Military

Chapter 5

Operating Procedures

Section I - Radiotelephone Procedures

Phonetic Alphabet

Numerical Pronunciation

1. To distinguish numerals from words similarly pronounced, the proword "FIGURES" may be used preceding such numbers.

2. When numerals are transmitted by radiotelephone, the following rules for their pronunciation will be observed:

Numeral

Spoken As

Ø . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ZE-RO

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WUN

2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TOO

3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TREE

4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FOW-ER

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FIFE

6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SIX

7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SEV-EN

8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AIT

9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NIN-ER

3. Numbers will be transmitted digit by digit except that exact multiples of thousands may be spoken as such. However, there are special cases, such as anti-air warfare reporting procedures, when the normal pronunciation of numerals is prescribed for example, 17 would then be "seventeen."

Numeral

Spoken As

44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FOW-ER FOW-ER

9Ø . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NIN-ER ZE-RO

136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WUN TREE SIX

TIME 12ØØ . . . . . . . . . . . .

WUN TOO ZE-RO ZE-RO

1478 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WUN FOW-ER SEV-EN AIT

7ØØØ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SEV-EN TOU-SAND

16ØØØ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WUN SIX TOU-SAND

812681 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AIT WUN TOO SIX AIT WUN

4. The figure "ZERO" is to be written "Ø," the figure "ONE" is to be written "1" and the letter "ZULU" is to be written "Z."

5. Difficult words may be spelled phonetically using the four-step method. Abbreviations and isolated letters should be phonetisized without the proword "I SPELL."

Radiotelephone Procedures

Prowords Listed Alphabetically

Radiotelephone Procedures

Opening a Net (Nonsecure Voice)

NET THIS IS NCS AUTHENTICATE ___________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________ OVER

NCS THIS IS 1ST SUB I AUTHENTICATE ______________________________________
AUTHENTICATE _________________________ ____________________________ OVER

NET THIS IS NCS I AUTHENTICATE __________________________________________
AUTHENTICATE _________________________ ____________________________ OVER

NET THIS IS 2D SUB I AUTHENTICATE _______________________________________
AUTHENTICATE _________________________ ____________________________ OVER

NET THIS IS 3D SUB I AUTHENTICATE __________________________________ OVER

NET THIS IS NCS OUT

Radiotelephone Procedures

Opening a Net (Secure Voice)

NET THIS IS NCS OVER

NCS THIS IS 1ST SUB OVER

NCS THIS IS 2D SUB OVER

NCS THIS IS 3D SUB OVER

NET THIS IS NCS OUT (IF NCS HAS NO TRAFFIC)

or

NET THIS IS NCS THIS IS A DIRECTED NET - OF WHAT PRECEDENCE AND FOR WHOM ARE YOUR MESSAGES OVER (NCS DESIRES CONTROL OF TRAFFIC BEING PASSED).

NOTE: The last letter of the call sign determines the answering order. The stations in a net respond alphabetically, for example, A3D will answer before A2E and A2E will answer before BIF. If two stations in a net have the same last letter, for instance, A1D and A2D, the answering order will be determined by numerical sequence, with the lower number A1D answering first.

Radiotelephone Procedures

Radio Checks

To minimize transmission time, use radio checks sparingly. Transmit only when you have message traffic.

NET THIS IS NCS RADIO CHECK OVER

NCS THIS IS 1ST SUB ROGER OUT

NCS THIS IS 2D SUB WEAK READABLE OVER (2D SUB receives NCS weak)

NCS THIS IS 3D SUB ROGER OUT

NET THIS IS NCS ROGER OUT

Radio Telephone Procedures

Passing Message Traffic

1.

A preliminary call will be transmitted when the sending station wishes to know if the receiving station is ready to receive a message.

