective C2 system to coordinate and execute CSS operations.
  • An effective distribution-based CSS system that combines agility, velocity, and information system capabilities to form a seamless distribution pipeline from the factory to the foxhole.
  • Agile CSS organizations to carry out the responsibilities of delivering CSS to the warfighter
  • 4-67. Tactical CSS elements provide coordinated and tailored support for the warfighter. These elements provide support as close to the point of need as possible to satisfy specific tactical requirements.

    4-68. The corps support command (COSCOM) and division support command (DISCOM) function as the major subordinate commands responsible for directing and managing logistics (less medical) support within their supported unit AOs. They coordinate and supervise the implementation of policies and directives relative to supporting current and future operations. They develop plans and orders in concert with operations planners to ensure continuous support operations. The fluidity of battle demands constant changes to these support plans.

    4-69. COSCOM/DISCOM CSS management consists of coordinating and integrating personnel, equipment, facilities, communications, and procedures to accomplish the mission in compliance with the commander's intent. If the COSCOM or DISCOM is the senior Army support headquarters in the theater, it may require significant augmentation in those areas in which it lacks staff expertise and/or functional support capabilities. For example, the commander may augment COSCOM with a comptroller, resource management staff officers, and transportation units to enable it to oversee and execute port clearance and terminal operations. The DISCOM supporting a division serving as the ARFOR probably requires significant staff augmentation to assist in coordinating joint logistics and operational-level CSS units to execute operational-level CSS missions.

    4-70. The COSCOM/DISCOM accomplishes centralized control and management through subordinate functional control centers. In the Army of Excellence (AOE) organization, the corps materiel management center (CMMC) and corps movement control battalion (MCB) operate under the staff supervision of the COSCOM support operations officer. Likewise, in the AOE division, the division materiel management center and division movement control office perform essentially the same tasks, but on a smaller scale. However in Force XXI organizations, many of the functions of the CMMC, MCB, division materiel management center (MMC), and division movement control office have been, or will be, under the staff supervision of the distribution management center (DMC) in the COSCOM/DISCOM headquarters. The scope of distribution management varies at each respective level of command, but the basic functions remain the same (discussed in chapter 5).

    STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES

     

    4-71. At the tactical level, some CSS functions are performed by the commander's staff. When published, FM 6-0 will discuss staff functions in more detail. The following is a brief discussion of those CSS functions performed by the staff.

    Coordinating Staff Officers

     

    4-72. Assistant Chief of Staff, G1/AG (S1) Personnel. The G1/AG (S1) is the principal staff officer for all matters concerning human resources (military and civilian), including personnel readiness, personnel services, personnel support, and headquarters management. The G1/AG (S1) also serves as the senior adjutant general officer in the force. A personnel officer is located at every echelon from battalion through corps.

    4-73. Assistant Chief of Staff, G4/(S4) Logistics. The G4 (S4) is the principal staff office for coordinating the integration of supply, maintenance, transportation, and services for the command. The G4 (S4) is the link between the support unit and commander and the rest of the staff. The G4 (S4) assists the support unit commander in maintaining logistics visibility with the commander and the rest of the staff. A logistics officer is located at every echelon of command from battalion through corps.

    Special Staff Officers

     

    4-74. Every staff has special staff officers who are responsible for CSS functions.

    4-75. Resource Manager or Comptroller. The resource manager or comptroller is responsible for budget preparation and resource management analysis and implementation. Resource managers or comptrollers are normally located at corps and division levels. During operations, comptroller functions are normally performed by the ARFOR. However, specific comptroller functions may occur at corps and division level.

    4-76. Finance Officer. The finance officer is responsible for coordinating and providing finance services to the command. The finance officer is also the finance unit commander.

    4-77. Surgeon. The surgeon is responsible for coordinating health assets and operations within the command. A surgeon is authorized on all staffs from battalion through corps. The surgeon may or may not be a medical unit commander.

