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CHAPTER 5

MUNITIONS FOR HELICOPTER WEAPON SYSTEMS

The training munitions discussed in this chapter should be available through the logistical system. Combat, or service munitions, may not be found in a particular theater of operations. The theater command or, in some cases, a specific geographical area may require different types of munitions and/or different packaging configurations. Some Department of Defense ammunition codes are listed with the munitions that are described. Additional identification codes may be necessary to distinguish the type of munitions, series, warhead and fuze combinations, grouping sequence, packaging, package quantity, and availability. Any munitions that cannot be positively identified will not be loaded onto an aircraft, into a weapon, or into the feed system. All munitions must be identified at the ammunition supply or transfer point before receipt and distribution to the unit.

Section I. Linked Ammunition

5-1. 7.62 MILLIMETER FOR M60/M60D MACHINE GUN

    a. The 7.62 mm ammunition is percussion-primed; chamber pressure is 50,000 psi for both the ball and the tracer. Projectile weight varies from 142 grains (.32 ounce) for the tracer to 150 grains (.34 ounce) for the ball. Muzzle velocity averages 2,750 feet per second. Figure 5-1 shows all 7.62mm service and training ammunition described below.

      (1) Ball (M80 or M59). The M80 or M59 ball is intended for use against personnel and unarmored targets.

      (2) Tracer (M62). The M62 tracer permits observation of the projectile's trajectory to the point of tracer burnout or to the point of impact. It is also used for incendiary effect and signaling. Tracer burnout occurs at approximately 900 meters.

      (3) Armor piercing (M61). The M61 armor piercing projectile is used against light armor, concrete shelters, and similar bullet resistant targets. It is not intended for use in a training environment.

      (4) Frangible ball (M160). The M160 frangible ball can be used during initial training on the M60 machine gun. It can be fired on indoor ranges if the range is ventilated to prevent buildup of toxic "bullet dust".

      (5) Blank (M82). The M82 blank is used for training exercises in weapons equipped with blank firing adapters.

      (6) Dummy (M172). The M172 dummy is used for weapon loading practice and for testing the weapon mechanism.

Figure 5-1. 7.62mm munitions

    b. DODACs for 7.62 mm. DODACs of linked ammunition for the M60 and M60D machine guns are shown below. TM 43-0001-27 lists only one type of metallic link (M13) for all 7.62mm linked ammunition.

      1305-A143 M80 Ball, l00/linked belt.

      1305-A146 M62 Tracer, 100/linked belt

      1305-A131 M80 Ball and M62 tracer (4 to l mix), l00/ linked belt.

      1305-A147 M160 Ball, frangible, l00/linked belt.

      1305-A159 M172 Dummy, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A111 M82 Blank, l00/linked belt.

5-2. .50 CALIBER FOR OH-58D KIOWA WARRIOR

    a. The .50 caliber ammunition is percussion primed; chamber pressure is 52,000 psi for the tracer and 59,000 psi for armor piercing ammunition. Projectile weight varies from 619 grains (1.36 ounces) for the AP to 662 grains (1.45 ounces) for the ball. Muzzle velocities vary from 2,700 feet per second for the M1 tracer to 3,400 feet per second for the M23 incendiary. Neither armor piercing nor incendiary ammunition is intended for use in a training environment. Table 5-1 shows the approximate time of flight and approximate ballistic drop with the M33 ball. Figure 5-2 shows .50 caliber service and training ammunition described below.

Table 5-1. M33 projectile ballistic data

 

Range to Target
(meters)

Time of Flight
(seconds)

Ballistic Drop
(mils)

1,000

1.5

9

1,500

2.7

18

2,000

4.3

33

      (1) Ball (M2 and M33). The M2 ball and the M33 ball are intended for use against personnel and unarmored targets. Muzzle velocity of the M33 is approximately 2,910 feet per second; the M2 is 2,810 feet per second.

      (2) Tracer (M1, M10, and M17). The M1, M10, and M17 tracers permit visible observation of the in-flight path or trajectory to the point of impact. The M1 is limited to training use in CONUS. The M10 exhibits a trace from approximately 100 meters from the muzzle to approximately 1,600 meters from the muzzle.

      (3) Armor piercing (M2). M2 armor piercing ammunition is used against lightly armored or unarmored targets, concrete shelters, and similar bullet resistant targets.

      (4) Incendiary (M1 and M23). Impact with a hardened or armored target will cause incendiary composition to burst into flame and ignite flammable material. The incendiary charge of M1 is 34 grains; the M23 is 90 grains.

      (5) Armor piercing incendiary (M8). M8 armor piercing incendiary ammunition combines the function of the AP and incendiary bullet. The incendiary charge of the M8 is 15 grains.

      (6) Armor piercing incendiary tracer (M20). The M20 combines the functions of the AP and the incendiary and adds a tracer element. The incendiary charge is 27 grains.

      (7) Dummy (M2). The M2 dummy is used to practice loading and test the weapon's ammunition feed system and mechanical function.

      (8) Blank (M1 and M1A1). The M1 and M1A1 blanks are used to simulate firing in training exercises. The M1A1 is used with the M2 machine gun and the M19 blank firing adapter.

      (9) Target practice ball (M858) and plastic tracer (M860). The M858 ball and tracer are intended for scaled range training with the M2 machine gun. The maximum range of this ammunition is 700 meters. The tracer round provides trace from 20 to 150 meters. This target-practice ball and tracer round is constructed of molded, high density polyethylene plastic.

Figure 5-2. .50-caliber munitions

    b. DODACs for .50 caliber. DODACs for linked .50-caliber ammunition for the M2 machine gun are as follows:

      1305-A555 M33 Ball, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A572 M17 Tracer, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A557 M33 Ball / M17 Tracer (4 to 1 mix), 100/linked belt.

      1305-A576 M8 API / M20API-T (4 to l mix), l00/linked belt.

      1305-A543 M20 API-T, l00/linked belt.

      1305-A598 M1A1 Blank, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A602 M858 TP / M860 TP-T (4 to 1 mix), 100/linked belt.

