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Lesson 2

LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION

 

OVERVIEW

LESSON DESCRIPTION:

In this lesson, you will learn to identify various friendly armored vehicles, including amphibious assault vehicles (AAVs), armored personnel carriers (APCs), infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs), light armored cars (LACs), reconnaissance vehicles (RVs), and scout cars (SCs). You will also learn their capabilities.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

Action: Identify friendly armored vehicles and their capabilities.
Condition: You will be given the information contained in this lesson.
Standard: Identification of friendly armored vehicles and their capabilities will be in accordance with the material contained in this lesson.
References: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications:
  FM 1-402
Jane's Armoured and Artillery 1989-1990.

 

INTRODUCTION

The various friendly armored vehicles have distinguishing features, characteristics, and roles. Most have rear cargo and troop compartments for carrying infantrymen under protection from small-arms fire. Some have stabilized turrets and laser rangefinding, which provide for night fighting capability and high-speed firing on the move. Many are amphibious, and are propelled through the water by their tracks. Some have large, all-wheel drive, run-flat tires. Practically all are armed with machine guns. Many have main guns that fire new armor-piercing ammunition.

1. LVTP5A1 Amphibious Assault Vehicle (U.S.) (Figure 2-1).

By 1957, 1,124 of these amphibians were built to replace World War II versions used by the Marine Corps. The Landing Vehicle, Tracked, Personnel, Model 5 (LVTP5) was designated LVTP5A1 when fitted with minor modifications including a box-type snorkel over the engine compartment. It was never considered a satisfactory design because of its short operating range and excessive maintenance. When a new vehicle by FMC called the LVTP7 entered service in 1971, the LVTP5 was phased out by 1974. Some were transferred to the Philippines and Taiwan, and recently bought by Chile.

Figure 2-1. LVTP5A1 Armored Amphibious Assault Vehicle.

a. Variants.

(1) LVTH6 (Landing Vehicle, Tracked, Howitzer, Model 6). These were fitted with a two-man turret with a 105-mm howitzer, a coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun, and .50-caliber anti-aircraft machine gun. When afloat, they carry 100 rounds of 105-mm, 1,000 rounds of 7.62-mm, and 1,050 rounds of .50-caliber ammunition.

(2) LVTC5 (Landing Vehicle, Tracked Command, Model 5). This is similar to the basic LVTP5 but the cargo compartment is equipped with additional communications equipment, tables, and mapboards. It has a command crew of nine, plus its normal crew of three. It is distinguishable from the basic vehicle by its additional radio antennas.

(3) LVTR1 (Landing Vehicle, Tracked, Recovery, Model 1). The LVTR1 is used for recovery and maintenance of other members of the LVTP5 family of vehicles. It is equipped with a generator, welding equipment, air compressor, a boom with a capacity of 3,175 kg, and a winch with a capacity of 20,412 kg. This model has no machine gun turret.

(4) LVTE1 (Landing Vehicle, Tracked, Engineer, Model 1). This had a special dozer blade in front, and a rocket-propelled mine-clearing system.

(5) Taiwanese LVTP5/LVTP6. A prototype program as of 1989 was to replace the gas engine with one of three diesel powerpacks tested in Taiwan.

b. Recognition Features. The LVTP5 has a barge-shaped hull with an inverted V-shaped bow for more efficient water operation. Other features include:

  • Nine road wheels.
  • Steel plated, hydraulic ramp in front.
  • The driver sits at the front of the hull on the left and has four M17 periscopes, one M17C periscope, and a single piece hatch cover.
  • The commander sits at the front of the hull on the right side and has the same number and types of periscopes as the driver.
  • The machine gun turret is between and slightly forward of the commander's and driver's positions. The gunner has five vision blocks and an M25C periscope sight.
  • Forward and on each side of the machine gun turret is a single M17 periscope facing forward.
  • On each side of the hull is an emergency escape hatch and a single vision block.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. A rigid, watertight armor plate ranges from 6.35mm to 15.87mm thick. A steel-plated hydraulic ramp in front has heavy, water-tight rubber seals.

All openings for ventilation, bilge discharge and access are in the top deck. A cargo hatch over the troop compartment measures 2.438 meters long and 2.1 meters wide. It has two spring-loaded double folding sections hinged at the outer sides.

Four troop seats hold eight marines each. Another two sit on the machine gunner's platform for a total of 34. In an emergency, the vehicle can carry 45 standing marines. The LVTP5 can carry 5,443 kg of cargo when afloat, and 8,165 kg when on land. It may carry a 105-mm towed howitzer, its crew, and 90 rounds of ammunition.

The engine and transmission are in the rear. There is limited access via a hatch in the transverse bulkhead. The main engine hatch may be unbolted from the top deck to permit removing the complete powerpack.

There is a rear drive sprocket and five track return rollers. A pair of nine dual steel bogie wheels are suspended from rubber torsion spring assemblies. The vehicle is propelled in the water by its tracks. Each of 134 blocks has an inverted water grouser.

The LVTP5A1 has infrared, stretcher, navigation, and winterization kits available.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Track length on ground, 5.892 meters
Passengers, 34 (SITTING) Road speed, 48.28 km/h
Combat weight, 30,144 kg Water speed, 10.94 km/h
Length, 9.042 meters Fuel capacity, 1726 liters
Width, 3.567 meters Range, 306 km
Height, 2.565 meters (hull)  
Track width, 521mm  
Armor
Ramp outer, 9.52mm Floor, 9.52-15.87mm
Ramp inner, 15.87mm Rear, 9.52mm
Sides, 12.7-15.87mm Turret, 9.52mm
Top, 6.37mm  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The LVTP5 can

  • cross a 3.657-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.914-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 70-percent slope.
  • climb a 60-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The LVTP5 carries a 7.62-mm machine gun and 2,000 rounds of ammunition.

f. Countries Served. This vehicle is in service with Chile, the Philippines, and Taiwan.

2. AAV7A1 Amphibious Assault Vehicle (U.S.) (Figure 2-2).

This vehicle was originally called the landing vehicle, tracked, personnel 7 (LVTP7) and is still referred to by this designation by some users. In 1985, the U.S. Marine Corps changed this to the amphibious assault vehicle 7 (AAV7). All new production vehicles were built to the AAV7A1 configuration and existing vehicles were upgraded to the new production standard.

The AAV7A1 can be distinguished from earlier models by square headlamps recessed into the nose. The modernization emphasized increased reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability. The AAV7A1 designation included the following new standard items:

  • Powerpack with Cummins VT400 engine.
  • Off-board and on-board fault-isolation instrumentation.
  • Smoke-generating capability.
  • Passive night driving and night firing devices.
  • Improved fire-suppression system.
  • Secure voice radio installation.
  • Mounting of Position Location and Reporting System (PLARS) system.
  • Improved personnel ventilation.
  • Improved hydraulic and electric system.
  • Improved electric weapon station.
  • Improved suspension.

Figure 2-2. LVTP7 Amphibious Assault Vehicle.

a. Variants. Forward deployed AAV7A1s and maritime pre-positioning assets have an add-on armor kit. This is a set of punched and perforated plates attached to the sides and sloping parts. Newer kits will have enhanced layers. Future AAV7A1s and variants may have a bow vane to improve amphibious capability, and an automatic fire suppression system.

(1) AAVC7A1 Command Vehicle. This vehicle is similar to the basic AAV7, except that its machine gun turret has been replaced by a simple hatch cover similar to that fitted at the driver's and commander's position. Armament consists of a pintle-mounted 7.62-mm M60D machine gun with 1,000 rounds of ammunition. This vehicle also has a navigation system. The loaded weight is 21,537 kg.

(2) AAVR7A1 Recovery Vehicle. This vehicle also has the machine-gun turret replaced by a 7.62-mm M60D machine gun. It carries benches, tools, air compressor, battery charger, generator, a MIG welder, and a portable welding kit. A hydraulic crane which can lift 2,722 kg is mounted on the roof. A 13,605kg recovery winch has 84.7 meters of cable. The recovery vehicle has a crew of five.

