I/R consist of those measures necessary to guard, protect, and account for people that are captured, detained, confined or evacuated by US forces. In any military operation involving US forces, accountability and the safe and humane treatment of detainees are essential. US policy demands that all persons who are captured, interned, evacuated, or held by US forces are treated humanely. This policy applies from the moment detainees become the responsibility of US forces and continues until the time they are released or repatriated. (Refer to the Geneva Conventions and AR 190-8, AR 190-14, AR 190-47, FM 3-19.40, and FM 27-10 .)
Dislocated civilian. DCs are persons that have been removed from their home because of war, disaster, or other reasons. They may be refugees, evacuee, stateless persons, or war victims. DCs are provided sustenance, safety, and humanitarian assistance. They are kept separate from EPWs and CIs. DCs are controlled to prevent interference with military operations and to protect them from combat or to relocate them to safety. DC operations are discussed later in this chapter.
US military prisoner. US military prisoners are members of the US armed forces being confined, awaiting trial, or waiting transportation to a confinement facility outside the AO. They must be guarded to prevent escape and cannot be confined in immediate association with EPWs and CIs, detainees, or other foreign nationals who are not members of the US armed forces. Refer to FM 3-19.40 for more information about field confinement of US military prisoners.
7-3. EPWs are more specifically defined in FM 3-19.40 and the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, August 1949 .
7-4. MP receive EPWs and CIs as far forward as possible to prevent maneuvering units from being burdened with large numbers of prisoners. Prisoners are evacuated from the battle area as quickly as possible. The capturing unit is responsible for guarding prisoners until relieved. They field process captives using the Five Ss-and-T method (Table 7-1) .
NOTE: When possible, conduct same gender searches; however, this may not always be possible due to speed and security considerations. Therefore, perform mixed gender searches in a respectful manner using all possible measures to prevent any action that could be interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. The on-site supervisor must carefully control soldiers doing mixed gender searches to prevent allegations of sexual misconduct.
Use DD Form 2745 and include at a minimum the following information:
7-5. The capturing unit is usually responsible for delivering the detainees to the collecting point and the nonwalking sick or wounded detainees to the nearest medical-aid station for evacuation through medical channels. Medically evacuated EPWs and CIs must be physically segregated from friendly forces. Detainees are normally turned over to MP at the nearest EPW collecting point or holding area. However, MP must be prepared to go forward to accept EPW from capturing units.
7-6. Traditionally, MP operate collecting points in a division AO and holding areas in a corps or EAC AO. However, collecting points and holding areas should be established wherever they are needed. The evacuation chain normally moves from the division forward or the central collecting point to corps holding area, then to internment facilities. When circumstances permit, such as taking advantage of available transportation, EPW evacuation may bypass one or more stations and deliver the detainees directly to a corps holding area or an internment facility.
7-7. At collecting points and holding areas, MP work closely with MI determining if captives, their equipment, or their weapons have intelligence value. MI interrogation teams conduct interrogations during field processing. Other MI interrogations teams conduct interrogations once EPW have been evacuated to more permanent facilities.
7-8. The number of MP needed to operate a division forward collecting point is based on the number and rate of captives expected and the METT-TC. A division forward collecting point must be mobile and modular and able to set up, expand, and move quickly with little or no notice. The general location of a forward collecting point is given in the brigade OPLAN or OPORD. It often is located near or in the brigade support area (BSA), but should not allow detainees to observe activities in the BSA. The collecting point should be situated close to an MSR. This makes it easier to get supplies, such as water, food, and barrier material from the BSA. Even a moderate number of detainees will put a strain on the equipment and supplies of an MP company. Minor medical treatment may come from the MP company's combat medical section. However, the company's medical resources are very limited and are primarily used to support medical needs within the company. Units needed to support the division forward collecting point should be specifically tasked in the brigade OPORD. MP leaders operating the division forward collecting point will—
Notify the BSA TOC and the PM operations section of the selected location. The BSA TOC reports the exact location of the collecting point to the brigade TOC. The brigade TOC notifies subordinate units where the collecting point is located so capturing units with detainees can take them there.