1ST SUB THIS IS 2D SUB - (precedence) - OVER
2D SUB THIS IS 1ST SUB - OVER
1ST SUB THIS IS 2D SUB - MESSAGE - NUMBER ONE
PRIORITY TIME 14Ø5ØØZ MAR 87
FROM COMMANDER'S FULL CALL SIGN 2D SUB TO
COMMANDER'S FULL CALL SIGN 1ST SUB
BREAK TEXT OF MESSAGE BREAK OVER
2D SUB THIS IS 1ST SUB ROGER OUT

or

3D SUB THIS IS 1ST SUB - MESSAGE - OVER
1ST SUB THIS 3D SUB - OVER
3D SUB THIS IS 1ST SUB (Sends Message) - OVER
1ST SUB THIS IS 3RD SUB - ROGER - OUT

2.

When communications reception is good and contact has been continuous, a preliminary call is optional.

Radiotelephone Procedures

Station Entering Net

1.

The 3d substation was unable to answer when the net was opened and now wishes to report into the net.
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB - REPORTING INTO NET - OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS AUTHENTICATE _____ _____ OVER
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB I AUTHENTICATE _____ AUTHENTICATE _____ _____      OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS I AUTHENTICATE _____ OVER
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB ROGER OUT

2.

The 3d substation finds it necessary to enter a net in which it does not normally operate.
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB REQUEST PERMISSION TO ENTER
     NET - OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS IDENTIFY YOUR STATION - OVER
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB REFER TO _____ _____ I AM PREPARED
     TO AUTHENTICATE - OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS AUTHENTICATE _____ _____ OVER
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB I AUTHENTICATE _____ OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS PERMISSION TO ENTER NET - OUT

Radiotelephone Procedures

Station Leaving Net

1.

When leaving a net in which your station is a substation:
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB REQUEST PERMISSION TO CLOSE
     DOWN (Until _____) OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS ROGER OUT

2.

When leaving a net in which you have entered, but do not normally operate:
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB REQUEST PERMISSION TO LEAVE
     NET - OVER
3D SUB THIS IS NCS ROGER OUT

Radiotelephone Procedures

Closing a Net (Nonsecure Voice)

NET THIS IS NCS CLOSE DOWN OVER
NCS THIS IS 1ST SUB AUTHENTICATE _____ _____ OVER
NET THIS IS NCS I AUTHENTICATE _____ OVER
NCS THIS IS 1ST SUB ROGER OUT
NCS THIS 2D SUB ROGER OUT
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB ROGER OUT

Radiotelephone Procedures

Closing a Net (Secure Voice)

NET THIS IS NCS CLOSE DOWN OVER
NCS THIS IS 1ST SUB ROGER OUT
NCS THIS IS 2D SUB ROGER OUT
NCS THIS IS 3D SUB ROGER OUT

Radiotelephone Procedures

Radiotelephone Message Format

A radiotelephone message consists of three main parts:

1. Heading.
2. Text.
3. Ending.

Section II. Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Prosigns

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Precedence Prosigns
(Interservice Use)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Frequently Used Operating Signals

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Machine Functions

Call Signs

NET - A7W

NCS - B6F - CDR 52D INF DIV

SUB - F3D - CDR 1ST BDE 52D INF DIV

SUB - N5J - CDR 2D BDE 52D INF DIV

SUB - E6T - CDR 3D BDE 52D INF DIV

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Establishing Radio Teletypewriter Communications
(Continuous Tuning Sets)

Radio Set AN/GRC-26D & RATT Set AN/GRC-46

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F ZRC2 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D ZBK1 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) F3D DE B6F ZBK1 ZUJAR (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE N5J ZBK1 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) N5J DE B6F ZBK1 ZUJ AR (2CR-1LF)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Garbled Transmission Received from E6T