(3) AAV7A1 with Catapult Launched Fuel Air Explosive (CATFAE). This is an AAV7A1 series vehicle equipped with a CATFAE system in the rear troop compartment.

(4) AAV7A1 with 40-mm/12.7-mm Turret. The Marine Corps has bought 340 Upgunned Weapons Stations, which consists of a 40-mm grenade launcher and a 12.7-mm M2 HB machine gun that replaces the 12.7-mm M85 machine gun turret. A day/night/laser rangefinder sight has also been purchased for this turret.

b. Recognition Features. This subparagraph provides information on the recognition features of the AAV7A1.

  • Prominent cupolas, one with a .50-cal machine gun.
  • Driver's hatch cover in the front left.
  • Six evenly spaced, rubber-tired, road wheels.
  • Drive sprocket is at the front, and idler at the rear.
  • No track return rollers.
  • Commander's cupola behind the driver's.
  • Box-like periscope in front of the commander's cupola.

The engine in front gets air from ballistic grills on the roof. Below the grills are hydraulic doors that seal when afloat. Then air is drawn in for the engine and troop compartment through a hydro-dynamically-actuated air valve on top to the right of the driver. A contact cooler is part of the hull floor.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. An all-welded aluminum hull provides protection from small-arms fire, shell splinters, and flash burns. There is a crew of three. In the rear are three bench seats for 25 fully-equipped marines or room for 4,536 kg of cargo with stowed seats. A power-operated ramp in the rear has a single-vision block and a door in its left side. There are three troop hatches on the roof.

The vehicle has no NBC system. There are night-driving lights. The LVTP7 has a number of kits, including an ambulance for six stretchers, navigation kit, and a winterization kit for outside temperatures down to -54 degrees centigrade.

No preparation is required for fully-amphibious operation. It is propelled by two water jets in the rear. The pumps have special exhaust nozzles for maximum thrust. A hinged steering deflector reverses direction. The tracks also can provide propulsion when floating. There are two electric and two hydraulic bilge pumps.

A Detroit Diesel 8V-53T, 8-cylinder, water-cooled, turbo-charged engine develops 400 horsepower at 2,800 revolutions per minute (rpm). The engine can be removed in 45 minutes. Key specifications are provided below.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Track width, 533mm
Passengers, 25 Track length on ground, 3.94 meters
Combat Weight, 22,838 kg Fuel capacity, 681 liters
Length, 7.943 meters Range at 40 km/h, 482 km
Width, 3.27 meters Endurance water, 7 hours
Overall height, 3.263 meters Road speed, 64 km/h
Ground clearance, 0.406 meters Water speed, waterjets, 13.5 km/h
Track, 2.609 meters Water speed, tracks, 7.2 km/h
Armor
Hull sides, 31-45mm Rear, 35mm
Hull top, 30mm Ramp outer, 25.4mm
Hull floor, 30mm Ramp inner, 12.7mm

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The AAV7A1 can

  • cross a 2.438-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.914-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 40-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. Beside the engine on the right side is a turret installation. A hatch cover opens to the right. There are eight vision blocks and a sight for a 12.7-mm (.50-cal) M85 machine gun. This can fire at a high rate of 1,050 rounds per minute or a low rate of 450 rounds per minute. Of a total 1,000 rounds carried, 400 are at ready use.

f. Countries Served. The AAV7A1 or the LVTP7 is in service with the following countries:

Argentina Brazil
Italy Korea, South
Spain Thailand
USA Venezuela

3. Commando V-150 Armored Vehicle Range/APC (U.S.) (Figure 2-3). The V-150 was introduced to replace the V-100, which is still used by the U.S. Air Force at Nellis Air Force Base to simulate SA-9 SAM systems and command and control systems of the former Soviet's. The current production model is the V-150S. These vehicles have been widely exported, and are used by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force. As a result of experience in use, the vehicle has been constantly updated and improved. Figure 2-3 is a drawing of a V-150 Commando with two-man turret armed with a 20-mm Oerlikon cannon, a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun, and a 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine gun.

Figure 2-3. V-150 Commando.

a. Variants. There are a number of variants of the V-150 Commando. They are discussed below.

(1) Commando with MG Turret. This a basic vehicle fitted with a Cadillac Gage one-man turret which mounts twin 7.62-mm machine guns or a combination of 7.62-mm/.50-cal machine guns. The weapons are controlled mechanically with a hand-operated gearbox for 360-degrees of traverse. When fitted with twin 7.62-mm machine guns, 3,800 rounds of ammunition are carried, 800 of which are in the turret for ready use, and 3,000 in the hull. A powerful spotlight is mounted coaxially with the weapons. The turret has a hatch cover opening to the rear, eight vision blocks, and an M28C sight. This model has a crew of three and can carry seven infantrymen. Height to the top of the turret is 2.54 meters.

(2) Commando with 1m MG Turret. This is the basic vehicle fitted with the Cadillac Gage 1m turret. This turret can be fitted with twin 7.62-mm or twin .50-cal machine guns or a combination. Depending on the armament installed, 1,400 rounds of .50 caliber ammunition are carried, of which 400 are for ready use in the turret, or 3,800 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition, of which 800 are for ready use in the turret. There is a single hatch cover opening to the rear, eight vision blocks, an M28C sight, and a coaxially-mounted spotlight. This model has a crew of three and can carry seven infantrymen. Height to the top of the turret is 2.59 meters.

(3) Commando with 1m 20-mm Turret. This model is a basic vehicle with a one-man turret which mounts a 20-mm Oerlikon 204 GK cannon with provision for coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun. The vehicle carries 400 rounds of 20-mm ammunition, 200 in the turret and 200 in the hull. There is also 3,200 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition, 220 for ready use and the remainder in the hull. The turret has 360-degree traverse by electro-hydraulics or manual backup. There are eight vision blocks, a telescopic sight, a searchlight, and a blower for removing turret fumes. This vehicle has a three-man crew of commander, driver, and gunner, and can carry five infantrymen. It has a height of 2.895 meters.

(4) Commando with 20-mm Turret. This version is a basic vehicle with a two-man turret fitted with the 20-mm cannon, a 7.62-mm coaxially mounted machine gun, and a 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine gun. The cannon has a rate controller for firing 1, 2, or 4 rounds per second, or fully automatic. The vehicle carries 400 rounds of 20-mm ammunition, 200 of which are for ready use. There are also 3,200 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition, with 400 in the turret for ready use. There are two vision blocks on each side of the turret. There is a telescopic gunner's sight and a commander's periscope that moves through 360 degrees. The turret also has an external anti-aircraft sight, a spotlight, and turret blower. This vehicle has a crew of three and can carry two infantrymen. Height to the top of the turret is 2.54 meters.

(5) Commando with 25-mm Turret. This vehicle is the V150S model with a turret armed with a 25-mm M22 McDonnell Douglas Helicopters Chain Gun, a coaxial 7.62-mm M240 machine gun, and another 7.62-mm machine gun on the turret roof. The turret holds 230 rounds of 25-mm ammunition (170 HE and 60 armor piercing (AP)), and there are another 400 rounds in the vehicle. There are 400 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition in the turret, 200 at the anti-aircraft station on the roof, and 1,000 in the vehicle.

(6) Commando with 40-mm/12.7-mm Turret. A one-man turret is armed with a 40-mm Mk 19 Mod 1 grenade launcher on the left and a12.7-mm M2 HB machine gun on the right. On either side at the rear of the turret are four smoke dischargers.

(7) Commando V-150 S. The V-150 S is 46 cm longer than the V-150. It has more internal space and an increased payload of 726 kg, for a total payload of 3,357 kg. The wheelbase is lengthened and the suspension strengthened. A new transfer case gives better grade-climbing performance. There is a new hydraulic boost brake system and an improved cooling system. In 1981 the V-150 S was fitted with two-man turrets having either a 90-mm Cockerill Mk III gun or a 25-mm M242 McDonnell Douglas Helicopters Chain Gun.