7-9. A forward collecting point (Figure 7-1) should not be set up near local inhabitants. Existing structures like vacant schools, apartments, or warehouses should be used when possible. This reduces construction requirements and minimizes logistical requirements. If existing structures are not used, detainees, except officers, can be tasked to help construct the collecting point. Prisoners may dig or build cover to protect themselves from artillery, mortar, or air attack. There is no set design for a forward collecting point. It can be anything from a guarded, roped off area to a secured, existing structure. The collecting point is built to suit the climate, the weather, and the situation. When selecting a collecting point, consider the following:
Figure 7-1. Division Forward Collecting Point
7-10. MP at collecting points normally receive detainees directly from the capturing troops. MP then process the detainees using the stress method . The six principles of stress are search, tag, report, evacuate, segregate, and safeguard.
7-11. Search . Search and inspect every EPW and CI and their possessions. Use males to search male prisoners and females to search female prisoners wherever possible unless, in exceptional situations, an individual of the opposite gender must conduct the search. If this is the case, the search of the opposite sex must be performed in a respectful manner using all possible measures to prevent any action that could be interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. Captives may keep the following items found in a search:
Retained property, such as identification cards or tags, personal property having no intelligence value, clothing, mess equipment (except knives and forks), badges of rank and nationality, decorations, religious literature, jewelry, and articles that have sentimental value.
7-13. MP will coordinate with the MI interrogation teams to determine which items that have been confiscated are of intelligence value. Personal items, such as diaries, letters from home, and family pictures may be taken by the MI teams for review, but are later returned to the MP for return to the proper owner.
7-15. Impounded articles are items taken from the EPW or the CI during his internment because the articles make escape easier or compromise US security interests. Items normally impounded are cameras, radios, and all currency and negotiable instruments found on the captives. Refer to AR 190-8 and Defense Finance and Accounting Service-Indianapolis (DFAS IN) 37-1 for more information about confiscated and impounded property.
7-16. MP prepare a receipt when taking property from a detainee. The MP leader ensures that both the EPW or the CI and the receiving MP sign the receipt (such as DA Form 4137 ). MP consider bundling a detainee's property or placing it in bags to keep each detainee's property intact and separate. They turn in cleared, confiscated property as far forward as possible. MP maintain a strict chain of custody for all items taken from the EPW or the CI. They ensure that a receipt is obtained for any items you release to any other MP or agency. The escorting MP signs for and transports any remaining property that was taken from the EPW or the CI.
7-17. Tag . Each EPW or CI is tagged by the capturing troops using DD Form 2745 as a way of accounting for them. MP check each tag at collecting points and holding areas for—
7-18. The remaining information on the tag will be included as it becomes available. DD Form 2745 is a perforated, three-part form which has an individual serial number. It is constructed of durable waterproof, tear-resistant material with reinforced eyeholes at the top of Parts A and C. The capturing unit attaches Part A to the captive with wire, string, or another type of durable material. They maintain Part B in their records and attach Part C to the confiscated property so that the owner may be identified later.
7-19. MP at division collecting points will ensure that DD Form 2745 has been placed on any captive arriving at the collecting point without it. MP may have to direct the capturing units to complete the capture tag before accepting prisoners into the CP. They ensure that the following is done:
7-20. MP receive detainees from capturing troops using DD Form 2708 or a similar document. They ensure that the receipt includes the following:
7-22. Evacuate . Captives are humanely evacuated from the combat zone through appropriate channels as quickly as possible. MP do not delay evacuation to obtain name, rank, service number, or date of birth. When MP evacuate captives, they give them clear, brief instructions in their own language when possible. Military necessity may require a delay in evacuation beyond a reasonable period. When this occurs, MP leaders ensure that there is an adequate supply of food; potable water; and appropriate clothing, shelter, and medical attention available.
7-24. Medical personnel determine if captives with serious wounds or sickness should be kept in the combat zone. Sometimes prompt evacuation would be more dangerous to their survival than retention in the combat zone.