(5SP-2CR-1LF) E6T DE B6F ZBK2 ZRC 2 K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T ZBK1 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) E6T DE B6F ZBK1 ZUJ AR (2CR-1LF)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Establishing Radio Teletypewriter Communications
(Digital Tuning Sets)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D ZBK1 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) F3D DE B6F ZBK1 ZUJ AR (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE N5J ZBK1 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) N5J DE B6F ZBK1 ZUJ AR (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T ZBK1 INT ZBK K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) E6T DE B6F ZBK1 ZUJ AR (2CR-1LF)

NOTE: ZKB is used in radio teletypewriter communications when the NCS has not been designatedin the SOI or when alternate NCS has assumed command of the net. EKB is used in radio teletype writer communications when the NCS wants to control the net. The NCS may want to control the net when the net has high message traffic. Also, if the net has numerous subs, the NCS may control the net to avoid confusion.

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Opening a Net

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE N5J K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F R AR (2CR-1LF)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Opening a Directed Net

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F ZXB K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE N5J K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F R AR (2CR-1LF)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Sequence of Answering

1.

Station will answer a net or collective call in alphabetical order.

2.

If any station fails to answer in order, the next station waits 5 seconds then answers. we station which failed to answer will wait until all other stations have answered, then answer.

3.

If after all other stations have answered, the station missing its turn still does not answer, the NCS waits 5 seconds then initiates a call to that station.

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F K (2CR-1LF)

Station F3D is supposed to answer, but does not. The next station N5J answers.

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE N5J K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T K (2CR-1LF)

F3D now answers

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F R AR (2CR-1LF)

F3D fails to answer within 5 seconds after the last station answers.

(5SP-2CR-1LF) F3D DE B6F K (2CR-1LF)

4.

If the station still fails to answer, the NCS will permit other stations to transmit their traffic.

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W XMT F3D DE B6F R AR (2CR-1LF)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Station Entering Opened Net

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D ZKE K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) F3D DE B6F ZKB QTR Ø9ØZ-K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D R AR (2CR-1LF)

QTR - Used to allow substation to synchronize time with NCS.

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Closing a Net

(5SP-2CR-1LF) A7W DE B6F ZKJ1 K (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE F3D R AR (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE N5J R AR (2CR-1LF)

(5SP-2CR-1LF) B6F DE E6T R AR (2CR-1LF)

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Teletypewriter Repetition Procedures

1. Operators must use the following rules to request repetition in the heading of a message:

a. Rule 1.

(1) When one element is garbled, request repetition of prosign before to prosign after the garbled element.

Example:

If the originator's designation is garbled request:

C9L DE AØK IMI FM TO TO K

(2) To respond to a request for a repetition, the operator must always call the station requesting the IMI, identify what he is giving, and then give the portion requested.

Example:

AØK DE C9L

FM TO TO

FM CDR FT LEE//ATCP-A//

TO K

b. Rule 2.

(1) When more than one element from a single component is garbled, request the entire component. (Example assumes two or more errors in the address component.)

Request:

AØK DE C9L IMI FM TO GRNC K

(2) Response:

C9L DE AØK

FM TO GRNC

FM AØK

TO B9VØ6

INFO M2NØ3

DA GRNC K

c. Rule 3.

(1) When elements from more than one component are garbled in the heading, request the entire heading, all before break.

Request:

AØK DE C9L IMI AB BT K

(2) Response.

C9L DE AØK

AB BT

C9L

DE AOK NR1

R 2413ØØ2 Nov 83

FM AØK23

TO C9LØ6

BT K

2. Repetition(s) in the text.

a. If the entire text is garbled, request repetition of all after the BT.

(1) Request:

B9V DE M2N IMI AA BT K

(2) Response:

M2N DE B9V

AA BT

TEXT

BT

13/1Ø3ØZ

K

b. When one single word in a plain language text is garbled, request repetition using the prosign WB or WA using the shortest word as reference point.

(1) Request:

M2N DE B9V IMI WB TO K

(2) Response:

B9V DE M2N WB TO MEN K

c. When two or more consecutive words are garbled in the text, request repetition from the correct word before the garbled portion to the first correct word after the last part of the garbled portion.

