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CHAPTER 8

STANDING DEFENSE

A soldier cannot count on starting every encounter in a superior position. To survive, he must have simple techniques that will bring him back into his fight plan.

Section I. UNARMED OPPONENT

Most grasping type attacks will leave the enemy in striking range. Therefore, elaborate defenses are not necessary. You should simply attack with strikes and force the enemy to either close with you, or when he attempts to respond with strikes, take the opportunity to close or escape yourself. The techniques in this section are directed at escaping from positions that are more difficult.

8-1. DEFENSE AGAINST CHOKES

a. Standing Rear Naked (Figure 8-1). At the moment you feel the enemy's arm around your neck, your hands should immediately grasp it to keep him from tightening the choke, and you should hang your weight on his arm to feel where his weight is. If he is close to your back, simply lean forward at the waist and, using your hips to lift, throw him straight over your back.

Figure 8-1. Defense against the standing rear naked choke.

Figure 8-1. Defense against the standing rear naked choke.

 

Figure 8-1. Defense against the standing rear naked choke (continued).

Figure 8-1. Defense against the standing rear naked choke (continued).

 

Figure 8-1. Defense against the standing rear naked choke (continued).

Figure 8-1. Defense against the standing rear naked choke (continued).

b. Standing Rear Naked Pulling Back (Figure 8-2). If, when you hang your weight on the enemy's arm, you feel that he is pulling you back over one of his legs, you should reach back with your leg and wrap it around the outside of the enemy's leg on the same side as the choking arm. As he tires from holding you up, use your leg as a guide and work your way around to the position shown. Your leg must be behind his, and you must be leaning forward, controlling his arm. Twisting your body, throw him to the ground.

Figure 8-2. Defense against the standing rear naked choke leaning back.

Figure 8-2. Defense against the standing rear naked choke leaning back.

 

Figure 8-2. Defense against the standing rear naked choke leaning back (continued).

Figure 8-2. Defense against the standing rear naked choke leaning back (continued).

 

Figure 8-2. Defense against the standing rear naked choke leaning back (continued).

Figure 8-2. Defense against the standing rear naked choke leaning back (continued).

c. One-Hand Neck Press Against the Wall (Figure 8-3). If the enemy pins you against the wall with one hand, strike his arm with the palm of your hand on the side where his thumb is pushing toward his fingers. This will make his arm slide off of your neck. Follow through with your strike and when your arm is in position, strike with a backward elbow strike to the head.

Figure 8-3. Defense against one-hand neck press against a wall.

Figure 8-3. Defense against one-hand neck press against a wall.

 

Figure 8-3. Defense against one-hand neck press against a wall (continued).

Figure 8-3. Defense against one-hand neck press against a wall (continued).

d. Two-Hand Neck Press While Pinned Against the Wall (Figure 8-4). If the enemy uses both hands against your neck to press you into the wall, grasp under his elbows with both hands. Step out to either side and throw him against the wall. Finish with a knee strike.

Figure 8-4. Defense against the two-hand neck press against a wall.

Figure 8-4. Defense against the two-hand neck press against a wall.

 

Figure 8-4. Defense against the two-hand neck press against a wall (continued).

Figure 8-4. Defense against the two-hand neck press against a wall (continued).

 

Figure 8-4. Defense against the two-hand neck press against a wall (continued).

Figure 8-4. Defense against the two-hand neck press against a wall (continued).

8-2. DEFENSE AGAINST BEAR HUGS

a. Front Bear Hug Over Your Arms (Figure 8-5). If the enemy attempts to grasp you in a bear hug from the front over your arms, move your hips back and use your arms as a brace between his hips and yours. Your hands should be on his hip bones, and your elbows should be braced against your hips. Keeping one arm as a brace, step to the opposite side to achieve the clinch. Finish with a takedown.

Figure 8-5. Defense against the front bear hug over your arms.

Figure 8-5. Defense against the front bear hug over your arms.

 

Figure 8-5. Defense against the front bear hug over your arms (continued).