7-25. Segregate . The senior officer or noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) having responsibility for custody of the EPWs or CIs will designate how and at what level to segregate them to ensure their security, health, and welfare. EPWs and CIs are segregated into the following categories:
7-26. MP do not use coercion of any kind to obtain any information from the captives. This includes basic information, such as name, rank, service number, and date of birth, which they are required to provide under the Geneva Conventions. Coercion or inhumane treatment of any EPW, CI, RP is prohibited and is not justified by the stress of combat or with deep provocation. Inhumane treatment is a serious violation of international law and the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).
7-27. MP must not speak to captives except to give orders or directions. Captives must not be allowed to talk to or signal each other. This prevents them from plotting ways to counter security and plan escapes. Uncooperative captives may require a gag in certain tactical situations. However, gags should be used for only as long as needed and should not harm the individual.
Provide first aid and medical treatment for any wounded or sick captive. The wounded and sick will be evacuated separately through medical channels using the same assets as those used to medically evacuate US and allied forces.
7-29. Protecting detainees from attack, preventing their escape, and quickly removing them from the battle area further safeguards them. Detainees should not remain at the division forward collecting point more than 12 hours, if possible. MP from the division central collecting point move forward to escort detainees back to the central collecting points. When detainees are field processed and ready for evacuation, the MP at the division forward collecting point will—
7-30. MP in GS are responsible for establishing and maintaining the division central collecting point. They collect detainees from the forward collecting points, then process and secure them until corps MP come forward to evacuate them to the rear. Detainees should be transferred to the corps holding area or directly to an internment facility within 24 hours, if possible. One or more GS MP platoons operate the division central collecting point. The MP platoons are augmented by the division band and/or by the corps MP. Augmentation is based on the number and rate of captives expected.
7-31. When necessary, members of the division, corps, or EAC band augment MP for EPW operations. They guard detainees, operate dismount points, and provide perimeter security. When band members are tasked to augment MP for EPW operations they are OPCON to the MP company for the duration of the mission and released at the earliest opportunity to return to their primary mission.
7-32. A central collecting point (Figure 7-2) is larger than a forward collecting point, but the considerations for setting up and operating the collecting points are generally the same. The general location of the central collecting point is given in the division OPORD or OPLAN. It is located near the division support area (DSA), preferably close to an MSR. This makes it easier to obtain supplies, transportation, and additional medical support from the DSA. Non-MP units should be specifically tasked in the coordinating instructions of the division OPORD to provide the support needed for the division central collecting point. MP establishing the collecting point should—
Figure 7-2. Division Central Collecting Point
7-33. The MP platoon charged with operating the division central collecting point sends MP forward to the division forward collecting point to escort detainees back to the central collecting point. EPWs or CIs must be evacuated from the division forward collecting point as soon as possible, preferably within 12 hours. Before evacuating the detainees, MP checks with MI interrogation teams for any property to be returned to, or evacuated with, the detainees before they are moved.
7-35. The MP unit's combat medical section will screen detainees and decide if they will be escorted within MP channels or medically evacuated. Generally, the walking wounded go with the other detainees. Litter patients go through medical channels. US forces provide the same medical care for sick or wounded detainees as that given to US and allied soldiers. Sick and wounded EPWs in the combat zone are either treated and returned to the MP for evacuation or stabilized and moved through medical channels to the rear as far and as quickly as possible. If medically evacuated, MP release the detainees to the medical authorities using DD Form 2708 or other receipt. The corps medical regulating officer (MRO) and the receiving hospital commander coordinate with the Internment Resettlement Information Center (IRIC) to account for detainees in medical channels.
7-36. MP determine when security is required for sick or wounded detainees. Normally, sick or wounded detainees requiring MEDEVAC are not likely to be a security risk. Detainees well enough to present a security risk can be treated by the combat medical section and evacuated through MP channels as soon as possible.
The type of transport to be used. The type of transport may influence the number of guards. A planning consideration is one guard per 5 to 10 detainees. Aircraft is loaded according to the airplane crew's instructions.
7-38. Detainees are evacuated on foot only as a last resort when transport is not available. Transportation for detainees is arranged through the company HQ. At division, the company HQ contacts the local movement control officer.