(8) Commando Air Defense Vehicle. This is the basic vehicle equipped with the same turret as is mounted on the M167 towed system and armed with a 20-mm six-barrelled General Electric cannon with an optical sight. For a more stable platform, three outriggers are lowered to the ground: one at the front and one on each side of the hull towards the rear. This vehicle was developed for the Saudi Arabian National Guard.

(9) Commando with 76-mm Turret-mounted Gun. This model is equipped with a two-man power-operated turret armed with a 76mm L22A1, with a 7.62-mm machine gun mounted coaxially to the left of the main gun, and a 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine gun on the turret roof.

(10) Commando with 90-mm Turret-Mounted Gun. This vehicle has a 90-mm main gun and a coaxially-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun. Another 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine gun is on the turret roof. A 500,000 candlepower spotlight is mounted coaxially with the main gun. There are 39 rounds of 90-mm ammunition, of which 8 are in the turret. There are also 3,200 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition, 400 for ready use in the turret, 200 for the anti-aircraft gun, and the remainder in the vehicle. There are two vision blocks in the left and one in the right side of the turret. A commander's periscope can turn through 360 degrees.

(11) Commando with 81-mm Mortar. A 81-mm M29 turntable-mounted mortar fires through the roof of this Commando. Concertina doors open at either side of the roof. A 7.62-mm machine gun can be mounted at any one of four positions around the top of the hull. The vehicle carries 62 mortar bombs and 2,000 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition. The mortar can be removed from the vehicle and fired from the ground. The vehicle has a crew of five.

(12) Commando with TOW Antitank Guided Weapon (ATGW) System. Similar to the above mortar model, this Commando is armed with a Hughes TOW ATGW system and seven TOW missiles. Hatches on the top open to the front and rear. A 7.62-mm machine gun can be mounted at any one of four positions around the top of the hull. The vehicle carries 2,000 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition. There is a crew of four, and the vehicle can also carry two infantrymen.

(13) Commando Command Vehicle. This is a standard vehicle equipped with a fixed armored pod on the roof. There are firing ports in each of the four sides of the pod. Behind a 7.62-mm pintle-mounted machine gun is a hatch cover opening to the rear. There are 2,000 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition, 200 for ready use. Inside is a mapboard, table, and communications equipment. The command vehicle has a crew of three and carries seven staff members.

(14) Base Security Vehicle. Developed for the U.S. Air Force, this model has a crew of three and caries eight fully-equipped infantrymen. Like the mortar model, it has concertina doors opening to either side. Provision is made for mounting 7.62-mm machine guns or 40-mm grenade launchers in four positions in the front, sides, and rear. The vehicle can carry a total of 3,000 rounds of 7.62 ammunition.

(15) Malaysian Upgraded V-150 Commando. This model is an upgraded 90-mm V-150 version. The original gas engine and manual transmission were replaced by a more fuel-efficient diesel and fully-automatic transmission.

(16) Police Emergency Rescue Vehicle (ERV). This model has a three-man crew and carries nine people. A number of police authorities use it. Many were bought by Turkey. It has a fixed pod with six vision blocks and eight vertical gun ports. In front of a rear-opening hatch cover on the roof is a 7.62-mm or a 12.7-mm machine gun.

(17) Recovery Vehicle. The Commando recovery vehicle has a heavy-duty 11,340-kg winch. When two stabilizers are lowered at the front, a boom that pivots forward has a capacity of 4,536 kg. The recovery vehicle is armed with either a 7.62-mm or a 12.7-mm machine gun with 2,200 rounds of ammunition.

b. Recognition Features. The Commando V-150 has the following features:

  • Two tires on each side.
  • The lower hull slopes upward at front, sides and rear.
  • The driver has two vision blocks in front and one to his left.
  • The commander on the right has one vision block in front and one on his right.
  • The commander and driver each have a hatch cover opening to the outside.
  • A cupola in the center of the troop compartment can be traversed through 360 degrees and has a hatch cover opening to the rear.
  • There is a door on each side of the hull just forward of the rear wheel. The lower part folds downwards. The upper part, which has a vision block and firing port, opens to the rear.
  • In front of each side door is another vision block and firing port.
  • In the rear is another door on the right side. The lower part opens downwards and the upper part, containing a vision block and firing port, folds upwards.
  • The Commando appears much like the American Dragoon series and the Portuguese Chaimite.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. On the left side in the rear is the engine compartment. This has access panels on the side and top of the hull. The vehicle can operate in temperatures of 130 degrees Fahrenheit. A fire-extinguishing system is operated by the driver.

Standard military automotive components are used whenever possible in the V-150 Commando. Original vehicles have Chrysler 361 V-8 gas engines that develop 200 horsepower at 4,000 rpm. A manual transmission has one reverse and five forward speeds. New vehicles have an automatic transmission and a V-8 diesel that develops 202 horsepower at 3,300 rpm.

Run-flat tires have self-cleaning treads. The wheels propel the fully-amphibious Commando through the water. There is an internally-mounted winch on the front of the hull with a 4,536-kg capacity. The all-welded hull protects against small-arms fire, overhead blast, shell splinters, and Molotov cocktails.

Standard equipment includes fuel and water cans, two hand-held fire extinguishers, pioneer tool set, tow cable, breaker bar and lug wrench, first aid kit, vehicle tool kit, pamphlet bag, oddment box, slave cable, spare vision blocks, and an air compressor with hose.

Optional equipment for the Commando includes:

  • Smoke or smoke/fragmentation launchers.
  • Fixed pintle socket for rear.
  • Rear ring mount with 7.62-mm pintle and cradle.
  • Ring mount and cradle for.50-cal machine gun or 40-mm automatic grenade launcher.
  • Gun shield for fixed pintle socket or ring mount weapon.
  • Spotlight for fixed pintle socket or ring mount weapon with or without shield.
  • Night vision equipment.
  • Periscope for ring mount (standard on 20-mm, 76-mm and 90-mm turret ring mounts).
  • Spare periscope and stowage.
  • Weapons (where applicable).
  • Extra spare barrel stowage.
  • Hand-held weapon stowage.
  • M26 hand grenade stowage.
  • Smoke hand grenade stowage.
  • Binocular stowage.
  • Radios and associated mountings.
  • Canopy with poles (pod type vehicles only).
  • Vision blocks in pod (standard on Police ERV).
  • Gun ports in pod (standard on Police ERV).
  • Sight M28C x 5.6 power (machine gun turret vehicles only).
  • Land navigation system and/or vehicle heading reference system.
  • NBC system.
  • Public address system (standard on Police ERV).
  • Heater kit.
  • Air-conditioning system.
  • Wiper kit for driver.
  • Blackout covers.
  • Handbrake warning light.
  • Cooler kit.
  • Lifter boom.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Height, 2.54 meters
Passengers, 2 Road speed, 88 km/h
Configuration, 4 x 4 Water speed, 5 km/h
Combat weight, 9,888 kg Fuel capacity, 303 liters
Length, 5.689 meters Range, 643 km
Width, 2.26 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Commando V-150 can

  • mount a 0.609-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 30-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The basic Commando V-150 has a turret-mounted 20-mm cannon and 400 rounds of main-gun ammunition. Some 3,200 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition are carried for machine guns. Smoke-laying equipment is optional. The electro-hydraulic/manual turret power is controlled by the commander or gunner.

f. Countries Served. The Commando V-150 is used in the following countries:

Bolivia Indonesia Sudan
Botswana Jamaica Taiwan
Cameroon Kuwait Thailand
Chad Malaysia Tunisia
Dominican Panama Turkey
Republic Philippines USA
Gabon Saudi Arabia Venezuela
Guatemala Singapore Vietnam
Haiti Somalia  

4. Commando V-300 Armored Vehicle Range (U.S.) (Figure 2-4).

This six-by-six configuration of armored vehicles was developed out of the successful four-by-four Commando V-150 described above. Figure 2-4 shows the Cadillac Gage V-300 Commando with a two-man turret armed with a 90-mm Cockerill Mark III gun.

Figure 2-4. V-300 Commando.

a. Variants.

(1) TOW Anti-tank. With 10 reserve missiles carried in the hull, two missiles are at the ready-to-launch position on the same mount as used in the M901 Improved TOW Vehicle based on the M113 chassis. The vehicle also has a 7.62-mm machine gun and 2,000 rounds of ammunition.