    4-78. Veterinary Officer. The veterinary officer is responsible for coordinating assets and activities concerning veterinary service within the command. A veterinary corps officer is authorized at corps level.

    4-79. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Officer. The EOD officer is responsible for coordinating the detection, identification, recovery, evaluation, rendering safe, and final disposal of explosive ordnance. An EOD officer is authorized at corps and division levels. He normally serves as the EOD group, battalion, or company commander.

    Personal Staff Officers

     

    4-80. Personal staff officers work under the immediate control of the commander and have direct access to him. The commander establishes guidelines or gives specific guidance when the personal staff officer should inform, or coordinate with, the chief of staff or other members of the staff.

    4-81. Most personal staff officers also perform duties as special staff officers working with a coordinating staff officer. They do this case-by-case, depending on the guidance of the commander or the nature of the task. Personal staff officers may also work under the supervision of the chief of staff (executive officer below division level).

    4-82. Chaplain (Coordinating Staff Responsibility, ACofS, G1/AG (S1), when required). The chaplain is responsible for coordinating the religious assets and operations within the command. The chaplain is a confidential advisor to the commander for religious matters. A chaplain is located at every echelon of command from battalion through corps.

    4-83. Staff Judge Advocate (SJA) (Coordinating Staff Responsibility, ACofS, G1/AG (S1), when required). The SJA is the commander's personal legal advisor on all matters affecting the morale, good order, and discipline of the command. The SJA provides legal support to the members of the command and community. A SJA is located at corps, division, and major support command levels. A legal support element, including at least a judge advocate, deploys in direct support of each brigade-level task force.

    CORPS SUPPORT COMMAND

     

    4-84. As the logistics support command assigned to the corps, the COSCOM executes an extensive portion of the corps CSS plan. The COSCOM provides logistics support to the corps and other units, services, or multinational partners as directed. It coordinates logistics elements to support corps forces and, when required, coordinates with joint, multinational and interagency forces/agencies. It organizes different types of logistics units into support packages to meet the mission requirements of supported forces. (See FM 4-93.4.) Depending on mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, time, civilian considerations (METT-TC), the COSCOM units perform the following missions.

    Supply Support

     

    4-85. In general, COSCOM units provide DS and GS supply support to nondivision units. They provide GS supplies to the divisions, separate brigades, and armored cavalry regiments (ACRs).

    Field Services Support

     

    4-86. The COSCOM provides mortuary affairs support; shower, laundry, and clothing repair support; and tactical post exchange, with or without AAFES augmentation.

    Maintenance Support

     

    4-87. The COSCOM maintenance support mission includes maintenance management; DS maintenance and aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM) to nondivisional units; reinforcing DS maintenance and AVIM to the divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs; missile/rocket maintenance; and calibration support.

    Transportation Support

     

    4-88. The COSCOM corps-wide transportation support functions consist of movement control; mode operations; cargo transfer operations; terminal operations (to include water terminals when augmented by EAC); and aerial delivery support.

    Explosive Ordnance Disposal

     

    4-89. EOD companies provide support to corps. These companies are normally collocated with a CSB. The companies provide GS to the corps on an area basis and can be DS to a specific maneuver unit, normally a division.

    4-90. The COSCOM provides both area and corps-wide support. Area support is the most efficient and affordable way to provide support. The COSCOM corps support groups (CSGs) have an area support mission. For CSGs, area support means the location of the units requiring support determine DS supply and maintenance relationships. CSG subordinate DS units provide support on an area basis to units located in, or passing through, their AO. The CSG's support operations section maintains support operations overlays depicting support locations and times of operations. FM 54-30 covers CSGs in detail.