7-41. MP or other military personnel may perform as guards in evacuating EPWs and CIs. Escort personnel are briefed on evacuation considerations and escape attempts. Considerations include the following:
Requirements to inspect passenger areas, latrines, and other places that might be accessible to detainees during transport. Escorts should look for the means of escape or items that could be used as weapons and remove the latches from the latrine doors on transports, if possible.
Emergency actions to secure and safeguard the detainees in case of enemy contact. Members of the escort element must know in advance which of them will control the detainees and which ones will react to the enemy.
7-42. The senior MP in the escort element accepts custody of the detainees. Each detainee is tagged and field-processed before being accepted for evacuation. Each detainee is accounted for using DD Form 2708 or a similar receipt. The senior MP escort ensures that all the detainees (and any equipment) are listed on the custody receipt when custody is accepted. The escort retains a copy of the custody receipt.
7-43. Before moving, the senior MP ensures that the detainees have been briefed on movement discipline in a language understood by them. MP use locally produced GTAs to conduct the briefing. If available, an interpreter should give the instructions to the detainees. They are told—
7-45. During river crossing operations, an EPW collecting point is established on the nearside of the river far enough to the rear to prevent interference with tactical operations and to afford reasonable protection against hostile fire. The EPWs are evacuated from the bridgehead area as soon as possible to prevent congestion. The movement of EPWs from the farside of the river must be coordinated with traffic control personnel at the crossing sites. Secondary crossing sites must be used if available.
7-46. During amphibious operations, initially, the shore party or helicopter support teams operate EPW collecting points in the beach support areas or LZs. EPWs are evacuated from the collecting points to designated ships by landing craft, a helicopter, or amphibious vehicles. MP must coordinate with the support force for the handling of EPWs once they have been evacuated from the beachhead. EPWs are retained in the objective area when facilities, supplies, and personnel permit, consistent with the reasonable safety of EPWs from enemy action.
7-47. During an airborne operation, the METT-TC considerations for collecting EPWs include the geographical location of the airhead, the tactical plan, the availability of transportation, and plans for linkup with ground forces. EPWs are evacuated primarily by air, especially during the early stages of the operation. The EPW collecting point should be located near a LZ. Plans should provide for the attachment of MP escort guard units from the area EAC to the airborne force to guard EPW during evacuation.
7-48. Armored units are able to quickly penetrate deep into hostile territory, possibly bypassing enemy strong points. They may leave isolated enemy groups, which would hinder the normal evacuation of EPWs. In this circumstance, it may be necessary to hold EPWs in the area of capture until they can be safely evacuated.
7-49. During an air assault operation, organic military police elements accompany assault elements to the objective areas so that they can collect and evacuate captured EPWs. Collecting points are established as required near heliports or airfields. Arrangements must be made for nondivisional MP to accompany designated incoming or resupply aircraft to guard EPWs during their evacuation from the division.
7-50. Use field detention facilities (Figure 7-3) to hold US soldiers in custody until they can be tried. Use pretrial confinement only to ensure that an accused appears at trial or when the seriousness of the offense or the threat of violence makes confinement essential. Whenever possible, soldiers awaiting trial remain in their units. Only when they are a hazard to themselves or others are they detained in pretrial confinement under MP control.
Figure 7-3. Field Detention Facility
7-51. Use field detention facilities to hold sentenced prisoners waiting for transfer to a theater's field confinement facility (FCF) or the continental US (CONUS). After trial, move convicted military prisoners, whenever possible, to confinement facilities outside the combat zone.
7-52. Each echelon commander sets procedures and policies for detaining and confining soldiers. Often US military prisoners in a combat zone are placed under the control of an MP unit operating an EPW collecting point. When small numbers of US prisoners are on hand, a squad operating an EPW collecting point can best take responsibility for the security of US prisoners. US military prisoners must be kept physically apart from EPWs. The policy and procedures for the care and treatment of prisoners and the safeguarding of their personal effects remain the same as that set for other Army confinement facilities.
7-53. When prisoners are retained in-theater, separate temporary detention facilities maybe set up in the corps or division areas. US military prisoners should be held in the division rear area for the shortest possible time. At a division facility MP must—
7-54. When the situation permits, MP from a detention facility at the corps come forward to pick up the prisoners at the request of the division's detention facility commander. From the corps, the prisoners are evacuated to the theater confinement facility.