(2) 81-mm Mortar. This vehicle is equipped with a turntable-mounted 81-mm mortar has a range of 150 to 4,400 meters. The vehicle can carry 60 mortar bombs. It also has a 7.62-mm machine gun and 2,000 rounds of ammunition.

(3) Ambulance. This version is unarmed and has a raised roof. A ramp in place of twin doors a the rear facilitates loading stretchers and walking wounded.

(4) Others. Other models include a cargo carrier, command vehicle (with higher roof line), recovery vehicle, and anti-aircraft with missile system such as ADATS, or a gun system such as the General Electric 20-mm Vulcan as installed in a number of Saudi Arabian V-150 Commando 4 x 4 vehicles.

b. Recognition Features. The hull of the Commando V-300 has a shape similar to the V-150. Some distinguishing features of the V-300 are:

  • Three rubber tires on each side.
  • The turret is centered over the middle wheel.
  • The rear of the hull is flat, with two doors for infantry access.
  • In the left front of the hull, the driver has a square hatch cover opening to the rear. In front are three periscopes. To the left of the driver in the side of the hull is a bullet-proof vision block with a firing port underneath. To the rear of this is a small rear-opening half door with vision block and firing port.
  • The engine compartment in the front right has air inlets and outlets on the roof and an exhaust pipe in the right side of the hull.
  • On the glacis plate are receptacles for a shovel and pick axe. Under the nose is an internal hydraulic 9,072-kg winch.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. Front and rear axles have positive No-Spin differentials for maintaining traction in off-road conditions. All wheels have hydraulic brakes and run-flat tubeless tires with a self-cleaning tread design.

The all-welded unitized hull is made of special high-hardness steel ballistic plate that protects the crew from small-arms fire and shell splinters. Optional equipment includes night-vision devices, heater kit, air-conditioning system, NBC system, wiper kit for the driver, and a slave cable.

The troop compartment in the rear on each side has three bulletproof vision blocks and firing ports. Two doors in the rear each have vision blocks and firing ports. Instead of the two-part hatch cover there may be a circular hatch cover with pintle-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Height, 2.69 meters
Passengers, 9 Road speed, 95 km/h
Configuration, 6 x 6 Water speed, 5 km/h
Combat weight, 19,323 kg Fuel capacity, 265 liters
Length, 6.4 meters Range, 700 km
Width, 2.54 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Commando V-300 can

  • mount a 0.609-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 30-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The V-300 Commando supports a number of armament installations. They include the combinations discussed in the following subparagraphs.

(1) Cadillac Gage two-man turret with 90-mm Cockerill Mk III gun.

(2) Cadillac Gage two-man turret with 76-mm Royal Ordnance L23A1 gun.

(3) Turret armed with 25-mm M242 McDonnel Douglas Helicopters Chain gun, 7.62-mm coaxial and 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine guns, and smoke dischargers.

(4) Cadillac Gage two-man turret with 20-mm Oerlikon cannon.

(5) Cadillac Gage one-man 1 meter machine gun turret and a ring mount with 7.62-mm or 12.7-mm machine gun.

f. Countries Served. Commando V-300s are in service with Kuwait and Panama.

5. FV432 Armored Personnel Carrier (Figure 2-5).

About 3,000 of these APCs were produced from 1963 to 1971. Newer models have the NBC pack on the right side of the hull which is almost flush against the hull rather than protruding, as on earlier vehicles. Many automotive components of the FV432 APC are used on the FV433 Abbot 105-mm self-propelled gun. Most FV432s are expected to remain in service, and many will undergo automotive improvements including a new steering and braking unit. Figure 2-5 shows the FV432 APC fitted with a Peak Engineering lightweight turret armed with 7.62-mm machine gun.

Figure 2-5. FV432 Armored Personnel Carrier.

a. Variants.

(1) Ambulance. The unarmed ambulance carries four stretcher patients or two stretcher and five seated patients. The stretchers are easily loaded with sliding swivel racks.

(2) Carl Gustaf. A Swedish 84-mm Carl Gustaf anti-tank weapon may be mounted with a bar across the top of the troop compartment. The standard armored personnel carrier (APC) may also carry a Euromissile MILAN ATGW which is deployed away from the vehicle.

(3) Command. The seven-crew command model has two mapboards and extra communications equipment. More room can be made by erecting a penthouse measuring 3.6 x 2.74 x 1.98 meters.

(4) 81-mm Mortar Carrier. This is the basic vehicle equipped with an 81-mm L16 mortar on a turntable which is mounted in the rear of the hull, and can be traversed through 360 degrees. The mortar has a range of 5,660 meters and 160 mortar bombs are carried. The vehicle has a crew of six.

(5) Maintenance Carrier. Designated the FV434, this model is used mainly to change major components in the field, such as the complete powerpack of the Chieftain MBT. There is a crane on the right side of the vehicle which has a lifting capacity of 3,050 kg. The suspension of the FV434 can be locked when the crane is being used. The vehicle has a crew of four.

(6) Minelayer. The FV432 is used by the Royal Engineers to tow the Bar minelayer which can lay mines at a rate of 600 per hour. A THORN EMI ranger anti-personnel minelaying system can be mounted on the top of the FV432 to enable a combined anti-tank and anti-personnel minefield to be laid.

(7) Radar. A large scoop-shaped antenna protrudes from the FV432 when mounted with a mortar-locating radar or a short-range radar system.

(8) Recovery. This is the basic FV432 with a winch installed in the rear troop compartment. The winch is driven from the PTO on the engine transfer case.

(9) Royal Artillery Vehicles. The FV432 is used in an artillery battery command role when fitted with the Marconi Command and Control Systems Field Artillery Computer Equipment and the Plessey sound ranging system.

(10) Royal Engineers Vehicles. In addition to using the FV432 as a minelaying vehicle as previously described, the Royal Engineers use it to tow the Giant Viper mine-clearance trailer.

(11) Royal Signals Vehicles. Designated FV439, this model has extensive antenna arrays on the roof for specialized communications.

(12) FV438 Wavell. A command and control Wavell automatic data processing system is recognizable by a large external box on the roof.

b. Recognition Features. Recognition features for the FV432 are discussed below.

  • Fully tracked.
  • Five road wheels.
  • Similar to the M113A1.
  • May or not have a small turret.
  • Long, rectangular-shaped body.
  • Exhaust pipe runs along the left side of the hull.
  • NBC pack on left forward side of hull.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The all-welded steel hull protects against small-arms fire and shell splinters. On the front right side is the driver's hatch cover that opens to the left. The hatch has a wide-angle periscope. Behind the driver is the commander's cupola that can be traversed through 360 degrees. The cupola's hatch cover has three periscopes. A 7.62-mm machine gun is directed out the front of the cupola.

A few FV432s issued to the Berlin Brigade were armed with the same 30-mm RARDEN cannon as mounted on the turret of the Fox armored car. Many are fitted with a lightweight turret with 7.62-mm machine gun. This turret has a rear-opening hatch cover, three periscopes, and four smoke dischargers on either side. The turret is over the front part of a circular troop compartment hatch that replaces the original four-part hatch.

Air inlet and outlet louvers are on the roof above the engine compartment on the left front. A forward-opening hatch on the glacis plate provides access to the steering system.

The rear troop compartment seats 10 infantrymen on two benches running down the sides. These fold up for a cargo capacity of 3,670 kg. There is a large door in the rear of the troop compartment with a vision block. In the roof are large circular hatch covers that open to both sides and fold in the middle.

An NBC system on the right side of the hull gives fresh air for the troops. Unlike the similar M113 APC, the FV432 is not amphibious without preparation. The FV432 must be prepared with a flotation screen erected with ten stays around the top of the hull. A trim vane goes up in front, and an extension goes on the exhaust pipe. When floating, it is propelled by its tracks. Most of these vehicles have had their amphibious capability removed.