NOTE: Only M2 and/or M9 closed loop links are used with the M2 machine gun.

5-3. 20-MILLIMETER FOR AH-1E/F

    a. Twenty millimeter ammunition is electrically primed; chamber pressure varies from 60,500 to 61,500 psi. Projectile weight of the M56 HEI round is 1,543 grains (3.5 ounces); other 20mm projectiles are of comparable weight. Muzzle velocity for the types of 20mm ammunition discussed below averages 3,380 feet per second. Types of 20mm munitions available are discussed below and shown in Figure 5-3.

      (1) Target practice M55A2. M55A2 TP ammunition is used for gunnery training and test firing in lieu of the service round. It has a hollow cavity projectile body without a fuze (inert). The nose of the round is constructed of aluminum and is swaged to the projectile body.

      (2) Target practice tracer M220. Except for the addition of a tracer element, the M220 TPT is very similar physically and ballistically to the M55A2. Tracer burnout usually occurs at a range of approximately 1,500 meters (100 meters).

      (3) High explosive incendiary M56A3/A4. Functioning with both explosive and incendiary effect, the M56A3/A4 HEI is intended for use against ground targets, including lightly armored vehicles. This thin walled, steel projectile can produce casualties to exposed personnel within 2-meter radius. It has a base plate that prevents ignition of the incendiary mixture by propellant gases. The M56A3/A4 is assembled with a single action M505A3 point detonating fuze. The explosive charge is 165 grains (.37 ounce); the incendiary charge is 20 grains. The HE mix and the incendiary mix are combined into one pellet in the A3 HEI.

      (4) Armor piercing incendiary M53. The M53 API is intended for use against lightly armored targets. It functions with a combined incendiary and has a penetrating effect. The body of the projectile is constructed of solid steel; the nose is constructed of an aluminum alloy. The incendiary charge is 65 grains (.14 ounce).

      (5) High explosive incendiary with tracer and self-destruct feature (M246/M246A1). The M246/M246A1 HEI-T-SD is intended for use against aerial targets. It has an HEI charge, a self-destruct relay charge, and a tracer element. It is assembled with an M505A3 point detonating fuze. The tracer burns for about 5 seconds whereupon the relay charge ignites and detonates the HEI charge. If impact with the target occurs before self-destruction, the PD fuze causes the HEI charge to detonate. The M246 has the HE and incendiary mix combined as one pellet; the M246A1 has the HE and incendiary charge loaded as separate pellets.

      (6) Dummy (M51A2/XM254). The M51A2 is an inert round of solid metal construction and is used for nonfiring system loading and system checkout. The XM254 is constructed of plastic. As with the M51A2, the M254 also reduces wear on gun components and feed mechanisms.

    b. Twenty millimeter fuze functioning and penetration are affected by velocity and angle of impact at all ranges, particularly at ranges in the upper one third of the 2,000 meter value. However, this depends on the type of target that is engaged. Rounds with an R50 value, a 50-percent chance penetrating rolled homogeneous armor at the given condition and range, are as follows:

      M56 HEI: .25 inch (6.3 mm), RHA at 60 degrees, obliquity at 221 meters; .50 inch (12.5 mm), RHA at 0 degrees, obliquity at 104 meters.

      M53 API: .25 inch (6.3 mm), RHA at 0 degrees, obliquity at 1,000 meters.

      M940 MPT-SD: .25 inch (6.3 mm), RHA at 60 degrees, obliquity at 940 meters; .50 inch (12.5 mm), RHA at 0 degrees, obliquity at 518 meters.

    For comparison, Table 5-2 shows the hull and turret thickness of some common armored vehicles.

Figure 5-3. 20mm munitions

Table 5-2. Hull and turret thickness of selected vehicles

Vehicle

Thickness of Hull

Thickness of Turret

BTR-70

.40 inches

10 mm

.28 inches

7 mm

BRDM 2

.56 inches

14 mm

.28 inches

7 mm

BMP

.76 inches

19 mm

.92 inches

23 mm

BMD

.60 inches

15 mm

1.0 inch

25 mm

ZSU 23-4

.37 inches

9 mm

.35 inches

9 mm

NOTE: Rechambering live ammunition is prohibited. The chambering action could loosen the projectile in the cartridge case and break the waterproof seal. A broken seal could contaminate the propellant and primer and cause a misfire or hangfire.

    c. Table 5-3 shows the approximate time of flight and approximate ballistic drop with 20mm ammunition.

Table 5-3. Approximate time of flight/ballistic drop 20mm,

M56 HEI fired from hover.

Range to Target
(meters)

Time of Flight
(seconds)

Ballistic drop
(mils)

1,000

1.5

9

1,500

3

21

2,000

5

42

    d. DODACs FOR 20mm. DODACs for linked 20mm ammunition for the M197 cannon are as follows:

      1305-A896 M55A2/M220 TP/TP-T (4 to 1 mix), 100/linked belt.

      1305-A652 M220 TP-T, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A918 M53 API, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A563 M56/M220 HEI/TP-T (4 to 1 mix), 100/ linked belt.

      1305-A655 M56/M220 HEI/TP-T (7 to 1 mix), 100/ linked belt.

      1305-A792 M246A1 HEI-T-SD, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A919 M56A4 HEI, 100/linked belt.

      1305-A781 M51A2 Dummy, 100/linked belt.

NOTE: The M197 cannon and feed system requires M14A2 linked 20mm ammunition.