7-55. If a temporary detention facility is set up in the corps, it usually is operated by confinement teams from the confinement battalion in a personnel command (PERSCOM). These teams are organized and trained to perform confinement operations. But when corps detention operations are limited to prisoners being evacuated to a confinement battalion in the PERSCOM, elements from a combat support company can operate a temporary facility.
7-56. A field detention facility usually is located near the MP company CP for food, transport, and supply support. MP request construction materials from the engineers to set up and run a facility. Equipment and supplies must include the following:
7-57. MP leaders ensure that the facility is large enough to separate prisoners by prisoner status, custody grade, sex, and rank. They locate the facility away from a base's perimeter or any other area of increased risk.
7-58. The size of the facility is based on the number of prisoners being detained. It may be a room or a tent, as long as it provides shelter equal to that offered to other soldiers in the combat zone. The physical criteria for permanent and temporary structures are the same. MP use existing structures if you can. Otherwise, they use tents. Field-expedient facilities must be approved and periodically inspected by a medical corps officer or a designated representative.
7-59. A team or a squad can operate a field detention facility. A team operating a facility may organize so that the team leader controls the operation and relieves the guards. The other team members perform guard duty in alternating 12-hour shifts. When operating a field detention facility, the team—
Accepts sentenced soldiers on the written order (currently a DD Form 2707) of a court martial convening authority (or the authorized representative).
Accepts the accused soldiers on the written order (currently a DD Form 2707) of the accused's commanding officer.
7-60. PRC operations are the responsibility of the Assistant Chief of Staff, (Civil Affairs) (G5), the Civil Affairs Officer (US Army) (S5), and/or the HN authorities. (Refer to FM 41-10 for more information about PRC.) PRC is often conducted in stability and support operations where national authority has broken down and the government cannot control the population. MP support PRC by conducting L&O operations designed to restore order and protect the people and property.
7-61. Insurgent organizations often emerge in unstable regions. The aim of such groups is normally to overthrow the established government. The less control the government has, the greater the chance for insurgents to succeed. These organizations try to exploit the population, often through threat and intimidation. When insurgent organizations pose a threat to the population, US forces employ PRC operations that are designed to deny support and assistance to insurgents by controlling the movement of people and goods and restricting access to key facilities. Police activities, such as roadblocks, cordons, curfews, access control, and checkpoints are an important measure in counterinsurgency, but have a high potential for harm if used excessively or incorrectly. MP are specially trained to conduct these operations, as a force focused on security, protection, and assistance. MP are continually trained on the prudent use of force, crisis management, and operations requiring restrictive ROE.
7-62. PRC measures deprive insurgent organizations support and aid in identifying their supporters. Appropriate psychological operations (PSYOP) help make these measures more acceptable to the population by explaining their necessity. The government informs the population that, although its actions may cause inconvenience, the threat posed by the insurgents makes them necessary.
7-63. PRC is often conducted in urban areas. The best use of PRC comes before an organized insurgent movement has the capability for armed conflict. MP intelligence operations support PRC programs. Criminal acts, such as robberies, kidnappings, terrorism, and extortion, may accompany insurgent propaganda or money-raising activities.
7-68. International law recognizes the humanitarian practice of providing temporary refuge to anyone, regardless of nationality, who may be in imminent physical danger for the duration of the threat. It is US policy to grant temporary refuge in a foreign country to nationals of that country, or of a third nation, solely for humanitarian reasons when extreme or exceptional circumstances exist.
7-69. Civil affairs (CAs) units are trained to plan, coordinate resources for, and monitor the handling of DCs. (Refer to FM 41-10 for more information about DC operations.) Whenever possible, resources and control should be arranged with the HN, other governmental agencies, and nongovernmental and private organizations.
7-71. DC operations are a special category of PRC. The goal of DC operations is to minimize civilian interference with military operations, relieve suffering, and protect civilians from combat operations or other threats. When the HN cannot or is unwilling to control DCs, MP may be required to collect, evacuate, and resettle them.