The torsion-bar suspension has five dual rubber-tired road wheels, two track-return rollers, and a drive sprocket in front. Friction shock absorbers are on the first and last wheels. Rubber-bushed steel tracks have removable rubber pads.

Measurements
Crew, 2 Track, 2.184 meters
Passengers, 10 Track width, 343 mm
Weight, 15,280 kg Track length on ground, 2.819 meters
Length, 5.251 meters Armor, 6-12 mm
Width, 2.8 meters Speed, 52.2 km/h
Height, 2.862 meters Fuel capacity, 454 liters
Ground clearance, 0.406 meters Range, diesel, 480 km
            gas, 424 km

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The FV 432 armored personnel carrier can

  • cross a 2.05-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.609-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • ford 1.066 meters without preparation.
  • ford amphibiously with preparation.

e. Armament Characteristics. The armament depends upon the roles for which the vehicles are used. There is a 7.62-mm general purpose machine gun (GPMG) mounted on the forward part of the commander's cupola. Vehicles used in the command role and other rear roles normally have a 7.62-mm Bren light machine gun (LMG). When equipped with the GPMG, the vehicle carries 1,600 rounds of belted 7.62-mm ammunition. When carrying the Bren LMG, the vehicle has 1,400 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition (50 magazines, each holding 28 rounds).

f. Countries Served. Users are India and the United Kingdom.

6. M113A1 and M113A2 Armored Personnel Carrier.

The M113 family was designed to be an air-transportable, armored, multi-purpose vehicle family, and would provide a lightweight, armored personnel carrier for armor and infantry units. It is capable of amphibious and air-drop operations, has superior cross-country mobility, and adapts to multiple functions by the application of kits or modifications. After 10 pre-production vehicles were built, the M113A1 replaced the M113 in production.

The M113A2 is an upgraded M113A1 with no external differences. It is mainly employed in transporting troops or cargo in support of tactical operations, but may be found in ambulance, mortar, and other configurations and roles.

Figure 2-6 shows the M113A1 armored personnel carrier with a 12.7-mm (.50-cal) M2 HB machine gun. On the right is the M113A3 APC with fuel tanks at the rear.

Figure 2-6. M113A1 and M113A3 Armored Personnel Carriers.

a. Variants. The M113 APC may be found in ambulance, mortar, and numerous other weapon configurations.

(1) M113A2 (formerly Product Improved M113A1). The M113A2 has an improved engine cooling design and improved suspension. A rear-mounted, armored fuel cell is currently available. This option provides more interior space and reduces the danger of fire.

(2) M113A3. This version has the cooling and suspension improvements of the M113A2, as well as better performance and reliability. The 6V-53 (212 hp) diesel engine is replaced by the turbo-charged Detroit Diesel 6V-53T (275 hp). There is a new X200-4 Allison transmission with four forward speeds instead of three.

Hydrostatic steering provides smoother turning with less effort and reduced shock loading on the suspension system as well as greater power efficiency for more horsepower and fuel savings. Driver sticks were replaced by a steering wheel and brake pedal.

The M113A3 has a different generating system, four batteries, and improved electrical diagnostic capabilities. Also it has armored external fuel tanks and internal spall protection liners.

(3) M113/M113A1/M113A2 with Dozer Kit. A kit can adapt the APC for general bulldozing, improvement of water entrances, and grading. It does not change the basic load-carrying ability.

During amphibious operations, the front-mounted buoyant blade acts as a trim vane after removal of the standard trim vane.

(4) M106/M106A1/M106A2 107-mm Mortar Carrier. Designated the Carrier, Mortar, 107-mm, Self-propelled, this is the basic APC with an opening in the roof covered by a three-part hatch. Firing through the opening is a 4.2-inch (107-mm) M30 mortar on a turntable at the rear. Mounted externally on the left side of the hull is a mortar baseplate and bridge for use away from the vehicle if necessary. The vehicle carries 88 to 93 mortar rounds. The carrier has the 12.7-mm (.50-cal) M2 HB machine gun. An Israeli Soltam 120-mm mortar system is expected to replace the 107-mm mortar.

(5) M125/M125A1/M125A2 81-mm Mortar Carrier. Designated Carrier, Mortar, 81-mm, Self-propelled, this vehicle has an 81-mm M29 mortar on a turntable firing through a three-part hatch. The mortar can be used away from the vehicle. It carries 114 mortar bombs. It has the 12.7-mm (.50-cal) M2 HB machine gun.

(6) M163 Vulcan Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft Gun. This is an M113A1 chassis fitted with a one-man electrically-driven turret which is armed with a 20-mm M168 Vulcan gun, Navy Mk20 Mod A gyro lead-computing sight, and a range-only radar.

(7) M548 Cargo Carrier. This unarmored cargo carrier uses many automotive components of the M113A1 APC. It has a payload of 7,258 kg. New vehicles have the suspension and cooling system improvements. A modified M548 has an anti-tank minelaying system for the German Army. The M548 chassis also is used for a Lance surface-to-surface tactical nuclear missile system and tactical electronic reconnaissance and countermeasures systems.

(8) Tracked Rapier. A rebuilt M548 tracked cargo carrier supports the Tracked Rapier SAM system in service with the British Army. At the front is a fully-enclosed armored compartment. On the roof is the Rapier optical tracker, which is retracted for traveling. At the rear is a turntable with eight Rapier SAMs at the ready-launch position. The Forward Area Support Team (FAST) vehicle carries spare parts. The Tracked Rapier Support Vehicle (TRSV) carries 20 Rapier SAMs.

(9) M730 Chaparral SAM launcher. This version is based on a modified M548 cargo carrier has a rear-area flat bed. A pedestal-mounted, one-man power-operated turret with four Chaparral SAMs at the ready-to-launch position is mounted over the rear area. Another eight missiles are carried in reserve. It is used by the U.S. Army, Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Portugal, Taiwan, and Tunisia.

(10) M577/M577A1/M577A2 Command Post. This vehicle's full designation is the Carrier, Command Post, Light Tracked, M577 or M577A1. They have the basic chassis with a higher roof to the rear of the driver's position. A tent can be erected to the rear of the hull to provide increased work area when in a static role. Mounted externally is a generator to power additional communications equipment. The Command Post vehicle can also be used as a fire direction center, communications vehicle, or a mobile medical treatment facility.

(11) Stretched M577A2 Command Post. This has six, rather than five, road wheels on each side. It has additional external fuel tanks and the complete M113A3 powerpack. There is an option of additional armor on the roof and an environmental control unit. It could meet the Army's requirement for a Standard Integrated Command Post System (SICPS).

(12) M113A2 Recovery Vehicle. The Recovery Vehicle, Fully Tracked, Light Armored M113A2 is the basic chassis fitted with a hydraulic winch for recovering disabled vehicles. During recovery operations, spades are lowered to the ground from either side of the ramp. For use in soft soil, an auxiliary spade unit is carried on the roof. The winch has a capacity of 9,070 kg. An auxiliary 1,361-kg crane is on top of the hull on the left side.

(13) M113 APC with TOW. This vehicle is equipped with a pedestal-mounted TOW system that is retracted into the troop compartment when not in use. The vehicle is designated XM233E1 TOW Missile Carrier.

(14) M901/M901A1 Improved Tow Vehicle. This version is essentially an M113A2 APC fitted with the ground TOW launching system. The system consists of an M27 cupola equipped with an image transfer assembly, an armored launcher, missile guidance set, and an auxiliary battery pack. The launcher assembly contains two TOW launch tubes, TOW sight assembly, and an acquisition sight mounted on top of two elevating arms. In addition to the 2 ready-to-launch missiles, another 10 are carried in the hull. A 7.62-mm machine gun is mounted on the cupola for local defense, and 1,000 rounds of ammunition are carried.

(15) M981 Fire Support Team Vehicle (FISTV). This vehicle is the M901 Improved TOW Vehicle equipped with the AN/TVQ-2 GLLD with north-finding module and line-of-sight subsystem, AN/TAS-4 night sight, land navigation system, and extensive communications equipment. In 1988, Egypt received 20 Artillery Target Locating Vehicles (ATLV) which are very similar to the U.S. Army's FISTV.