5-4. 30 MILLIMETER FOR THE AH-64 M230 CANNON

The 30mm ammunition for the M230 cannon is electrically primed; chamber pressure has been measured at 40,600 to 44,950 psi. Muzzle velocity is 2,640 feet per second for both the TP and HEDP. Table 5-4 shows the approximate times of flight and approximate ballistic drop of the 30mm projectile. Types of 30mm munitions available are discussed below and shown in Figure 5-4.

    a. Target Practice M788. The M788 TP is an inert projectile without a fuze and is used for gunnery training in lieu of service ammunition. Its three-piece assembly consists of a steel body with a cavity, a rotating band, and an aluminum nose. The cartridge case is aluminum. This round serves no other purpose than for target impact or penetration.

    b. High Explosive, Dual Purpose M789. The M789 HEDP is an antimateriel and antipersonnel round. The projectile body is steel and is loaded with a 340 grain (.76 ounce) explosive charge and a spin compensated shaped charge liner that has a PD (M759) fuze. The cartridge case is aluminum. The fuze arms while the projectile is in flight and initiates the projectile's explosive filler upon impact. The shaped charge liner collapses with detonation that creates an armor piercing jet. Fragmentation of the projectile body also occurs that can produce antipersonnel effects within a 4-meter radius. Estimated penetration performance was interpolated from a graph contained in a gun system effectiveness report. This report reflected penetration in excess of 2.0 inches (50 mm) RHA at 2,500 meters.

    c. Dummy (M848). The M848 dummy is used for function checks of the weapon mechanism and to test the linking and delinking operations. It is an inert cartridge with an anodized aluminum case and a modified TP projectile. The primer and the propellant are replaced on the M848 with a threaded steel bolt to maintain the same weight as the TP round.

Table 5-4. Approximate time for flight and approximate ballistic drop

for 30mm ammunition (HE fired from hover)

Range to Target
(meters)

Time of Flight
(seconds)

Ballistic drop
(mils)

1,000

2

15

1,500

3.7

32

2,000

5.8

60

2,500

8.6

100

3,000

12.2

160

Figure 5-4. 30mm munitions

    d. DODACs for 30mm. DODACs for linked 30mm ammunition for the M230 cannon are as follows:

      1305-B120 M788 TP, 72 rounds linked.

      1305-B118 M788 TP, 11 round carton pack.

      1305-B130 M789 HEDP, 72 rounds linked.

      1305-B129 M789 HEDP, 11 round carton pack.

      1305-B134 M848 Dummy, 72 rounds linked.

      1305-B133 M848 Dummy, 11 round carton pack.

Section II. Rockets

5-5. 2.75-INCH ROCKETS

    a. Hydra 70 is the name associated with the family of 2.75-inch (70 millimeter) rockets. Hydra 70 refers to the Mark 66 rocket motor with any warhead/fuze combination. The MK 66 rocket motor was designed to provide a common 2.75-inch rocket for helicopters and high-performance aircraft. Compared to the MK 40 motor, it has a longer tube, an improved double base solid propellant, and a different nozzle and fin assembly. Increased velocity and spin provide improved trajectory stability for better accuracy. The launch signature and smoke trail have been significantly reduced. The MK 66 Mod 1 is not hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance safe. It can be inadvertently ignited by electromagnetic radiation, especially by radio frequencies found aboard Navy ships. Both the Mod 2 and Mod 3 have HERO filters, and the Mod 2 filter may prevent the AH-1 rocket management system from inventorying. The Mod 1 is the standard motor for Army use as will be the Mod 3 when it is fielded. Figure 5-5 shows the M66 rocket motor.

    b. MK 40 rocket motors are no longer produced for the Army. Inventories for training were expected to be exhausted in FY 93. An unknown quantity are held in war reserve stockage. Table 5-5 shows rocket motor comparison data extracted from TM 43-0001-30.

    c. M260 and M261 launchers are required to fire the MK 66 rocket. They have reduced system weight and provide remote set fuze interface capabilities. The M158A1 and M200 launchers are not compatible with the MK 66 rocket motor.

Figure 5-5. MK 66 rocket motors

Table 5-5. Rocket motor comparison data

CHARACTERISTIC

MK 66

MK 40

Length without warhead

41.7 inches

39.3 inches

Weight before firing

13.6 lbs.

11.0 lbs

Motor burn time (77F)

1.05 - 1.1 sec.

1.55 - 1.69 sec.

Average thrust

1,300-1370 lbs.

720 lbs.

Average spin rate

9 - 10 rps

1 rps

Motor burn out

1280 feet (397 m)

1460 feet (445 m)

Velocity at motor burnout

2425 fps

1965 fps

Maximum range at QE 43
degrees (MPSM warhead
ground launch)

10,425 meters

8,080 meters

5-6. ROCKET WARHEADS (TACTICAL AND TRAINING)

    a. M151 High Explosive. The M151 HE is an antipersonnel, antimateriel warhead and is traditionally referred to as the "10 Pounder." The bursting radius is 10 meters; however, high velocity fragments can produce a lethality radius in excess of 50 meters. The nose section is constructed of malleable cast iron that is threaded to receive the fuze. The base section is constructed of steel or cast iron and is threaded so that it can be attached to the rocket motor. The base section and the nose section are welded (brazed) together. Total weight of the loaded, unfuzed, warhead is 8.7 pounds, of which 2.3 pounds is composition B4. The M151 can be used M423, M429, and M433 fuzes.

    b. M274 Smoke Signature (Training). This training rocket provides a ballistic match for the M151 HE warhead. The casing is a modified WTU-1/B with vent holes or blowout plugs. A modified M423 fuze mechanism is integral to the warhead. A cylindrical cartridge assembly is in the forward section of the casing; it contains approximately 2 ounces of potassium perchlorate and aluminum powder that provides a "flash, bang, and smoke" signature. The M274 weighs 9.3 pounds.

    c. M261 High-Explosive Multipurpose Submunition.

      (1) The MPSM warhead provides improved lethality against light armor, wheeled vehicles, materiel, and personnel. It has a plastic nose cone assembly, an aluminum warhead case, an integral fuze, an expulsion charge, and nine M73 submunitions. The primary warhead fuze, M439, is remotely set with the ARCS, MFD, or RMS to provide range settings (time of flight) from 500 meters to approximately 7,000 meters. On the AH-1, the RMS is programmable only from 700 meters to 6,900 meters.

      (2) Initial forward motion of the rocket fuze timing. The expulsion charge is initiated at a point before and above the target, approximately 150 meters, depending on the launch angle. The submunitions are separated by ejection, and arming occurs when the ram air declarator deploys. The RAD virtually stops forward velocity and stabilizes the descent of the submunition. An M230 omnidirectional fuze with an M55 detonator is used on each submunition and is designed to function regardless of the impact angle.