7-72. When directed to conduct DC operations, MP leaders coordinate with CA and the PM to establish a traffic control plan. The plan includes the primary and alternate routes used to move DCs and the location for—
7-74. MP collect and process DCs in the same manner as EPWs with regard to the difference in their status-they are detained personnel, not prisoners. As such, security of the I/R facility should not give the impression that it is a prison.
7-75. MP collect DCs at assembly points located away from the MSR and areas where combat operations are heaviest. They move DCs along selected routes that have the least military traffic. DCs will normally require frequent rest stops. When possible, holding areas for rest stops should be near a source of water and provide protection from the elements or hostile fire.
7-76. MP provide close-in and standoff security for DCs while en route to a civilian camp or collection point. When required, MP provide external and internal security at a DC camp. Within limits, DCs are allowed freedom of movement once they have been resettled. MP and CA must continue to closely monitor DCs at collection points and camps. Recent operations that involve large numbers of DCs have been known to turn violent very quickly. Such a situation can be avoided when DCs are treated with respect and dignity.
7-77. In addition to EPWs, CIs, and DCs, MP are often required to evacuate other selected individuals or groups from collecting points, holding areas, or areas of hostility. The safe evacuation of noncombatants, US diplomats, or US military prisoners requires close coordination and extensive planning. This type of operation is referred to as noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO). Such missions require contingency plans and unit SOPs that are specifically designed for these special operations. Unit SOPs should cover the evacuation of designated personnel by ground, air, rail, and water. When directed to conduct evacuation operations, MP leaders task organize based on METT-TC and the availability of MP. They perform extensive rehearsals to successfully conduct evacuation operations.
7-78. When a HN can no longer ensure the safety of US civilians in a foreign nation, US military forces may evacuate them. MP are often required to provide security and escort for evacuees from their point of origin to their destination. A NEO is usually a joint operation conducted with other US and HN government agencies and CA.
7-79. An MP platoon is most likely employed for these operations. The platoon leader conducts direct coordination with CA and the higher HQ. The platoon leader begins TLP, issues a WO to the platoon, and requests information that includes the—
7-80. If time permits, the platoon and squad leaders conduct a reconnaissance of the evacuation route. The purpose of the reconnaissance is to prepare an overlay which is then used to plan control and special security measures at critical areas along the route. If helicopter support is available, platoon and squad leaders conduct an aerial reconnaissance of the evacuation route. An aerial reconnaissance will normally take less time and the observation of the terrain around the route is much better by air than from the ground. At a minimum, a map reconnaissance must be conducted.
7-81. During the reconnaissance, the platoon leader selects possible rest areas and identifies friendly units along the route. He identifies critical areas, such as defiles, bridges, and areas where enemy activity is likely. He marks these areas on the overlay and plans for special security measures at these locations.
7-82. The platoon leader coordinates with the movement control center to ensure that the evacuation route does not interfere with the movement of friendly forces. If available, he coordinates for fire support along the route, normally at critical sites that were identified during the reconnaissance.
7-84. NEO are normally carried out according to the guidelines established by CA and US policy. MP may be required to screen for authorized personnel to determine who may actually be evacuated. There are generally three groups of personnel. They are—
7-86. MP brief the evacuees on discipline and the actions to take during emergencies. The briefing must be in a language that all the evacuees understand. The CA unit or HN agency should provide an interpreter. The briefing should cover all aspects of the evacuation. This will help calm the evacuees and instill confidence and cooperation.
7-87. The platoon provides security of the evacuees at the marshalling, evacuation, and holding areas and the reception station. The level of protection depends on the level of the threat. Methods of security depend on the type and location of the facilities used. At a minimum, MP must be prepared to provide interior guards for group areas, establish perimeter security, and operate a dismount point to restrict access to the evacuees.
7-88. During movement, the platoon escorts the evacuees by providing close-in security at the lead, middle, and end of the convoy or in front of and behind a single transportation vehicle. MP use a scout vehicle that travels 3 to 5 minutes ahead of the convoy to alert the main body to danger or delays. If a threat tries to disrupt the evacuation operation or destroy the evacuation vehicle, selected MP teams protect the evacuees as other teams counter the threat within the ROE. Throughout the evacuation operation, MP maintain all-around security, protection, and evacuee accountability.
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