Figure 8-5. Defense against the front bear hug over your arms (continued).

b. Front Bear Hug Under Your Arms (Figure 8-6). If the enemy attempts to grasp you under your arms, step back into a strong base and use both hands to push his chin upwards to break his grasp. Finish with a knee strike. If he is exceptionally strong, push upwards against his nose.

Figure 8-6. Defense against the front bear hug under your arms.

Figure 8-6. Defense against the front bear hug under your arms.

 

Figure 8-6. Defense against the front bear hug under your arms (continued).

Figure 8-6. Defense against the front bear hug under your arms (continued).

c. Bear Hug From the Rear, Over the Arms (Figure 8-7). When the enemy attempts to grab you from behind over your arms, drop down into a strong stance and bring your arms up to prevent him from controlling them. Step to the outside and then around his hip so that your legs are behind him. At this point you may attack his groin, or you may lift him with your hips and throw him.

Figure 8-7. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, over the arms.

Figure 8-7. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, over the arms.

 

Figure 8-7. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, over the arms (continued).

Figure 8-7. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, over the arms (continued).

d. Bear Hug from the Rear Under Your Arms (Figure 8-8). When the enemy grasps you from the rear under your arms, he will probably try to lift you for a throw. If he does so, wrap your leg around his so that you are harder to maneuver for the throw. When he sets you down, or if he did not lift you in the first place, lean your weight forward and place your hands on the ground. Move to one side until one of his legs is between yours. Push backward slightly and reach one hand back to grasp his heel. When you have a good grip, reach back with the other hand. Pull forward with your hands, and when he falls, break his knee by sitting on it as you pull on his leg.

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms.

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms.

 

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms (continued).

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms (continued).

 

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms (continued).

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms (continued).

 

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms (continued).

Figure 8-8. Defense against the bear hug from the rear, under the arms (continued).

CAUTION

Care must be taken when practicing this technique to avoid accidental injury.

Section II. ARMED OPPONENT

A knife (or bayonet), properly employed, is a deadly weapon; however, using defensive techniques, such as maintaining separation, will greatly enhance the soldier's ability to fight and win.

8-3. DEFENSE AGAINST AN ARMED OPPONENT

An unarmed defender is always at a distinct disadvantage when facing an armed opponent. It is imperative, therefore, that the unarmed defender understands and uses the following principles to survive.

a. Separation. Maintain a separation of at least 10 feet plus the length of the weapon from the attacker. This distance gives the defender time to react to any attempt by the attacker to close the gap and be upon the defender. The defender should also try to place stationary objects between himself and the attacker.

b. Unarmed Defense. Unarmed defense against an armed opponent should be a last resort. If it is necessary, the defender's course of action includes:

(1) Move the body out of the line of attack of the weapon. Step off the line of attack or redirect the attack of the weapon so that it clears the body.

(2) Control the weapon. Maintain control of the attacking arm by securing the weapon, hand, wrist, elbow, or arm by using joint locks, if possible.

(3) Stun the attacker with an effective counterattack. Counterattack should be swift and devastating. Take the vigor out of the attacker with a low, unexpected kick, or break a locked joint of the attacking arm. Strikes to motor nerve centers are effective stuns, as are skin tearing, eye gouging, and attacking of the throat. The defender can also take away the attacker's balance.

(4) Ground the attacker. Take the attacker to the ground where the defender can continue to disarm or further disable him.

(5) Disarm the attacker. Break the attacker's locked joints. Use leverage or induce pain to disarm the attacker and finish him or to maintain physical control.

c. Precaution. Do not focus full attention on the weapon because the attacker has other body weapons to use. There may even be other attackers that you have not seen.

d. Expedient Aids. Anything available can become an expedient aid to defend against an armed attack. The Kevlar helmet can be used as a shield; similarly, the LCE and shirt jacket can be used to protect the defender against a weapon. The defender can also throw dirt in the attacker's eyes as a distraction.