(1) Request:

M2N DE B9V IMI SEND TO HILL K

(2) Response:

B9V DE M2N SEND TO HILL SEND 15 MEN TO HILL K

d. When one single group in a coded text message is garbled, request repetition using the numerical number which identifies that particular group.

(1) Request

B9V DE M2N IMI 3 K

(2) Response:

M2N DE B9V 3 DCXEY K

e. When three or more consecutive groups in a coded text message are garbled, request repetition from the first garbled group to the last garbled group.

(1) Request:

B9V DE M2N IMI 7 TO 9 K

(2) Response:

M2N DE B9V 7 TO 9 ZBHVE IAKNM GPRMN K

f. When the ending of a message is garbled, request repetition of everything after the last word or coded group in the text.

(1) Request

(Plain language text)

M2N DE B9V IMI AA AN/FGC-25 K

(2) Response:

(Plain language text)

B9V DE M2N

AA AN/FGC-25

BT

CFN AN/FGC-25

13/163ØZ

K

(3) Request:

(Coded group text)

M2N DE B9V IMI AA 6 K

(4) Response:

(Coded group text)

B9V DE M2N

AA 6

BT

13/1745Z

K

Radio Teletypewriter Procedures

Teletypewriter Interrogation Procedures

1. There are five portions of a message in which the receiving operator will normally interrogate. Use the prosign INT followed by the item to be questioned. Interrogate on the basis of what you believe to be correct.

Examples:

(1) Questioning the date-time group.

B9V DE M2N INT 2122Ø5Z K

(2) Questioning the group count.

B9V DE M2N INT GR7 K

(3) Questioning words or groups in the text.

B9V DE M2N INT WA HILL CHARLIE K (Plain language text)

B9V DE M2N INT 9 XYZCP K (Coded text)

(4) Questioning the filing time.

B9V DE M2N INT 21/222ØZ K

2. When the item questioned is correct, the simple response is ______ DE ______ C K.

3. When the item questioned was interrogated incorrectly, the response must be ______ DE ______ C (with the correct version) K.

Example:

B9V DE M2N INT 9 XYZCP K (Group 9 interrogated incorrectly)

M2N DE B9V C 9 XYICB K

4. Interrogating the group count of a coded text message, the following separate steps must be taken if the group count is questioned incorrectly. Use sample message:

Sample Message

M2N

DE B9V NR1

GR6

BT

ASDFG UIOPL ERNBV ZASKQ HGKWE JIQOK

BT

K

Example:

B9V DE M2N INT GR6 K

M2N DE B9V C K

(Group count question correctly)

B9V DE M2N INT GR5 K

M2N DE B9V GR6 BT A U E Z H J BT K

Group count was questioned incorrectly. The automatic transmission reply discloses the correct groups are six (GR6) and requests the receiving operator to check each group received with the six letter in the automatic transmission to see which group was missed in receiving coded message. Finding out what group was missed, the receiving operator must request a repetition (IMI) for that group before receipting for message. (See Figure 5-1.)

Section III. Radiotelegraph Procedures

Code Characters

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Prosigns

a. Prosigns are one or more letters, characters, or combination thereof, used to facilitate communications by conveying, in a condensed standard form, certain frequently used orders, instructions, requests, and information relating to communications.

b. The following is a complete list of prosigns authorized for military use on radiotelegraph circuits. An overscore (a line over two or more letters) means the overscored letters are transmitted as a single character; that is, without a pause between letters.

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Operating Signals

a. Operating signals are three-letter signals used to expedite communications. They start with the letter Q or the letter Z and convey frequently used orders, requests, and information relating to communications. Examples are QSA, QSY, ZEV, and ZKJ.

(1) When preceded by the prosign INT, they form a request or ask a question; for example, INT QSA means what is the strength of my signal?