    4-91. Functional battalions that provide corps-wide support and multifunctional corps support battalions to provide area support are assigned to the rear CSG of the COSCOM. These functional battalions include the following:

    • Transportation battalions provide intracorps and intercorps transportation support, to include heavy equipment transport.
    • The petroleum supply battalion, ammunition battalion, and supply and services (S&S) battalion provide Classes III and V, and general supplies respectively on a corps-wide basis. They supply the bulk distribution systems that support divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs.
    • The S&S battalion also provides aerial delivery; mortuary affairs; and shower, laundry, clothing exchange support on a corps-wide basis.
    • The AVIM battalion provides corps-wide aircraft maintenance support.

    4-92. The normal arrangement for supporting nondivisional units within the division AO is to provide area support from the corps support battalion (CSB) in the division area. In Army of Excellence divisions, forward support battalions (FSBs) and the main support battalion (MSB) can provide some support to nondivisional units operating in the division AO, but only within their limited capability. To provide support to corps forces beyond that capability, the CSB in the division area must reinforce and augment FSBs and the MSB. The forward CSG may also augment or reinforce the MSB to enable it to provide support to corps forces that operate in the division area. Based on coordination between the DISCOM/FSBs support operations staffs and the forward CSG, this CSB may establish forward supply, maintenance, and service points in the division area. FM 54-30 has information on the CSB.

    CORPS MEDICAL COMMAND

     

    4-93. The corps MEDCOM, the major health service support (HSS) command assigned to the corps, in coordination with the COSCOM, executes the HSS portion of the corps CSS plan. The MEDCOM provides HSS to corps forces and to other units, services, or multinational forces as directed. It coordinates the requirements for medical elements to support corps forces or operations. It task-organizes different types of medical units into support packages to meet the mission requirements of the supported forces. (See FM 4-02.)

    4-94. The corps MEDCOM provides C2 for the following units:

    • Medical brigade, corps.
    • Medical logistics battalion.
    • Area support dental company.
    • Medical company, combat stress control.
    • Medical detachment, preventive medicine.
    • Evacuation battalion.
    • Combat support hospital.
    • Minimal care detachment.
    • Forward surgical team.
    • Medical augmentation teams, various types.
    • Area support medical battalion.
    • Dental company, area support.
    • Veterinary battalion.

    4-95. Medical units provide HSS on an area basis to nondivisional units lacking organic assets. The area support medical battalion and its area support medical companies provide this support. The corps area medical support assets reinforce division medical companies that provide echelon HSS.

    DIVISION SUPPORT COMMAND

     

    4-96. The DISCOM coordinates and synchronizes logistics and medical requirements and activities (horizontally and vertically) inside and outside the division. The DISCOM commander directs the flow of support before, during, and after operations.

    Division Support Battalion

     

    4-97. In the Force XXI division, the division support battalion (DSB) replaces AOE MSB. The DSB provides HSS (including preventive medicine, combat operational stress control [COSC], and optometry support) on an area support basis to division rear area troops; transportation support to the entire division; and DS supply and maintenance support to the division headquarters. It also provides support to the DSB itself, DISCOM headquarters, division artillery (DIVARTY) headquarters, multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) battalion, air defense artillery (ADA) battalion, military intelligence (MI) battalion, signal battalion, and military police (MP) company. Like the AOE MSB, the DSB also provides Class III (bulk) reinforcing and resupply support to the forward support battalions (FSBs). Unlike the AOE MSB, the DSB does not provide support to the FSBs for other classes of supply. FM 4-93.53 contains a detailed discussion of the digitized DSB, and FM 63-21 has details on the AOE MSB.

    Forward Support Battalion

     

    4-98. The multifunctional FSB provides direct support to brigade-level combat teams. The FSB may function in a highly dispersed manner, with some FSB elements close to the maneuver unit and others near the brigade rear area. The AOE FSB has medical, maintenance, and supply companies. The FSB provides direct support to the maneuver brigade and area support within its capability to other units in the brigade area. It has no forward support companies; the maneuver battalions have CSS assets to provide unit-level support. FM 63-20 has details on the AOE FSB organization, capabilities, and techniques.