      (3) Each submunition has a steel body that has a 3.2-ounce shaped charge of composition B for armor penetration. The submunition is internally scored to optimize fragments against personnel and materiel. Upon detonation, the shaped charge penetrates in line with its axis and the submunition body explodes into high velocity fragments (approximately 195 at 10 grains each up to 5,000 feet per second) to defeat soft targets. The fuzed weight of the M261 is 13.6 pounds.

        (a) Approximate target area coverage. Figure 5-6 shows the approximate target area coverage of one M261 warhead. At shorter ranges, the RAD takes longer to overcome momentum, increasing dispersion. As range increases, the rocket loses momentum, increasing the effectiveness of the RAD. This increased effectiveness reduces submunition drift and ground dispersion. Forestation, other vegetation, and natural or man-made structures within the target area may cause the submunition to detonate or land in a dispersion pattern other than the one shown in Figure 5-6.

        (b) Probability of impact angle. Aerodynamic forces affecting submunitions during vertical descent may prevent them from landing upright (0 degrees off center). Sixty-six percent of the time a submunition will land 5 degrees off center; 33 percent of the time a submunition will land 30 degrees off center.

        (c) MPSM lethality potential. Each M73 HE submunition has a shaped charge that can penetrate in excess of 4 inches of armor. A submunition that lands 5 degrees off center has a 90-percent probability of producing casualties against prone, exposed personnel, within a 20-meter radius. A submunition landing 30 degrees off center has a 90-percent probability of producing casualties within a 5 meter radius.

Figure 5-6. Approximate target coverage of one M261 warhead

    d. M267 MPSM Smoke Signature (Training). The M267 MPSM training warhead operationally, physically, and ballistically matches the M261. Three M75 practice submunitions and six inert submunition load simulators take the place of the nine HE submunitions in the M261 warhead. Each practice submunition contains approximately 1 ounce of pyrotechnic powder. An M231 fuze with an M55 detonator is used with practice submunitions.

    e. M257 Illumination. The M257 illumination warhead provides one million candlepower for 100 seconds or more. It can illuminate an area in excess of 1 square kilometer at optimum height. A deployed main parachute descent is approximately 15 feet per second. An M442 integral fuze provides a standoff range of approximately 3,000 meters with the MK 40 motor and approximately 3,500 meters with the MK 66 motor. The weight of the M257 is 10.8 pounds, of which 5.4 pounds is magnesium sodium nitrate.

    f. M229 High-Explosive. The M229 HE warhead is currently in the inventory. An elongated version of the M151, it is commonly referred to as the "17 Pounder." The M229 filler consists of 4.8 pounds of composition B4 and has the same fuzes as the M151. Its unfuzed weight is 16.4 pounds.

    g. M156 White Phosphorous (Smoke). The M156 is primarily used for target marking and incendiary purposes. It ballistically matches the M151 and is of similar construction. Filler for the M156 is 2.2 pounds of WP with a .12-pound bursting charge of composition B. The approximate weight of the fuzed warhead is 9.7 pounds. The M156 uses M423 and M429 fuzes.

    h. M247 High-Explosive. The M247 is no longer in production; however, some of these warheads may still be found in war reserve stockage. With a shape charge for an antiarmor capability, the M247 employs a cone shaped charge like that of the M72 LAW. The point initiated detonating fuze (M438) is an integral part of the warhead. The weight of the M247 is 8.8 pounds, of which 2.0 pounds is composition B.

    i. M255E1 Flechette. The M255E1 flechette warhead, which contains approximately 1,180 60-grain hardened steel flechettes, is in limited production. It is designed for use with the M439 fuze and has possible air-to-air as well as air-to-ground application. Figure 5-7 shows all current production warheads.

Figure 5-7. 70mm warheads in production

5-7. FUZES

    a. M423 Point Detonating. The M423 PD is an oblique sensitive, point-detonating, superquick fuze used as a common component with the M151. The safety and arming device forward of the booster housing (explosive charge) contains an unbalanced rotor. Upon acceleration of the rocket at firing, a weight setback occurs in the unbalanced rotor assembly which houses the primer and detonator. This setback places the fuze into an armed condition when the rocket has traveled approximately 43 to 92 meters from the launcher.

    b. M429 Proximity. Currently in inventory, the M429 proximity fuze is a transistorized, continuous wave, doppler device that provides air burst functioning for improved antipersonnel effectiveness. The arming mechanism of the M429 is similar to the one in the M423 except that it has been modified to include a battery and an electric detonator. Once it is armed and the reflected signals reach a specific intensity, the firing circuit is initiated through a capacitor to the electric detonator that provides the air burst function. A superquick impact switch serves as a backup to the air burst electronics. (WARNING: Multiple firing of rockets with this fuze is not permitted [no pairs, no salvos, or ripple fire]. Fire in single rocket mode only. Radio frequency interference between fuzes can cause premature functioning.)

    c. M433 Resistance Capacitance. The M433 RC is a nose mounted, multioption, time delay fuze with selectable functioning modes. A superquick setting is used for open terrain; a forest penetration mode permits a selectable time delay range (10 to 45 meters in 5-meter increments) set for the height of the forest canopy. After first contact with the forest canopy, a delay timer is activated to provide warhead functioning. The bunker or building penetration mode provides up to 10 feet of penetration before detonation. The target penetration RC timer is activated by a point mounted probe switch that is initiated by target contact. An umbilical assembly is positioned on the nose of the fuze for interface through the launcher and RMS or ARCS and the aircraft. When the trigger is pulled, aircraft voltage is supplied to the fuze and the time delay is initiated as selected by the pilot.

    d. M439 Resistance Capacitance. The M439 RC is a base mounted, electronic variable, time delay fuze with an RC delay circuit. Designed for cargo and flechette warheads, the M439 allows the pilot to remotely set the fuze for air burst functioning at the desired range from 500 to 7,200 meters. A fuze capacitor is charged by the RMS, ARCS, or MFD through an umbilical assembly. The fuze has no internal battery, and the required voltage is supplied by the aircraft through the remote set fuze subsystem. When the rocket is fired and normal acceleration occurs, the fuze is armed and timing starts. If the fuze is set but the rocket motor fails to fire, the rocket should not be loaded into another tube and fired. When the fuze is set a second time, it will function longer than the set time and should not be used for accurate measurement until 10 days has elapsed before resetting it. The detonator is initiated electrically, depending on the range setting (time of flight), and ignites the expelling charge. Figure 5-8 shows production fuzes.

    e. M422/M446 Fuzes. The M442 and M446 fuzes are base mounted, air burst, motor burnout delayed fuzes. They are integral fuzes used with the M257 illumination and M259 WP smoke rockets, respectively.

