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Military

*FM 3-50

Field Manual
3-50
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 4 December 1990

FM 3-50

Smoke Operations

Editor's Note: Requirements of Change 1, 11 Septenber 1996, have been incorporated within the document. Changed or new material is indicated by an asterisk (*).

MEMORANDUM, SUBJECT: Request to Change Chemical Proponent Field Manual Distribution Restriction Statements, 6 October 2000, with 12 October 2000 e-mail endorsement.

Table of Contents


Change 1, 11 September 1996

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1 - Introduction

Historical Perspective

Description of Smoke and Obscurants

Uses of Smoke and Obscurants

How and Where To Use Smoke

Categories of Smoke Operations

Smoke Planning

Operational Concept for Smoke and Obscurants

Operational Continuum

Spectrum of Conflict

The Battlefield

Battlefield Applications of Smoke

Smoke Delivery Means

Smoke Units

CHAPTER 2 - Threat

Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition

Combined Arms Operations

Threat Smoke Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures

Threat Offensive Smoke Use

Threat Defensive Smoke Use

Commander's Considerations

US Countermeasures to Threat Use of Smoke

CHAPTER 3 - Offensive Operations

Historical Perspective

Tactics

CHAPTER 4 - Defensive Operations

Historical Perspective

Tactics

Elements of Defense

CHAPTER 5 - Other Tactical Operations

Tactics

Retrograde

Relief in Place

Passage of Lines

Linkup Operations

Breakout from Encirclement

River Crossings

Obstacle Breaching

Special Conditions or Environments

Deception

CHAPTER 6 - Sustainment Planning

Maintenance, Supplies, and Logistics

Fire Support and Security

Personnel Sustainment

CHAPTER 7 - Visual-Infrared Obscurants

APPENDIX A - Smoke Planning

Target Analysis Procedures

Planning Documents

Employment Matrixes

APPENDIX B - Electro-Optical Systems

Sensors and Effects

Directed-Energy Weapons

APPENDIX C - Means of Delivery

Artillery Munitions

Mortar Munitions

Rockets

Aircraft-Delivered Smoke

Rifle Grenades

Smoke Pots and Smoke Hand Grenades

Generators

Armored Vehicle Grenade Launchers

Vehicle Engine Exhaust System

Safety

APPENDIX D - US Smoke Organizations and Capabilities

Chemical Command and Control Headquarters

Smoke Generator Units

Chemical Unit Task Organizations

Capabilities

APPENDIX E - Smoke Support Sustainment Planning Tables

Smoke Pot Consumption

Fuel Consumption Tables

Ammunition Consumption Tables

APPENDIX F - Weather and Terrain

Weather

Terrain Effects

APPENDIX G - Obscurants and How They Work

Characteristics

Natural Obscurants

By-Product Obscurants

Artificial Obscurants

APPENDIX H - Probability of Detection

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

AUTHORIZATION LETTER


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes FM 3-50, 25 July 1984.



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