    4-99. In the Force XXI division, the FSB staff uses an array of digital information systems and other technological innovations to enhance support. The FSB provides logistics support and ties together the entire spectrum of supplies and services for the maneuver brigade. CSS assets for maneuver units have been consolidated in the new FSB design. This new FSB, with centralized CSS, enables CSS commanders to task-organize CSS assets to support the brigade commander's intent. The Force XXI FSB contains forward support companies (FSCs), a headquarters and distribution company, a brigade support company (BSC), and forward support medical company (FSMC). The FSC provides multifunctional support directly to a maneuver battalion task force. The BSC provides DS supply and maintenance support to the artillery battalion, and organizational and DS to the engineer battalion, brigade HHC, and the brigade reconnaissance troop. It also provides limited reinforcing support to the FSCs. The FSMC provides Level I and II HSS (preventive medicine, combat operational stress control, far-forward medical treatment, basic laboratory/radiology services, patient-holding, evacuation, and health service logistics) for elements within the supported brigade AO. The medical company can also be augmented with a forward surgical team (FST) or air ambulance assets. Corps maintenance support teams may augment the FSB to provide back-up support capability forward. FM 4-93.53 contains details on the FSB.

    Division Aviation Support Battalion

     

    4-100. The division aviation support battalion (DASB) provides DS to the aviation brigade and the division cavalry squadron. It provides, or coordinates, provision of all classes of supply and maintenance. The DASB can function in a dispersed manner to support the cavalry squadron or attack battalion when they are operating forward. The DASB may attach aviation and ground maintenance teams and fueling assets forward to augment the FSBs, which then provide area support to the division cavalry. The DASB does not have any HSS capabilities. Based on METT-TC, the DSB or FSB medical company provides medical support to the DASB, aviation brigade, and division cavalry squadron. The DASB contains a headquarters and supply company, a ground maintenance company, and an aviation intermediate maintenance company. FM 4-93.55 contains details on the DASB of the Force XXI division, and FM 63-23 has information on the AOE DASB.

    Light Division DISCOM

     

    4-101. The structure and mission of the DISCOM in the light divisions are similar to those of the AOE heavy division DISCOM. However, they support the distinct requirements of each division. For example, the airborne division has a quartermaster airdrop equipment support company and a light and a heavy maintenance company in the MSB; the air assault division has an aviation maintenance battalion. The light infantry DISCOM is an austere organization that relies on augmentation elements, corps plugs, and other EAD support. FM 63-2-1 discusses these organizations and their associated doctrine.

    SEPARATE BRIGADE/ACR SUPPORT BATTALION/SQUADRON

     

    4-102. The support battalion/squadron is the DS logistics and HSS operator in the brigade/ACR. The battalion/squadron provides supply, maintenance, motor transport, and medical support. When augmented, it also provides field services. The support battalion elements have the same deployment capability as the rest of the brigade. The support battalion missions require the capability to support incrementally and be highly versatile and mobile.

    4-103. The support battalion/squadron supports a particular brigade/ACR. Generally, all of the separate brigades require the same CSS. The support battalions all have maintenance, supply and transportation, and medical companies. However, like companies such as supply and transportation (S&T) companies/troops of the various separate brigades and ACR are not identical.

    4-104. The logistics structure of the separate brigade/ACR support squadron links to a COSCOM. The direct linkage between the separate brigade support battalion/squadron and the COSCOM generally remains in effect, even when the separate brigade belongs to a division. The division does not have the resources to support another brigade. When the brigade attaches to a division, the DISCOM coordinates the logistics effort for the entire division. The support battalion/squadron sends status reports to the DISCOM to keep the DISCOM informed of the CSS situation. Because attaching the separate brigade to a division is not permanent, CSS arrangements facilitate eventually detaching the brigade from the division.