8-4. DEFENSE AGAINST A KNIFE

When an unarmed soldier is faced with an enemy armed with a knife, he must be mentally prepared to be cut. The likelihood of being cut severely is less if the fighter is well trained in knife defense and if the principles of weapon defense are followed. A slash wound is not usually lethal or shock inducing; however, a stab wound risks injury to vital organs, arteries, and veins and may also cause instant shock or unconsciousness.

a. Types of Knife Attacks. The first line of defense against an opponent armed with a knife is to avoid close contact. The different types of knife attacks are:

(1) Thrust. The thrust is the most common and most dangerous type of knife attack. It is a strike directed straight into the target by jabbing or lunging.

(2) Slash. The slash is a sweeping surface cut or circular slash. The wound is usually a long cut, varying from a slight surface cut to a deep gash.

(3) Tear. The tear is a cut made by dragging the tip of the blade across the body to create a ripping-type cut.

(4) Hack. The hack is delivered by using the knife to block or chop with.

(5) Butt. The butt is a strike with the knife handle.

b. Knife Defense Drills. Knife defense drills are used to familiarize soldiers with defense movement techniques for various angles of attack. For training, the soldiers should be paired off; one partner is named as the attacker and one is the defender. It is important that the attacker make his attack realistic in terms of distance and angling during training. His strikes must be accurate in hitting the defender at the intended target if the defender does not defend himself or move off the line of attack. For safety, the attacks are delivered first at one-quarter and one-half speed, and then at three-quarter speed as the defender becomes more skilled. Variations can be added by changing grips, stances, and attacks.

(1) No. 1 Angle of Defense—Check and Lift (Figure 8-9). The attacker delivers a slash along the No. 1 angle of attack. The defender meets and checks the movement with his left forearm bone, striking the inside forearm of the attacker (Step 1). The defender's right hand immediately follows behind the strike to lift, redirect, and take control of the attacker's knife arm (Step 2). The defender brings the attacking arm around to his right side where he can use an arm bar, wrist lock, and so forth, to disarm the attacker (Step 3). He will have better control by keeping the knife hand as close to his body as possible (Step 4).

Figure 8-9. No. 1 angle of defense—check and lift.

Figure 8-9. No. 1 angle of defense—check and lift.

(2) No. 2 Angle of Defense—Check and Ride (Figure 8-10). The attacker slashes with a No. 2 angle of attack. The defender meets the attacking arm with a strike from both forearms against the outside forearm, his bone against the attacker's muscle tissue (Step 1). The strike checks the forward momentum of the attacking arm. The defender's right hand is then used to ride the attacking arm clear of his body (Step 2). He redirects the attacker's energy with strength starting from the right elbow (Step 3).

Figure 8-10. No. 2 angle of defense—check and ride.

Figure 8-10. No. 2 angle of defense—check and ride.

(3) No. 3 Angle of Defense—Check and Lift (Figure 8-11). The attacker delivers a horizontal slash to the defender's ribs, kidneys, or hip on the left side (Step 1). The defender meets and checks the attacking arm on the left side of his body with a downward circular motion across the front of his own body. At the same time, he moves his body off the line of attack. He should meet the attacker's forearm with a strike forceful enough to check its momentum (Step 2). The defender then rides the energy of the attacking arm by wiping downward along the outside of his own left forearm with his right hand. He then redirects the knife hand around to his right side where he can control or disarm the weapon (Step 3).

Figure 8-11. No. 3 angle of defense—check and lift.

Figure 8-11. No. 3 angle of defense—check and lift.

(4) No. 4 Angle of Defense—Check (Figure 8-12). The attacker slashes the defender with a backhand slashing motion to the right side at the ribs, kidneys, or hips. The defender moves his right arm in a downward circular motion and strikes the attacking arm on the outside of the body (Step 1). At the same time, he moves off the line of attack (Step 2). The strike must be forceful enough to check the attack. The left arm is held in a higher guard position to protect from a redirected attack or to assist in checking (Step 3). The defender moves his body to a position where he can choose a proper disarming maneuver (Step 4).

Figure 8-12. No. 4 angle of defense—check.

Figure 8-12. No. 4 angle of defense—check.