Figure 5-8. 70mm fuzes

    f. DODACs for Rockets. DODACs for rockets (complete round with MK 66 motors) are listed in Table 5-6 :

Table 5-6. DODIC/NSN cross reference for select HYDRA-70,

2.75-inch rocket items

COMPLETE ROUNDS
DODIC

NSN

CONFIGURATION

PACK

H154

1340-01-371-8611

M278/M442/MK66-2

6

H165

1340-01-269-1447

M261/M439/MK66-3

4

H181

1340=01-249-7721

M257/M442/MK66-1

3

H182

1340-01-249-7720

M257/M442/MK66-2

3

H183

1340-01-268-7175

M257/M442/MK66-3

3

H184

1340-01-289-4719

M264/M439/MK66-3

4

H462

1340-01-309-5799

M255/M439/MK66-3

4

H463

1340-01-108-8849

M267/M439/MK66-1

4

H464

1340-01-108-8850

M261/M439/MK66-1

4

H582

1340-01-269-9122

M151/M433/MK66-3

4

H583

1340-01-269-9123

M151/M423/MK66-3

4

H642

1340-01-309-8300

M229/M423/MK66-2

4

H973

1340-01-238-2068

M274/ N/A /MK66-2

4

H972

1340-01-238-2067

M274/ N/A /MK66-1

4

H974

1340-01-268-7174

M267/M439/MK66-3

4

H975

1340-01-269-1446

M274/ N/A /MK66-3

4

H163

1340-01-108-8851

M151/M423/MK66-1

4

H164

1340-01-110-2672

M151/M433/MK66-1

4

NOTE: Due to the various models of rockets, warheads, and fuze combinations possible and the number of those that are undergoing classification or awaiting production contracts, a comprehensive list is not possible. TM 43-0001-30 gives additional information on rockets and rocket systems, fuzes, and motors. To obtain additional information about the Hydra 70, 2.75-inch rocket, write the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command, ATTN: AMSMC-ASH, Rock Island, IL 61299-6000.

Section III. Missiles

5-8. MISSILE CONFIGURATIONS

The Hellfire surface attack guided missile is currently available in three configurations: dummy, training, and tactical. All Hellfire missiles are 7 inches in diameter, and have a wingspan of 13 inches. The missile weighs 99.5 pounds and is 64 inches long except for the AGM-114F that is 7 pounds heavier and 7 inches longer. Color codes and data markings for the Hellfire missile are as follows:

    The basic color of missile is black.

    Data markings are olive drab.

    Markings on the aft end are four brown 3-inch squares 90 degrees apart (brown means solid propellent).

    Markings on the end of the warhead are four yellow 3-inch squares 90 degrees apart (yellow means HE).

    The basic color of container is olive drab.

    a. Dummy Missiles. The M34 dummy missile has the same physical characteristics as the tactical missile. It is used to train armament personnel in loading and unloading and to simulate aircraft missile loads for training flights.

    b. Training Missiles. The M36 training missile is used for captive flight training and cannot be launched. It has an operational laser seeker that can search for and lock on laser energy. The M36 has the same physical characteristics as the tactical missile but contains no explosives. It requires the same handling as a live tactical missile.

NOTE: If a training missile is on a launcher rail, live missiles cannot be launched.

    c. Tactical Missiles.

      (1) The AGM-114A tactical missile, DODAC number 1410-PA79, is the originally designed Hellfire missile, which will no longer be purchased by the Army. AGM-114As in the inventory are released for live-fire training when they are replaced with AGM-114Cs.

      (2) The AGM-114C missile, DODAC number 1410-PD68, has an improved semiactive laser seeker with an improved low visibility capability. The AGM-114C has a low smoke motor and a lower trajectory than the 114A. Army missiles should be marked with either the A or C designation just behind the seeker.

      (3) The AGM-114B, DODAC number 1410-PC9l, although primarily designed for Navy use, can be fired from Army aircraft. This missile has an additional electronic arm/safety device required for shipboard use.

      (4) The AGM-114F missile features two warheads, a seeker and an autopilot similar to the C-model missile. The 114F is designed to defeat vehicles equipped with reactive armor.

      (5) The AGM-114K missile features dual warheads for defeating reactive armor, electro-optical countermeasures hardening, semiactive laser seeker, and a programmable autopilot for trajectory shaping. The AGM-114K missile is capable of operating with either pulsed radar frequency or A-Code laser codes for those aircraft equipped with dual code capability.

NOTE: When A-Code is used with the AGM-114K, the missile counter-counter measure switch should remain OFF for both electronic counter measure and non-ECM environments. This procedure is not applicable if PRF coding is used.

      (6) For antiarmor roles, the AGM-114 missile has a conical shaped charge warhead with a copper liner cone that forms the jet that provides armor penetration. This high explosive, antitank warhead is effective against various types of armor including appliqué and reactive. Actual penetration performance is classified. It can also be employed against concrete bunkers and similar fortifications.

      (7) The tactical missiles are propelled by a single stage, single thrust, solid propellant motor. When thrust exceeds 500 to 600 pounds, the missile leaves the rail. Based on a 10g acceleration parameter, arming occurs between 150 to 300 meters after launch. Maximum velocity of the missile is 950 miles per hour. Figure 5-9 shows the Hellfire missile profile.