    STRYKER BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM SUPPORT BATTALION

     

    4-105. The Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT) is a full spectrum, combat force. It has utility in all operational environments against all projected future threats. However, it is designed and optimized primarily for employment in small-scale contingency operations in complex and urban operation, confronting low- and midrange threats that may employ both conventional and asymmetric capabilities. This brigade has an organic brigade support battalion (BSB) that provides direct support to the brigade. The commander consolidates logistics functions under the C2 of the BSB headquarters. The BSB performs distribution-based, centralized support in accordance with Force XXI concepts, although the distribution capability is limited. Its effectiveness depends on employing the latest advances in CSS C2, enhanced CSS situational understanding, and exploiting available resources through joint, multinational, host-nation, or contract sources. The small size of the battalion significantly minimizes the CSS footprint in the SBCT AO, but also requires support from other organizations/sources for sustained operations. The BSB support operations section integrates into BSB operations the activities of the CSS assets required to support brigade augmentation slices. If the augmentation slice is large enough, a corps support battalion may have to deploy to provide the required C2.

    4-106. The support provided by the BSB is austere; it does not provide the same level of support that FSBs provide to divisional maneuver brigades. The BSB has a headquarters and distribution company, a brigade support medical company (BSMC), and a forward maintenance company that rely on CSS reach operations, prepositioned stocks, augmentation, contracted, and joint and multinational support to meet the needs of the brigade. The BSB has limited capability to maintain stocks for brigade elements. Maximum use is made of contracted, host nation, joint, and intratheater lift capabilities (such as locally available commercial trucks and military cargo aircraft). The BSB distribution manager synchronizes delivery schedules with brigade units to minimize the offload/upload time. With Force XXI battle command -brigade and below (FBCB2), CSSCS, and the movement tracking system (MTS) control station to manage long-haul sustainment, the distribution manager can give specific coordinating instructions to vehicle operators without having to rely on manned control points. When published, FM 4-93.7 and other associated doctrine will detail CSS for this brigade.

    4-107. The need to augment the BSB to sustain the force after the initial stages of employment in extended operations has been a key tenet of the concept of support. The combat service support company (CSSC) provides reinforcing and complementary capabilities in the form of direct support CSS. A reinforcing capability adds quantity or capacity to a previously existing capability. Adding heavy expanded mobility tactical truck-load handling system (HEMTT-LHS) to an already existing transportation platoon is an example. A complementary capability adds a capability not previously existing within an organization. For example, adding cooks to the SBCT is augmenting the BSB. The capabilities provided by the CSSC are general supply support, limited distribution support, organizational and direct support maintenance (field maintenance), and field feeding support.

    SPECIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT COMMAND (AIRBORNE)

     

    4-108. The Special Operations Support Command (Airborne) (SOSCOM) is a major subordinate unit of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command. The SOSCOM is a brigade-size unit organized into a command group, headquarters and headquarters company (HHC), MMC, five forward-deployed special operations theater support elements (SOTSEs), a special operations support battalion (airborne), and a special operations signal battalion (airborne). SOSCOM provides limited direct CSS and combat signal support to ARSOF. FM 3-05.105 covers CSS for ARSOF. The SOSCOM is a versatile organization with multiple support missions:

    • To plan, coordinate, and provide CSS and HSS to ARSOF across the full spectrum of conflict, in two theaters simultaneously.
    • To plan, coordinate, and provide operational and tactical communications for joint special operations task force commanders in two theaters simultaneously.
    • To provide signal force packages to support ARSOF, as directed/available.

    4-109. The SOSCOM provides modular support packages to any ARSOF deployment. Modular design enables supporting units to tailor packages that meet mission requirements. These modules provide specific capabilities that most completely support deploying force. Additionally, groups of modules are echeloned and phased into theater as the mission expands or focus changes. These modules are configured into two echelons: an initial deployment package (IDP) and a follow-on package (FOP). The SOSCOM cannot provide all the necessary CSS to deploying ARSOF; they require augmentation from theater assets.

     



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