(5) Low No. 5 Angle of Defense--Parry (Figure 8-13). A lunging thrust to the stomach is made by the attacker along the No. 5 angle of attack (Step 1). The defender moves his body off the line of attack and deflects the attacking arm by parrying with his left hand (Step 2). He deflects the attacking hand toward his right side by redirecting it with his right hand. As he does this, the defender can strike downward with the left forearm or the wrist onto the forearm or wrist of the attacker (Step 3). The defender ends up in a position to lock the elbow of the attacking arm across his body if he steps off the line of attack properly (Step 4).

Figure 8-13. Low No. 5 angle of defense—parry.

Figure 8-13. Low No. 5 angle of defense—parry.

(6) High No. 5 Angle of Defense (Figure 8-14). The attacker lunges with a thrust to the face, throat, or solar plexus (Step 1). The defender moves his body off the line of attack while parrying with either hand. He redirects the attacking arm so that the knife clears his body (Step 2). He maintains control of the weapon hand or arm and gouges the eyes of the attacker, driving him backward and off balance (Step 3). If the attacker is much taller than the defender, it may be a more natural movement for the defender to raise his left hand to strike and deflect the attacking arm. He can then gouge his thumb or fingers into the jugular notch of the attacker and force him to the ground. Still another possibility for a high No. 5 angle of attack is for the defender to move his body off the line of attack while parrying. He can then turn his body, rotate his shoulder under the elbow joint of the attacker, and lock it out (Step 4).

Figure 8-14. High No. 5 angle of defense.

Figure 8-14. High No. 5 angle of defense.

(7) No. 6 Angle of Defense (Figure 8-15). The attacker strikes straight downward onto the defender with a stab (Step 1). The defender reacts by moving his body out of the weapon's path and by parrying or checking and redirecting the attacking arm, as the movement in the high No. 5 angle of defense (Step 2). The reactions may vary as to what is natural for the defender. The defender then takes control of the weapon and disarms the attacker (Step 3).

Figure 8-15. No. 6 angle of defense.

Figure 8-15. No. 6 angle of defense.

c. Follow-Up Techniques. Once the instructor believes the soldiers are skilled in these basic reactions to attack, follow-up techniques may be introduced and practiced. These drills make up the defense possibilities against the various angles of attack. They also enable the soldier to apply the principles of defense against weapons and allow him to feel the movements. Through repetition, the reactions become natural, and the soldier instinctively reacts to a knife attack with the proper defense. It is important not to associate specific movements or techniques with certain types of attack. The knife fighter must rely on his knowledge of principles and his training experience in reacting to a knife attack. No two attacks or reactions will be the same; thus, memorizing techniques will not ensure a soldier's survival.

(1) Defend and Clear. When the defender has performed a defensive maneuver and avoided an attack, he can push the attacker away and move out of the attacker's reach.

(2) Defend and Stun. After the defender performs his first defensive maneuver to a safer position, he can deliver a stunning blow as an immediate counterattack. Strikes to motor nerve points or attacker's limbs, low kicks, and elbow strikes are especially effective stunning techniques.

(3) Defend and Disarm. The defender also follows up his first defensive maneuver by maintaining control of the attacker's weapon arm, executing a stunning technique, and disarming the attacker. The stun distracts the attacker and also gives the defender some time to gain possession of the weapon and to execute his disarming technique.

8-5. UNARMED DEFENSE AGAINST A RIFLE WITH FIXED BAYONET

Defense against a rifle with a fixed bayonet involves the same principles as knife defense. The soldier considers the same angles of attack and the proper response for any attack along each angle.

a. Regardless of the type weapon used by the enemy, his attack will always be along one of the nine angles of attack at any one time. The soldier must get his entire body off the line of attack by moving to a safe position. A rifle with a fixed bayonet has two weapons: a knife at one end and a butt stock at the other end. The soldier will be safe as long as he is not in a position where he can be struck by either end during the attack.

b. Usually, he is in a more advantageous position if he moves inside the length of the weapon. He can then counterattack to gain control of the situation as soon as possible. The following counterattacks can be used as defenses against a rifle with a fixed bayonet; they also provide a good basis for training.