(2) When used alone, they convey an order or make a positive statement. When giving an answer, advice, or order, an operating signal may convey a different meaning by changing the suffix (using QSA); for example, the strength of your signal is--

QSA1 - scarcely perceptible
QSA2 - weak
QSA3 - fairly good
QSA4 - good
QSA5 - very good

b. More commonly used operating signals:

(1) QSY - Change to transmission on another frequency (or ___________________________________________________ frequency).

(2) QTR - Correct time is _____________________________ hours.

(3) ZDK - Following repetition of __________ is made in accordance with your request.

(4) ZEV - Message ________________________ is acknowledged.

(5) ZGE - Send your call sign( s) once (or __________ times) on this frequency.

(6) ZKA - I am the NCS on this frequency.

(7) ZKB - It is necessary to obtain the permission of the controlling station before transmitting messages.

(8) ZKD - Take control of net.

(9) ZKE - I report into circuit.

(10) ZKJ1 - Close down ________________ 2. I am closing down.

(11) ZNB - Authentication is ______________________________ .

(12) ZUE - Affirmative (yes).

(13) ZUG - Negative (no).

(14) ZUJ - Stand by.

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Opening a CW Net Using Authentication
(For digital tuning radio sets such as the AN/GRC-106 and AN/PRC-70/74)

NOTE: If circuit conditions warrant it (for example, weak or poor reception), the NCS may have call signs repeated twice. The operating signal ZGE2 will be used for this purpose.

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Tuning Station on a Net
(For continuous tuning radio sets such as the AN/GRC-19,
AN/GRC-46, and AN/GRC-26D)

(After a pause to allow stations to tune their equipment)

NET DE NCS ZGE2 __ Send your call sign ____ times)
Stations answer

NCS DE CALL SIGN CALL SIGN K (1ST SUB)

NCS DE CALL SIGN CALL SIGN K (2D SUB)

NCS DE CALL SIGN CALL SIGN K (3D SUB)

All stations on frequency except 3D SUB who is 4 kHz low, NCS transmits:

NOTE: After tuning is complete, NCS opens the net using authentication.

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Making a Free Net a Directed Net

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Making a Directed Net a Free Net

  

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Closing a CW Net Using Authentication

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Closing a CW Net Using Authentication
(When closing for a certain period of time)

NOTE: In CW operation, the response for authentication is repeated twice, as in ZNB ___ ___ .

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Radiotelegraph Message Format

All message PARTS and a majority of the COMPONENTS and ELEMENTS have a standard arrangement or sequential order of appearance. All format lines do not necessarily appear in every message, however, when used, they will be in the order shown.

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Radiotelegraph Message Repetition Procedures
(Identification of Parts or Portions of Messages)

The following rules for identifying the parts or portions of messages are to be followed:

a. The heading. Identify by--

  • All before prosign.
  • All after prosign.
  • Prosign to prosign.

b. Plain language text. Identify by--

  • BT to word.
  • Word to word.
  • Prosign WA and/or WB.
  • Prosign AA and/or AB.

NOTE: When a word appears more than once, that word used as an identity applies to the first appearance. Reference to subsequent appearance of the word must be further identified by means of adjacent words.

c. Coded groups. Identify by--

  • Group number individually.
  • Group number to group number.
  • All after group number.

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Repetition After Receipt

After receipt for a message has been obtained, all requests for repetition must be in the form of a new message.

REQUEST:

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Verification

a. Requests for verifications are initiated by addressee.

REQUEST

            W6C DE B6F J 241255Z NOV 83 K

b. After verifying with originator.

RESPONSE:

Radiotelegraph Procedures

Acknowledgements

a. Request for acknowledgement is initiated by originator addressee.

Example:

b. C2S receiving permission from the addressee to acknowledge the message transmits:

Section IV. NRI Calls

a. Calls originating from a telephone subscriber.

Example:

(1) Telephone subscriber rings switchboard.

(2) Switchboard operator connects operator jack to callers drop and answers with "SHAMROCK, may I help you?"