(16) M1059 Smoke Generating System. This vehicle is an M113A2 with two M54 smoke generators mounted on top of the hull. The smoke generators can be used either singly or in tandem.

(17) M113 with Composite Armor. The hull is made of a reinforced plastic material covered with ceramic tiles with a total thickness of about 32mm. This reportedly provides greater protection than aluminum armor plate at equal or lighter weight, which is critical in amphibious vehicles.

(18) Thyssen Henschel Applique Armor. A 650-kg armor kit for the APC provides protection against 14.5-mm projectiles at a range of 100 meters, and 20-mm projectiles at a range of 200 meters.

(19) Creusot-Loire Add-on Armor. An add-on armor package developed by Creusot-Loire Industrie can be installed or removed with on-board tools. Some panels are fixed and others are removable for maintenance access. This package does not change the vehicle's basic amphibious characteristics. There are three kits:

  • A 445-kg kit giving complete protection against penetration from 14.5-mm armor piercing rounds at a range of 300 meters.
  • A 830-kg kit providing protection against 12.7mm armor-piercing rounds at a range of 100 meters, and 20-mm and 23-mm armor-piercing rounds at a range of 200 meters.
  • A kit still under development for protection against former Soviet RPG-7 anti-tank weapons.

(20) GIAT Armor Package. The M113 vehicles can be fitted with an add-on armor package by GIAT of France. It protects against 14.5-mm former Soviet heavy machine gun and 20 to 23-mm AP attack. Modular panels of special hard steel are attached to the front, sides, and rear. A basic kit weighs 650 kg. A version with a false floor weighs 950 kg. The kit increases the width of the M113 and slightly reduces the power-to-weight ratio. Top speed is not affected.

(21) M113 with Bofors RBS 70 SAM. This variant is a kit which enables a standard M113 series APC to be equipped with a Bofors surface-to-air (SAM) system on a pedestal in the rear troop compartment.

(22) M113 with Air Defense Antitank System (ADATS). The Swiss Oerlikon-Buhrle ADATS was selected by the Canadian Armed Forces for installation on 36 modified M113 APCs. On top is a turret with eight ADATS missiles, four either side, ready to launch. Between the missiles is the electro-optical module and on the turret rear is the surveillance radar.

(23) M113 with Tadpole Sight. Martin Marietta has tested the Tadpole sight with the British Army and the U.S. Army Field Artillery School at Fort Sill. Tadpole is similar to the helicopter Mast Mounted Sight (MMS). It has a 15.24-meter telescoping mast. On top is a sight providing day, night, and limited adverse weather target information. This has a laser rangefinder/designator and a silicon vidicon TV, gimballed mirror to line-of-sight stabilization system.

(24) M113A2/TS 90 Light Tank. This vehicle consists of the M113A2 APC with the roof modified to accept for the GIAT TS 90 two-man turret with 90-mm gun.

Almost every user has developed variants of the M113/M113A1 family. These variants will be discussed in subparagraph f below, which discusses countries served.

b. Recognition Features. The M113A1 and M113A2 have the following features.

  • Five evenly spaced road wheels.
  • No support rollers.
  • Rectangular hull.
  • Centered commander's cupola.
  • Driver's hatch at the left front, forward of the commander's station.
  • Two engine vents on the right of the driver's hatch.
  • Amphibious.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The vehicle has an all-welded aluminum hull that protects the crew from small arms fire and shell splinters. The driver sits at the front of the hull on the left side and has a single piece hatch cover that opens to the rear. To his front and left side are four M17 periscopes. There is an M19 infrared periscope in his roof hatch. To his right are air inlet and outlet louvers for the engine. Also on the roof is an exhaust pipe outlet. An engine access door hinges forward from in front of the hull.

The commander sits to the rear of the engine compartment and has a cupola that can be traversed through a full 360 degrees. There is a 12.7-mm (.50 cal) machine gun pintle-mounted on the forward part of the commander's cupola. Behind the commander's cupola is a rear-opening oblong hatch cover with a domed ventilator.

The infantrymen enter and leave through a power-operated ramp in the rear that opens downwards and has a door in the left side. There are seats for the infantrymen along each side of the hull. The seats can be folded up to allow the vehicle to be used as an ambulance or to carry cargo.

A rubber track shroud controls the flow of water over the tracks when afloat. The M113 is fully amphibious. It is propelled through the water by its tracks. Steering is the same as on land. There are two bilge pumps and a large panel trim vane which folds back on the glacis plate when not in use.

Kits available for the M113 family include:

  • Anti-mine armor bolted on front half of vehicle bottom (includes buoyancy aids).
  • Anchor kit (set of two for use with capstans for self-recovery).
  • Buoyant side pods.
  • Combination bulldozer/snow plow.
  • NBC detector and automatic alarm.
  • Full-width buoyant trim vane.
  • Gun shields.
  • Heater for personnel and cargo areas.
  • Heater for engine coolant and battery.
  • Stretcher kit which provides support for four stretchers when the vehicle is being used as an ambulance.
  • M8A3 gas-particulate unit (includes M2A2 air purifier with flexible hoses to fit M14A1 tank gas masks of driver and commander and up to two others).
  • Non-skid ramp plate kit.
  • Windscreen for driving with the hatch open.

A GMC Detroit Diesel model 6V-53 six-cylinder, water-cooled, diesel engine develops 215 horsepower at 2,800 rpm. A GMC Allison TX-100-1 transmission has one reverse and three forward ranges (four on the M113A3). There is torsion-bar suspension, a rear drive sprocket and five dual rubber-tired road wheels. There are no track return rollers. The first and last wheels have hydraulic shock absorbers.

Measurements
Crew, 2  
Passengers, 11 (7 for M113A3) Track, 2.159 meters
Weight, M113A1, 11,156 kg Track width, 381 mm
Weight, M113A2, 11,341 kg Track length on ground, 2.667 meters
Weight, M113A3, 12,062 kg Road speed, 64-65 km/h
Length, 4.86 meters Water speed, 5.8 km/h
Width, 2.68 meters Fuel capacity, 360 liters
Height, 2.5 meters Range, 483 km
Ground clearance, .043 meters (.041 meters for M113A1) Armor, 12-44 mm

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The M113A1 series vehicle can

  • cross a 1.68-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.81-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The main armament usually is a 12.7-mm (.50 cal) machine gun. Various other weapons are found on the different configurations of the vehicle.

f. Countries Served. Practically every user of the M113 family of APCs has developed variants. These variants are discussed below.

(1) Australia. The Australian Army has the M113A1 with the turret of the British Scorpion CVR (T) vehicle armed with a 76-mm gun. This model is amphibious with additional buoyancy aids on the sides and front. They also have 18 models fitted with the turret from the Saladin (6 x 6) armored car. Another light reconnaissance vehicle has the American Cadillac Gage turret T50 armed with a 7.62-mm and a 12.7-mm machine gun. The Australian Army is expected to extend the life of its M113A1s with upgrades. The Australian Army also uses the following:

  • M113A1 APC/LRV (armored personnel carrier/light reconnaissance vehicle).
  • M113A1 APC(A) (ambulance).
  • M113A1 FSV (Scorpion) (fire support vehicle Scorpion turret). This is now called the Medium Reconnaissance Vehicle.
  • M113A1 FSV (Saladin) (fire support vehicle Saladin turret).
  • M577A1 ACV (armored command vehicle).
  • M125A1 APC(M) (carrier mortar).
  • M806A1 (armored recovery vehicle, light).
  • M113A1 APC(F) (carrier, repair fitters).
  • M548 TLC (tracked load carrier).

(2) Belgium. Belgium Mechanical Fabrications has built 525 M113 series vehicles under license for the Belgian Army. These vehicles are in a number of different variants.

(3) Brazil. The Brazilian Army has about 600 M113 series vehicles. They have their original gasoline engines replaced with a Brazilian-built Mercedes-Benz diesel.