Figure 5-9. Hellfire profile

5-9. MISSILE PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES

    a. Maximum Standoff Range. Maximum standoff range is a function of missile performance, launch platform altitude versus target altitude, visibility and cloud cover. The effects of minimum cloud ceilings on maximum standoff ranges for all lock on before launch shots are shown in Figure 5-10. The minimum cloud ceiling on lock on after launch modes are shown in Figure 5-11.

      (1) Autonomous. The target should be designated by the launching aircraft when the aircraft can fire from a position close enough to the target to ensure accurate designation without extensive exposure of the launching aircraft to the enemy threat. On a clear day, target designation is limited by the capability of the designator to maintain the total laser spot on the target. Table 5-7 shows Hellfire laser designation times.

Table 5-7. HELLFIRE Designation Times

Range
(meters)

Max
Delay
Time
(sec)

Offset
Lasing
Time
(sec)

Transition
Time
(sec)

On
Target
Time
(sec)

Total
Lasing
Time
(sec)

Temp (OC) and Approximate
TOF (sec)

-32O     +21O       +52O

2000

2*

0

0

4

4

7

6

6

3000

2*

0

2

6

8

11

10

10

4000

5

1

2

6

9

15

14

13

5000

7

3

2

6

11

21

18

17

6000

10

5

2

6

13

28

23

22

7000

12

8

2

7

17

36

29

27

8000**

15

12

2

8

22

45

37

34

All times are from missile separation. Add an additional second for time from trigger pull.

* This is also the minimum time.

** Indirect only.

      (2) Remote. Remote designation allows the launch aircraft to stand off at greater distances from the target. This standoff range can be out to the maximum missile effective engagement range. Remote designation also allows the launch aircraft to be masked from the target using the LOAL-LO or LOAL-HI launch mode (Figure 5-12). Remote designation also allows a single aircraft to provide the weapons for several designators. Remote designators may include another aircraft, a ground or vehicle laser locator designator, or one of the various designators of other services or foreign allies. Remote designators must be within their maximum designation range from the target, as determined by their laser beam divergence and aiming errors (jitter and boresight). Range to target can vary from one type of designator to another.

Figure 5-10. Minimum Cloud Ceiling - LOBL

Figure 5-11. Minimum Cloud Ceiling - LOAL

Figure 5-12. Maximum Designator Offset Angle

    b. Remote Designator Location Offset. When the remote designator is located in an offset position in azimuth from the launch aircraft, care must be taken to ensure that the laser spot is on a section of the target that is visible to the missile. The remote designator should not be displaced more than 60 degrees in azimuth from the launch aircraft to the target line.

    c. Remote Designator Safety Zone. The remote designator should ensure that the designation position is not inside the 20 degrees designator avoidance area (Figure 5-13). If the designating aircraft is unable to designate outside of the avoidance area, the minimum laser delay time must be accurately computed and utilized. The difference in time of flight for a missile launched form the designator's position and the launching platform site is the minimum delay that must be adhered to. Follow the guidelines shown in Figure 5-13.

    d. Minimum Engagement Range. Due to the Hellfire missile's trajectory shaping and seeker scan pattern during LOAL mode, it will be necessary to increase the minimum engagement ranges as the launch altitude increases above the target altitude. As launch altitude increases the missiles ability to see the target at shorter ranges decreases. The minimum LOAL engagement ranges shown in Table 5-8 are for launch altitudes less than 50 feet above target altitude. Increase these minimum ranges by 0.5 KM for altitudes of 50-400 feet and by 1.0 KM for altitudes 401-800 feet above the target. Minimum LOBL target engagement ranges are shown in Table 5-9. Maximum missile altitude is shown in Table 5-10.

Figure 5-13. Designator avoidance area

Table 5-8. Minimum LOAL target engagement range

MISSILE

AZIMUTH
TARGET
OFFSET
(degrees)

MINIMUM LOAL ENGAGEMENT RANGE
(KM)
LAUNCH ALTITUDE < 50' ABOVE TARGET ALTITUDE

    LOAL - DIR                  LOAL - LO                    LOAL - HI

AGM-114A

0O

7.5O

2.0

2.5

2.0

3.0

3.5

4.5

AGM-114C

0O

7.5O

2.0

2.5

2.0

3.0

3.5

4.5

AGM-114F

0O

7.5O

2.0

2.5

2.5

3.5

3.5

4.5

AGM-114K

0O

7.5O

1.5

1.7

2.0

2.5

3.5

3.5

50' - 400' Increase minimum range by 0.5 KM.

401' - 800' Increase minimum range by 1.0 KM.

Table 5-9. Minimum LOBL target engagement range.

MISSILE

MINIMUM RANGE (KM)

0O Target Offset in Azimuth

MINIMUM RANGE (KM)

20O Target Offset in Azimuth

AGM-114A

0.8

1.2

AGM-114C

0.8

1.2

AGM-114F

1.4

1.5

AGM-114K

0.5

0.7

Table 5-10. Maximum Missile Altitude

MODE

LOBL

LOAL-DIR

LOAL-LO

LOAL-HI

TARGET RANGE (KM)

3

5

7

7

8

8

LASER DELAY (SEC)

0

0

0

2

12

4

15

4

15

MISSILE TYPE

MAXIMUM MISSILE ALTITUDE INCLUDING

RANDOM TRAJECTORY (FEET)

AGM-114A

400

1000

1700

1700

1000

1900

1400

2300

2200

AGM-114C

500

1100

1800

1200

500

1500

900

1800

1500

AGM-114F

400

1000

1700

1200

300

1300

700

1600

1300

AGM-114K

400

600

700

600

500

900

800

1500

1500

5-10. MISSILE PERFORMANCE DISTRACTERS

    a. Backscatter Backscatter is a term that applies to a portion of the laser beam energy reflected off atmospheric particles in the laser path back towards the designator while the remainder of the laser energy penetrates toward the target. Backscatter occurs even in clear weather so the operator must rely upon LOBL constraints box to know if the seeker is tracking backscatter. Obscurants in the laser-to-target line of sight can also cause backscatter (fog, haze, snow, smoke, dust, etc.). If a target return is not detected then the seeker may track the backscatter return. If the seeker is tracking backscatter, the seeker LOS and the designator LOS will differ by more than 2 degrees and the LOBL constraints box will be dashed.