(3) TS --- "Give me SHAMROCK 134 please."

(4) SBO --- SHAMROCK connects plug from c

(5) NRI OP --- On handset. "SHAMROCK 134 may I help you?"

(6) TS --- "This is SHAMROCK 114 I would like to speak to SHAMROCK 106."

(7) NRI OP --- "SHAMROCK 114 I will call you back." Determines call sign and frequency of requested party from SOI and switches to that frequency.

(8) NRI OP --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 over."

(9) DS --- "W6T81 this is W6T46 over."

(10) NRI OP --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 call me on my frequency."

(11) DS --- "W6T81 this W6T46 roger out."

(DISTANT STATION AND NRI OPERATOR CHANGE TO THE NRI FREQUENCY.)

(12) DS --- "W6T81 this is W6T46 over."

(13) NRI OP --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 stand by for a call from W6T71 over."

(14) DS --- "W6T81 this is W6T46 roger out."

(NRI OPERATOR SWITCHES FUNCTION SWITCH TO TELEPHONE R POSITION MOMENTARILY TO RING SWITCHBOARD.)

(15) SBO --- "SHAMROCK, may I help you?"

(16) NRI OP --- "Give me SHAMROCK 114 please."

(17) SBO --- SHAMROCK connects plug from 134 to 114 and rings.

(18) TS --- "SHAMROCK 114 may I help you?"

(19) NRI OP --- "This is SHAMROCK 134. I have your call completed. Your call sign is W6T71. You will be speaking to W6T46. Use strict radiotelephone procedure at all times. Do you have any questions?"

(20) TS --- (yes or no. If any questions ask.)

(21) NRI OP --- (If there are questions answer them and ask "are there any other questions?" When the TS answers "no," continue call.)

(22) NRI OP --- "Wait 5 seconds then go ahead with your call." (Switch FUNCTION switch to radio T.)

(23) TS --- "W6T46 this is W6T71 over."

(24) DS --- "W6T71 this is W6T46 over."

(25) TS --- "W6T46 this is W6T71 roger out."

(WHEN CALL IS COMPLETED, NRI OPERATOR RINGS OFF SWITCHBOARD.)

b. Calls originating from a radio station.

(1) DS --- "W6T81 this is W6T46 over."

(2) NRI OP --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 over."

(3) DS --- "W6T81 this is W6T46 I would like to speak with W6T71 over".

(4) NRI --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 stand by out."

(5) NRI OP switches FUNCTION switch to TELEPHONE R and rings switchboard.

(6) SBO --- "SHAMROCK, may I help you?"

(7) NRI OP --- "Give me SHAMROCK 114 please."

(8) SBO --- Connects plug from 134 to 114 and rings.

(9) TS --- "SHAMROCK 114 may I help you?"

(10) NRI OP --- "This is SHAMROCK 134. Standby for an NRI call from SHAMROCK 106. Your call sign is W6T71. You will be speaking to W6T46. Use strict radiotelephone procedure at all times. Do you have any questions? Standby please."

(11) NRI OP --- If no questions switch FUNCTION switch to RADIO T.

(12) NRI OP --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 over."

(13) DS --- "W6T81 this is W6T46 over."

(14) NRI OP --- "W6T46 this is W6T81 I have your call completed. Go ahead with your call."

(15) DS --- "W6T71 this is W6T46 over."

(16) TS --- "W6T46 this is W6T71 over."

(17) DS --- "W6T71 this is W6T46 out."

(WHEN CALL IS COMPLETED, NRI OPERATOR RINGS OFF SWITCHBOARD.)