(1) Unarmed Defense Against No. 1 Angle of Attack (Figure 8-16). The attacker prepares to slash along the No. 1 angle of attack (Step 1). The defender waits until the last possible moment before moving so he is certain of the angle along which the attack is directed (Step 2). This way, the attacker cannot change his attack in response to movement by the defender. When the defender is certain that the attack is committed along a specific angle (No. 1, in this case), he moves to the inside of the attacker and gouges his eyes (Step 2) while the other hand redirects and controls the weapon. He maintains control of the weapon and lunges his entire body weight into the eye gouge to drive the attacker backward and off balance. The defender now ends up with the weapon, and the attacker is in a poor recovery position (Step 3).

Figure 8-16. Unarmed defense against No. 1 angle of attack.

Figure 8-16. Unarmed defense against No. 1 angle of attack.

(2) Unarmed Defense Against No. 2 Angle of Attack (Figure 8-17). The attacker makes a diagonal slash along the No. 2 angle of attack (Step 1). Again, the defender waits until he is sure of the attack before moving. The defender then moves to the outside of the attacker and counterattacks with a thumb jab into the right armpit (Step 2). He receives the momentum of the attacking weapon and controls it with his free hand. He uses the attacker's momentum against him by pulling the weapon in the direction it is going with one hand and pushing with his thumb of the other hand (Step 3). The attacker is completely off balance, and the defender can gain control of the weapon.

Figure 8-17. Unarmed defense against No. 2 angle of attack

Figure 8-17. Unarmed defense against No. 2 angle of attack

.

(3) Unarmed Defense Against No. 3 Angle of Attack (Figure 8-18). The attacker directs a horizontal slash along the No. 3 angle of attack (Step 1). The defender turns and moves to the inside of the attacker; he then strikes with his thumb into the jugular notch (Step 2). His entire body mass is behind the thumb strike and, coupled with the incoming momentum of the attacker, the strike drives the attacker's head backward and takes his balance (Step 3). The defender turns his body with the momentum of the weapon's attack to strip the weapon from the attacker's grip (Step 4).

Figure 8-18. Unarmed defense against No. 3 angle of attack.

Figure 8-18. Unarmed defense against No. 3 angle of attack.

(4) Unarmed Defense Against No. 4 Angle of Attack (Figure 8-19). The attack is a horizontal slash along the No. 4 angle of attack (Step 1). The defender moves in to the outside of the attacker (Step 2). He then turns with the attack, delivering an elbow strike to the throat (Step 3). At the same time, the defender's free hand controls the weapon and pulls it from the attacker as he is knocked off balance from the elbow strike.

Figure 8-19. Unarmed defense against No. 4 angle of attack.

Figure 8-19. Unarmed defense against No. 4 angle of attack.

(5) Unarmed Defense Against Low No. 5 Angle of Attack. (Figure 8-20). The attacker thrusts the bayonet at the stomach of the defender (Step 1). The defender shifts his body to the side to avoid the attack and to gouge the eyes of the attacker (Step 2). The defender's free hand maintains control of and strips the weapon from the attacker as he is driven backward with the eye gouge (Step 3).

Figure 8-20. Unarmed defense against low No. 5 angle of attack.

Figure 8-20. Unarmed defense against low No. 5 angle of attack.

(6) Unarmed Defense Against High No. 5 Angle of Attack (Figure 8-21). The attacker delivers a thrust to the throat of the defender (Step 1). The defender then shifts to the side to avoid the attack, parries the thrust, and controls the weapon with his trail hand (Step 2). He then shifts his entire body mass forward over the lead foot, slamming a forearm strike into the attacker's throat (Step 3).

Figure 8-21. Unarmed defense against high No. 5 angle of attack.

Figure 8-21. Unarmed defense against high No. 5 angle of attack.

(7) Unarmed Defense Against No. 6 Angle of Attack (Figure 8-22). The attacker delivers a downward stroke along the No. 6 angle of attack. The defender shifts to the outside to get off the line of attack and he grabs the weapon (Step 1). Then, he pulls the attacker off balance by causing him to overextend himself (Step 2). The defender shifts his weight backward and causes the attacker to fall, as he strips the weapon from him (Step 3).

Figure 8-22. Unarmed defense against No. 6 angle of attack.

Figure 8-22. Unarmed defense against No. 6 angle of attack.



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