      (1) If an obscurant is between the designator and the target, it is possible for the seeker to lock on the reflected laser energy from the obscurant and "walk up" the laser beam toward the aircraft. When the seeker LOS is 2 degrees from the designator LOS and the seeker is locked on the autonomous laser spot, the symbology will indicate "OUT OF CONSTRAINTS."

NOTE: This symbology is only correct in this case if the aircraft is pointing directly at the target.

      (2) Backscatter is best controlled by maintaining the true target in the seeker's instantaneous field-of-view. The seeker generally does not track backscatter after track has been established on the true target. Backscatter tracking is more likely to occur with autonomous lasing than with remote lasing because of the proximity of the seeker to the laser beam on the launch aircraft. Backscatter affects LOBL autonomous but can also affect LOAL autonomous if the designation commences before the missile has time to climb above and away from the laser beam.

    b. Backscatter Avoidance Techniques.

      (1) To eliminate a backscatter lock-on, lasing the target should be discontinued for a short period of time and the target redesignated. If a backscatter problem still exists, it may be necessary to discontinue lasing, move to another position, and redesignate the target.

      (2) If the launching aircraft is designating the target and autonomous operation is properly set up, one seeker will be slaved to the designator LOS, such as pointed at the target when designator is tracking the target. This condition will generally result in proper seeker lock-on to the target. However, under some conditions that fail to produce a detectable target return, the seeker will lock onto the laser backscatter close to the aircraft. Generally, backcatter is caused by poor target reflectivity, collocated obscurants, or excessive designation ranges. If backscatter occurs, the seeker LOS will diverge from the designator LOS by two or more degrees, the LOBL constraints symbology will indicate "OUT-OF-CONSTRAINTS" and the missile should not be launched.

NOTE: If primary channel track is achieved and the symbology indicates "OUT-OF-CONSTRAINTS", the missile cannot be launched by pulling the trigger to the first detent but can be launched by pulling the trigger to the second detent. The missile should not be launched by pulling the trigger to the second detent when "OUT-OF-CONSTRAINTS" is indicated, because it will result in a low probability of hitting the target. If the LOBL constraints box is intermittently switching "in-and-out" of constraints, then a marginal target condition exists and the missile should not be launched.

      (3) To eliminate a backscatter lock-on, stop lasing the target. Switch to LOAL-Direct and use a minimum of 2 seconds of delayed designation from separation (3 seconds from trigger pull).

      (4) If time permits, an attempt to improve the target return could be made by reducing engagement range, improving aim point or employing offset designation onto the higher reflective terrain near the target. The laser must be turned off before the reengagement of any target to allow the seeker to unlock from the backscatter.

      (5) It is possible for the seeker to switch to tracking backscatter during the first second after missile separation in the LOBL autonomous mode if the target return is lost before the missile has climbed above the laser beam. This condition can be created by image auto track break lock due to motor smoke in the TADS LOS. The aircraft should be rotated 3 - 5 degrees in the direction of the missile to be launched to ensure that the missile does not fly across the TADS LOS and create an IAT breaklock or degrade the TADS imagery.

    c. Rules for Operation in Obscurants. Performance is reduced when obscurants degrade the seeker's lock-on range. The following rules indicate how to determine if the situation supports a missile launch.

      (1) The designator operator must have a clear enough image of the target for accurate placement of the laser spot on the target without overspill or underspill.

      (2) When the launch aircraft has a line-of-sight to the target, it must have a sufficient image in its day television or forward looking infared so that the general shape of the target is recognizable. If the launch aircraft is masked, the designating aircraft must have a sufficient image in its DTV or FLIR for the aircrew to recognize the general shape of the target. Otherwise, the seeker will probably not achieve a lock-on, even after launch.

      (3) Laser range finder readings should be taken by the designating aircraft and the missile not launched until steady, plausible range readings are indicated. Erratic range readings are generally caused by smoke or dust near the target. The same erratic readings could also be caused by overspill or underspill onto foreground or background objects. If accurate designation does not fix the problem, then the only solution is to change to a different designator, a different target, or relocate the designator aircraft.

      (4) For LOBL autonomous launches, constraints symbology must show "in constraints." Otherwise, the seeker is not tracking the true target.

    d. Target Illumination.

      (1) Only the target is illuminated by the laser spot. When the missile is in its last few seconds of flight before impact, the entire laser spot must be placed on the target. During the final few seconds of flight, even a momentary placement of laser energy on adjacent terrain can prevent the missile from hitting the target. Once the seeker is tracking, the designator should not be turned off before all in-flight missiles have impacted. The seeker will not initiate box scan once the laser energy is lost.

      (2) The portion of the target that is illuminated must be "seen" by the missile. This requirement imposes a 60-degree limit on the angle between the gun target line and the remote designator-to-target line. The probability of killing a target depends on missile flight path at impact and target attack azimuth but generally is maximized if the laser spot can be held stable on the base of the tank turret.

        (a) Boresight error. Boresight error occurs when the laser spot is not properly aligned with the TADS reticle, which produces an error in the location of the spot on the target.

        (b) Spot jitter. Spot jitter is the result of motion of the designator or the beam developed by the designator around the intended aim point. Spot jitter can give the laser spot a bouncing movement on the target, which will increase with designator distance from the target.

        (c) Beam divergence. The further the laser designator is from the target, the wider the spot will be on the target. The amount of beam divergence will vary between different types of designators.

        (d) Attenuation. Attenuation is a portion of the laser beam that is "scattered" by obscurants along the laser-to-target LOS and the missile-to-target LOS resulting in a reduced target pulse to the seeker. Also, low visibility attenuates the target return to the seeker. If the attenuation is severe, the seeker will not detect the laser energy from the target.

        (e) Overspill. Overspill is caused by placing the laser spot too high on the target so that beam divergence and jitter cause the spot or a portion of the spot to spill over onto the object or the terrain behind the target. Overspill can cause intermittent background false targets, which become more severe at long designation ranges.