Section V. Operator Number Sheet and Circuit Log

Operator Number Sheet

Operator Number Sheet and Circuit Log

Circuit Log

Section VI. Electronic Warfare

Jamming

a. Spark jamming. Simplest and most easily produced of all jamming signals. To the operator, it sounds like a loud burst of noise of short duration and high intensity, usually repeated at a rapid rate. Because of the rapid repetition and time required for the receiver, earphones, and human ear to recover from the loud burst of noise, the spark jamming signal is very efficient.

b. Random noise jamming. Most effective and dangerous type of communications jamming, because the operator may mistake it for receiver or atmospheric noise and fail to report it. This jamming sounds like normal interference that is heard when the gain of the receiver is turned up high and the receiver is not tuned to a signal.

c. Sweep-through jamming. A signal that is swept back and forth across a frequency band at a relatively rapid rate. At low speeds, sweep-through jamming sounds like an outboard motor, and at high speeds it sounds like a piston aircraft engine.

d. Stepped tones jamming. Produced by three to five audio tones transmitted in a repeated increasing and a decreasing pitch. These tones sound like a Scottish bagpipe.

e. Random-keyed CW jamming. An unmodulated carrier used against radio facsimile and C W circuits. Automated equipment cannot distinguish the random dote and dashes from the desired message, and CW operators may even find it difficult or impossible to read.

f. Keyed CW jamming. Actual Morse code characters used primarily against radiotelegraph receiver which cannot distinguish between the jammed and the desired signal.

g. Beat tones jamming. Notes with continuous or varying pitch producing a howling sound. A loud, continuous, high-pitched CW tone is very disruptive on voice circuits and can also be very irritating to a radio operator.

h. Babbled-voice jamming. One form, called cocktail party, sounds like a crowd of people all talking at the same time. If the jamming signal's strength is greater than the desired message, it makes reception very difficult.

i. Recorded music jamming. May also be used to jam voice signals. This type of jamming may appear to be an ordinary broadcast being received on a harmonic to conceal the fact that it is deliberate.

Electronic Warfare

Implementing ECCM Procedures

1. Disconnect the receiving antenna to ensure the interference is coming from an external source. Electrical generators, overhead power lines and friendly equipment located nearby should be studied as possible causes of interference.

2. Follow antijamming (ECCM) measures:

a. Notify your immediate supervisor of suspected jamming. DO NOT INDICATE THAT YOU ARE BEING JAMMED OVER THE RADIO.

b. Reduce transmission speed (CW).

c. Remain calm and continue to operate.

d. Observe radio/net discipline.

e. Adjust fine tuning, gain (or volume) control, bandwidth selector, crystal filter and/or other controls peculiar to the equipment being used.

f. Increase transmitter power.

g. Reorient or resite your antenna or change antenna polarization.

h. Impose obstacles between your station antenna and the source of the jamming signals.

Electronic Warfare

MIJI Reporting

The radio operator must report all interference, whether jamming or natural interference, immediately to his communications supervisor. Any attempted or successful enemy deception should be reported immediately. The communications supervisor will send the report to higher headquarters for action. Jamming information should be recorded on the circuit log sheet to facilitate reporting. Information on jamming should be reported in the following format:

a. Initial MIJIFEEDER report. This is an abbreviated report containing only those items of information necessary to inform headquarters of the incident. The MIJIFEEDER report is submitted using the USMTF (JINTACCS) voice template (Figures 5-4 and 5-5). The MIJI report should be forwarded using the most secure means available. When transmitted over a nonsecure net, the report must be encrypted before transmittal.

(1) Line 1 - Unit Identification.

(2) Line 2 - Type of Interference.

(3) Line 3 - Location (Latitude/Longitude or UTM (Grid Coordinates)).

(4) Line 4 - Start Day-Time-Zone.

(5) Line 5 - End Day-Time-Zone.

(6) Line 6 - Operations/Equipment Affected.

(7) Line 7 - Frequency/Frequency Range.

(8) Line 8 - Narrative.

(9) Line 9 - Message Hour-Minute-Zone (When Required).