(4) Canada. Canada has about 900 M113A1 series vehicles, including the basic APC, the M577A1 command post vehicle, the M113A1 engineer vehicle with a hydraulically-operated dozer blade in front, the M548 tracked cargo carrier, and the Lynx command and reconnaissance vehicle. Canada recently took delivery of 36 Oerlikon-Buhrle ADATS systems on a modified APC, as well as 64 TOW Under Armor (TUA) vehicles, plus ordered another 64 TUAs. The TUA is a Norwegian Kvaerner-Eureka Armored Launching Turret made in Canada under license by Invar Manufacturing.

(5) Denmark. Denmark recently ordered 50 M113 series vehicles fitted with a 25-mm cannon turret, in addition to its 530 basic M113 series vehicles in service.

(6) Egypt. In 1980, Egypt ordered 500 M113A2s. In 1984, the Pentagon offered to supply 354 M113A2 APCs, 19 Mortar carriers, 13 M577A2 command post vehicles, 23 M113A2 armored ambulances, 33 M548A1 ammunition carriers, 52 fitters vehicles and 43 M806E1 armored recovery vehicles. Egypt also developed an applique armor kit, and uses a locally-produced Soviet 120-mm mortar. A modified M113A2 chassis has a one-man power-operated turret with twin 23-mm cannons manufactured in Egypt. It has an Officine Galileo fire control system and an Electronique Serge Dassault surveillance radar. It also has the locally-built Sakr Eye SAM which is an improved version of the Soviet SA-7 Grail.

(7) Germany. One of the largest users of the M113 is Germany, who developed a number of versions. This includes radar vehicles fitted with the RATAC battlefield artillery radar and the Green Archer mortar-locating radar, an artillery observation post vehicle, 120-mm mortar carrier, and modifications to the basic APC. Most have eight smoke dischargers on the front of the hull, and are armed with a single 7.62-mm MG3 machine gun.

Conversion kits for the M113 series offered by Thyssen Henschel are:

KrKw M113A1G armored ambulance
PzM M113A1G self-propelled mortar (120-mm)
ABRA M113A1G artillery observation vehicle (with RATAC)
FlgltPz M113A1G armored air control vehicle
Beob PzArt M113A1G armored artillery provision vehicle
RkPzArt M113A1G artillery aiming circle vehicle
GepGefStdFzg M113A1G command cell
GepGefStdFzg M577A1G command post facility variant
GepGefStdFzg M577A1G information cell
GepGefStdFzg M577A1G air support cell

Thyssen Henschel also offers: low wear track, M113A2 suspension, cooling, rear external fuel tanks, hydrostatic steering system, more powerful diesel engine, supplementary armor, NBC protection and, various turret systems.

Artillery batteries have an integrated fire control system called the Integrierte Feuerleitmittel fur Artillerie Batterie (IFAB) developed by Thyssen Henschel. This has three main components: forward observer vehicle on M113A1 chassis, fire direction center vehicle on an M577A1G chassis, and data installation kits for the weapons.

Germany also use an artillery observation vehicle called the Beobachtungs-panzer Artilleries. It has a laser rangefinder and a land navigation system. There are three versions of the M577 IFAB command post vehicle: the command cell, the teleprinter cell, and the information cell.

Germany has approximately 500 mortar carriers with a Tampella 120-mm mortar in back that fires to the rear. It carries 63 mortar bombs, or only 23 when afloat.

(8) Israel. The Israelis call the M113 the Zelda. The trim vanes were removed from most vehicles. An extension was fitted to the exhaust so fumes do not blow back into the troop compartment when driving with hatches open. Up to four 7.62-mm or 12.7-mm machine guns may be mounted on top. Racks may be fitted on either side of the hull for personnel kits or other stores to give more room in the troop compartment.

The Israeli Army uses many specialized versions of the M113A1. There is an anti-tank version equipped with the Hughes TOW ATGW system, a forward ambulance, a forward engineer vehicle, modified M577 command vehicles, 60-mm Soltam mortar carriers, and technical support vehicles. A new type of armor can be fitted to the front, sides, and rear.

A RAMTA Improved TOW Vehicle has a TOW ATGW launcher that retracts hydraulically into the hull. The gunner rises on a special platform along with the complete system. The vehicle carries 10 missiles internally.

(9) Italy. Italy uses several versions of the M113. These include the M577 command post vehicles and M548 tracked cargo carriers. Italy also developed an infantry armored fighting vehicle.

There is also the SIDAM 25 (4 x 25-mm) self-propelled antiaircraft gun system. This vehicle has a power-operated turret with a day-only fire-control system. Key modifications to the chassis are:

  • Replacement of the existing engine by a more powerful Detroit Diesel 6V-53T developing 265 horsepower.
  • Two new fuel tanks mounted one on either side externally at the hull rear, giving a total capacity of 360 liters.
  • Modifying the top deck for an improved reverse-flow cooling system.
  • Reinforcement of the idler wheel mounts and repositioning the shock absorber supports.
  • The existing fan is replaced together with a new air cleaner and silencer.
  • The existing transmission is modified or replaced.
  • Stronger torsion bars.

The combat engineer vehicle has additional armor, a dozer blade, three-ton hydraulic crane, and a 10-ton winch with rear stabilizers.

(10) New Zealand. New Zealand has 72 M113A1 series APCs, some with the T50 turret. Some were rebuilt, and they include the M125A1 mortar carrier, M577A1 command vehicle, M579 fitters' vehicle, and the M806A1 armored recovery vehicle.

(11) Norway. The NM 135 was developed for the Norwegian Army. This has a new Swedish Hagglunds turret with a German Rheinmetall 20-mm Rh 202 cannon. Mounted coaxially to the right is a 7.62-mm machine gun. The turret is behind the engine. The commander's hatch is immediately to the rear of the driver.

(12) Pakistan. The Pakistani Army has a fleet of around 800 M113 series vehicles. Some of these have been fitted with Improved TOW and RBS 70 surface-to-air missile launchers. A new locally built air-defense version has four locally-built SA-7/HN-5 series SAMs and two 14.5-mm KPV series machine guns elevated on a pedestal.

(13) Singapore. Chartered Industries of Singapore converted the M113 to a 120-mm or 81-mm mortar carrier which is in service with the Singapore Army and is offered for export.

(14) Spain. Spain has the M113, M113A1, M113A2, M548 tracked cargo carrier, M577 command post vehicle, M113 series recovery vehicle, and the M125 81-mm mortar carrier. They are also completely overhauled in Spain. The Spanish Army has a 120mm mortar that fires out the rear. A baseplate is carried externally on the left side of the hull.

(15) Switzerland. The Swiss Army calls the basic APC the Schutzenpanzer 63. Many have the Swedish Hagglund turret with 20-mm cannon. Other versions in service are:

  • Bulldozer model (called the Geniepanzer 63).
  • Command vehicle (Schutzenpanzer Kdo Spz-63).
  • 120-mm mortar carrier (Minenwerferpanzer 64).
  • Command vehicle (Kommandopanzer 63).
  • Command vehicle with turret-mounted 20-mm cannon (Kommandopanzer 63/73).
  • Repair vehicle (Kranpanzer 63).
  • Wireless vehicle (Ubermittlungspanzer 63).
  • Artillery command vehicle (Feuerleitpanzer 63).

(16) Vietnam. The Vietnamese Army in 1985 was observed to be still using significant numbers of American M113 series APCs, including a version similar to the ACAV but with the 12.7mm M2 HB machine gun replaced by a former Soviet 12.7-mm DShkM machine gun. The two lateral machine guns also were retained, but probably the original M60 series 7.62-mm machine guns have been replaced by former Soviet weapons of the same caliber. The Vietnamese Army in 1987 was using a flamethrower version of the M113 and ACAV models with add-on armor.