        (f) Underspill. Underspill is caused by placing the laser spot too low on the target so that the spot or a portion of the spot spills onto the foreground. Underspill can cause foreground false targets, which become more severe at long designation ranges.

NOTE: Even a small number of overspilled or underspilled laser pulses can cause the missile to follow false signals. If either of these conditions occur just before missile impact, the probability of hit is seriously degraded.

      (3) The missile can operate with several different designators and operating modes to assure that a designator is available that can meet the above illumination requirements. The selection of designator equipment and the mode must be based on the specific mission, enemy, troops, terrain, and time factors for the particular engagement. The following are suggested guidelines.

5-11. TOW MISSILE

    a. The TOW surface attack guided missile is an antitank weapon that may also be used against bunkers and similar fortifications, depending on the tactical situation.

      (1) When the trigger is pulled, three batteries are activated that provide power to the electronics, the Xenon or thermal beacon, and the actuator subsystem. When the missile is fired, the launch motor develops initial thrust to accelerate the missile to approximately 250 feet per second when it exits the tube. The wings on the missile extend as it exits the tube and completes the circuit to activate the flight motor about 7 meters from the launcher. The warhead becomes armed between 30 and 65 meters from the launcher. Acceleration provides peak velocity at approximately 350 meters.

      (2) Upon capture, the TOW missile becomes a closed loop system. The Xenon beacon and thermal beacon (TOW 2/TOW 2A) are installed in the rear of the missiles and are detected by the Xenon detector or thermal tracker located in the telescopic sight unit. Two wire dispensers are mounted on the rear of the missile at the 90- and 270-degree positions. These dispensers contain 3,750 meters of single strand wire. Control surface flippers respond to signals from this wire command link. Helium powers the control actuators; the attitude gyro, which limits yaw and roll, is driven by nitrogen.

      (3) Once the missiles are launched, the I-TOW, TOW 2, and TOW 2A have extensible probes that provide standoff detonation. The TOW 2A also has a small warhead in the probe that detonates the explosives in a tank's reactive armor. The warhead consists of an aluminum shell, an ogive crush switch, a safety device, electrical wiring, and an explosive filler. Impact and detonation of the conical shape filler concentrate the force of the explosive into a hot jet at approximately 25,000 feet per second, which can penetrate more than 17 inches of RHA.

      (4) At the maximum range, the missile slows to one third of its peak velocity. The nose high position of the missile at this range may not produce the best impact angle of the warhead. Basic characteristics of the TOW missile family are shown in Table 5-11. Table 5-12 shows the color codes of the encased TOW missiles.

Table 5-11. Characteristics of the TOW missile family

CHARACTERISTICS

BASIC
TOW

I-TOW

TOW 2

TOW 2A

TOW 2B

Missile weight (lb)

41.5

42

47.3

49.9

49.8

Weight in container (lb)

56.3

56.5

61.8

64

64

Prelaunch length (in)

45.8

45.8

45.9

45.9

46

Standoff probe (in)

NA

14.6

17.4

17.4

NA

Max velocity (fps/mps)

981/299

970/296

1079/329

1079/ 329

1010/309

Warhead diameter (in)

5

5

6

5

5(2x)

Explosive filler (lb)

5.4

4.6

6.9

6.9

-

Max range (m)

3000

3750

3750

3750

3750

Table 5-12. Encased missile color codes

HE (BGM)

Training (BTM)

Basic color

Olive drab

Olive drab

Data markings

White

White

Code on aft end

Four brown 2 inch squares 90 apart or 2 inch brown stripes

Same as HE

Code on warhead end

Four yellow 2 inch squares 90 apart or 2 inch yellow stripes

Four blue 2 inch squares 90 apart or 2 inch blue stripes

      (5) The TOW 2 and TOW 2A have an improved propellant in the flight motors, and the guidance links have been hardened with a thermal beacon which improves operations in dust, smoke, and other obscurants. The thermal beacon is compatible with aircraft with the C-NITE system.

      (6) The TOW 2B is the newest version of the TOW missile. The TOW 2B entered production in late 1991. The TOW 2B was designed to attack targets from the top. The missile's trajectory places the missile slightly above the target when its two warheads explode downward. Figure 5-14 shows the TOW velocity, time, and range profile.

Figure 5-14. TOW Missile Flight Profile

    b. Approximately 30 different TOW missiles are listed in the conventional ammunition substitutability and interchangeability list published by the U.S. Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command, Rock Island, IL 61299-6000. Your parent command ammunition logistics managers should have a current DODAC listing of TOW missiles.

5-12. AIR-TO-AIR STINGER

    a. The ATAS uses infrared (heat sensitive) homing and an overpressure blast with some fragmentation for lethality. The ATAS can accept and function with the unmodified basic Stinger and the Stinger-RMP (Reprogramable Micro Processor).

    b. The Stinger is 59 inches long and weighs 22.4 pounds. The warhead case is titanium with a 2.25-pound explosive filler of HTA-3 (HMX--49 percent, TNT--29 percent, and aluminum flake powder--22 percent). The impact fuze has a self-destruct feature. If the missile does not impact and detonate, it automatically explodes 17 seconds after it is launched. Range is predicted upon target identification and acquisition and environmental conditions. The demonstrated range capability within favorable conditions is classified.

    c. When the Stinger is fired, the launch motor begins missile movement within the launch tube. Before the missile exits the tube, the launch motor is expended and separation sequence is initiated. At a safe distance from the launcher, the launch motor falls from the missile. During this sequence, flight motor ignition takes place. Peak velocity of the Stinger is in excess of Mach 2. Table 5-13 gives the basic characteristics of the Stinger missile.

Table 5-13. Characteristics of the Stinger missile

Basic
Color

1 Inch
Squares

Data
Markings

2 1/2 Inch
Squares

Shipping and storage container

Forest
green

 

Yellow

Yellow

Missile round

Olive drab

Yellow

Field-handler trainer

Forest
green

White

Bronze



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