(10) Line 10 - Message Authentication IAW JTF Procedures.

b. The MIJIFEEDER record message report (MFRMR). This is a complete report of all the details of the incident. Due to the number of items that must be encrypted when the report is transmitted over a nonsecure circuit, the report should be delivered by messenger whenever possible. Either the operations officer, intelligence officer, or the electronic warfare officer is responsible for ensuring that a complete message report of the incident is submitted to the Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC) as soon as possible following the incident.

c. Reference material. Refer to AR 105-3, FM 24-33, and FM 24-35-1 for a more detailed treatment of MIJIFEEDER and MIJIFEEDER record message reports.

Section VII. Using the SOI

Encode and Decode Messages Using KTC-600
Tactical Operations Code

1. Encode messages (refer to SOI and KTC-600).

a. Write messages in plain text.

b. Turn to set page and locate set number for effective day.

c. Turn to encode page for effective set.

d. Locate word or phrase to be encoded.

NOTE: Words and phrases located alphabetically.

e. Identify the three letter code group located to left of word or phrase.

f. Write code group under applicable word or phrase until message is encoded.

2. Decode messages (refer to SOI and KTC-600).

a. Write down encoded messages.

b. Turn to decode page in effect for that day.

c. Locate code groups and write the word or phrase beneath applicable group.

Using the SOI

Encrypt/Decrypt Numbers and Grid Zones

For detailed instructions on encrypting/decrypting, see SOI KAV 1600 Supplement 2.

Using the SOI

Authentication Using KTC-1400D

Section VIII. World Time Zone Conversion Chart

a. A time conversion chart is used to convert local time in one zone to local time in any other zone. To construct your own time conversion chart, print the letter Z (Zulu), in the center of the next page in the space provided. However, any blank sheet of paper may be used for constructing your time conversion chart. To the right of the letter Z (Zulu), print the letters A (Alpha) through M (Mike), leaving out the letter J (Juliett). To the left of the letter Z (ZULU), print the letters N (November) through Y (Yankee). You now have the 25 time zone suffix letters in the order in which they represent the 25 world time zones. An easy rule to follow in constructing your own time conversion chart is: NZA (the three letters that appear in the center of your paper) and leave out the J (the letter of the alphabet that is not used). Just remember this simple rule: NZA AND LEAVE OUT THE J.

b. When using your time conversion chart, there are two easy rules to follow: First, you NEVER count the time zone in which you are located. Second, you add 1 hour for each time zone crossed when moving to your right, and you subtract 1 hour for each time zone crossed when moving to your left. In more simple terms, ADD when going to the RIGHT and SUBTRACT when going to the LEFT. For example, if you were stationed in C (Charlie) time zone and needed to convert to Z (Zulu) time, you would start with the letter C. Do not count the C for this is the zone in which you are stationed. Then count the B, A and Z zones to your left (three) and subtract 3 hours from your local time, and the result will be GCT or Z (ZULU) time. (See Figure 5-6.)

Section IX. United States Message Text Format

a. The USMTF (JINTACCS) Program provides a series of standard message formats for six discrete mission area segments. These segments are operations control, fire support air operations, intelligence, maritime operations, and combat service support. The major USMTF (JINTACCS) product line consists of the following:

  • Standardized voice message text formats.
  • Standardized record MTFs.
  • Standardized tactical digital information link message formats.
  • Standardized interface operating procedures.
  • Central data base system.

b. Voice messages are designed for ease of preparation and transmission. Operators fill in the appropriate blanks on the appropriate message template and then read the message over the radio or telephone. The receiver, knowing the format, can easily record the information. Voice messages are normally used when record traffic devices are inoperative or not available, or when the tactical situation does not allow adequate time for operators to format a record message.

c. Record messages are designed to be processed and transmitted by teletype, subscriber terminals, or computer terminals devices. Figure 5-7 shows a sample joint message form. They can be read manually and are machine (computer) processed. Machine processibility is an important characteristic of the USMTF (JINTACCS) record message because it minimizes human intervention.



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