The M113 series is in service with:

Argentina Israel Portugal
Australia Italy Saudi Arabia
Belgium Jordan Singapore
Bolivia Kampuchea Somalia
Brazil Korea, South Spain
Canada Kuwait Sudan
Chile Laos Switzerland
Costa Rica Lebanon Taiwan
Denmark Libya Thailand
Ecuador Morocco Tunisia
Egypt Netherlands Turkey
El Salvador New Zealand USA
Ethiopia Norway Uruguay
Germany Pakistan Vietnam
Greece Peru Yemen, North
Guatemala Philippines Zaire
Iran    

7. Renault VAB Armored Personnel Carrier (France).

The Forward Area Armored Vehicle (VAB or Vehicule de 1'Avant Blinde) is employed as a squad armored personnel carrier, ATGM, cargo carrier, and 120-mm mortar towing vehicle. These roles supplement the more expensive and sophisticated tracked AMX-10P for mechanized infantry units. The VAB is used in either a 4 x 4 or a 6 x 6 configuration. Figure 2-7 shows the basic (4 x 4) version of the VAB as used by the French Army.

Figure 2-7. French 4 x 4 VAB.

a. Variants. There are a number of configurations available for the VAB. These variants are discussed below.

(1) Vehicule de Combat de l'Infanterie (VCI). The infantry combat vehicle is available in several variations, as shown at the top of next page.

(a) VAB VCI TL 20S. This vehicle has a crew of 10 to 12. It has a 20-mm cannon in a Creusot-Loire Industrie TL 20S manually-operated turret. The turret has a foldable seat and no basket in the vehicle. The vehicle carries 900 rounds of 20-mm ammunition.

(b) VAB VCI T 20. This version has a crew of 9 to 11 and is equipped with a T 20 electrically operated turret. The turret is armed with a 20-mm cannon and a coaxially mounted 7.62-mm machine gun. There are 720 rounds of 20-mm ammunition and 2,200 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition.

(c) VAB VCI T 25. A two-man T 25 turret is electrically operated and is armed with a 25-mm cannon and a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun. The turret has two rear-opening hatch covers. The vehicle carries 530 rounds of 20-mm and 1,200 rounds of 7.62 ammunition. There is a crew of eight.

(d) VAB VCI Dragar. This VCI has a crew of eight and is fitted with the GIAT Dragar turret which has a 25-mm cannon and a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun. The VCI Dragar carries 620 rounds of 25-mm and 1,400 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition.

(e) VAB VCI Toucan. A Toucan 1 turret armed with a 20-mm cannon and one 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun is fitted on this model. There is a crew of 11. It is in service with the French Air Force as a Vehicule d'Intervention sur Base (VIB).

(2) VAB Echelon (Repair Vehicle). This vehicle is equipped with welding equipment, a work bench, and tools. The three-man crew carries out vehicle repairs in the field. It has a Creusot-Loire Industrie TLI 52A turret.

(3) VCAC High-Subsonic Optically Tracked (HOT) (Anti Tank) Mephisto. The French Army has the 4 x 4 model which is the basic VAB with the Euromissile Mephisto system with four ready-to-launch HOT missiles. The vehicle also carries eight more missiles in reserve in the hull. When the launcher is retracted into the hull for travelling it is difficult to distinguish from the APC version. There is a crew of four.

(4) VCAC HOT (Anti-tank) UTM 800. This export model is in service with Qatar. Cyprus also has 18 systems. It has a Euromissile UTM 800 turret with four ready-to-launch HOT missiles. Another 16 missiles are in reserve in the hull. It has a four-man crew.

(5) VAB RATAC and VAB ATILA. These two VABs are in French artillery regiments of armored divisions. The French Army also has reconnaissance squadrons with the VAB RASIT ground surveillance radar.

The VAB RATAC is a mobile firing radar system for field artillery and has a 20-km range Doppler radar on the roof. A generator is on the right side of the hull. A five-man crew includes two radar operators and one radio operator.

The VAB ATILA is a mobile automatic data transmission system fitted out as a mobile data teleprocessing center for various command post levels.

(6) VAB PC (Command Vehicle). This is a basic VAB with mapboards and additional communications equipment, carries a crew of six. It is used as a fire direction center (VAB FDC) and forward observation officer vehicle (VAB FOO), acting as part of the ATILA system. It also mounts parts of the RITA communications system.

(7) VAB Transmission. This model has communications equipment with seats for the operators. It is also used for the RITA Automatic Integrated Transmission Network.

(8) Engineer Vehicle. Called the VAB Genie, this version of the VAB carries engineer equipment and a rubber dingy on the roof. There is a crew of nine.

(9) Electronic Warfare Vehicle. Called the Bromure, this model has a three-man crew with electronic-warfare equipment at the rear.

(10) VAB Sanitaire (Ambulance). This unarmed version carries 4 stretcher or 10 seated patients, or 2 stretcher and 5 seated patients. It has air-conditioning and first-aid equipment.

(11) VMO (Internal Security Vehicle). The Vehicule de Securite export model is fitted with various light armament installations. It may have a Creusot-Loire Industrie TLI 52 A with a 7.62-mm machine gun, or the Creusot-Loire Industrie TLI 52 G turret. A hydraulic obstacle-clearing blade is in front. It has special protection against Molotov cocktails. In the rear and sides are special firing ports with vision blocks. It has a loudspeaker system and optional equipment such as front-mounted winch, heater, air conditioner, and radios. Abu Dhabi has a number of these.

(12) VTM 120 (Mortar Towing Vehicle). This Vehicule Tracteur de Mortier tows a Thomson-Brandt 120-mm mortar, has a six-man crew, and a TLI 52 A turret at the front. The vehicle carries 70 mortar bombs.

(13) VPM 81 (Mortar Carrier). This model has an 81-mm mortar that fires through a two-part opening in the roof. Qatar uses this version in a 6 x 6 configuration with a 7.62-mm machine gun turret in front.

(14) VAB NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle. Called the VAB Reco, this version has nuclear fallout sensors and a series of devices to collect and analyze chemical agents from inside of the vehicle. It should be produced in 1992.

(15) Twin 20-mm SPAAG. The Omani Royal Guard has nine VAB 6 x 6 vehicles with the Electronic Serge Dassault one-man 20-mm turret for use in air defense. Three of these are also equipped with radar.

b. Recognition Features. The key recognition features are as follows:

  • Rectangular hull.
  • Blunt nose.
  • Two or three large wheels with rubber tires on each side.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The French Army has the basic model 4 x 4 VAB VTT (Vehicule Transport de Troupe). It has a crew of 2 (commander/machine gunner and driver) and holds 10 fully-equipped infantrymen.

The VAB has an all-welded steel hull for small-arms protection. At the front left is the driver. To his right is the commander/machine gunner. Both have a side door opening to the front. The door has a bullet-proof window which is hinged at the top in its upper part. The window opens outward and can be covered with a shutter. Heated bullet-proof windshields in front have a flap hinged at the top. Over the driver is a front-opening hatch cover. The commander has a rotating 7.62-mm machine gun mount.

Behind the driver is the engine compartment that has air inlet and outlet louvers on the roof, and an exhaust pipe running along the top of the hull on the right side. A passageway on the right side of the hull connects the crew compartment with the personnel compartment. Infantrymen enter and leave the VAB through a double door without a central pillar at the rear of the hull. Each door has a window opening to the outside and covered by an armored shutter.

Infantrymen sit on bench seats along either side of the hull. In the sides are three windows that open to the outside and are covered by armored shutters. Troops can use these to fire small arms. There are three front-opening hatches over the troop compartment. The compartment is 2.46 meters long, 1.375 meters wide and 1.35 meters high. Seats can be quickly folded up for cargo up to 2,000 kg. The French Army also uses the VAB for MILAN anti-tank teams.

Optional equipment includes an air-conditioning system, armored grenade thrower hood, firing gun port with integral observation port, gas dispenser, NBC system (standard for French Army), infrared or passive night vision equipment, public address system, and a 7,000-kg front-mounted winch.

The VAB is fully amphibious. It has two water jets at the rear of the hull, each fitted with a deflector for steering and reverse thrust. Before entering the water, the crew turns on the bilge pumps and erects the trim vane on the bow of the vehicle.

At present, not all of the French VABs are equipped with water jets.

Measurements*
Crew, 2 Track, 2.035 meters
Passengers, 10 Wheelbase, 3 [1.5 - 1.5] meters
Configuration, 4 x 4 [6 x 6] Speed, road, 92 km/h
Weight, 13,000 [14,200] kg Speed, water, 7 km/h
Length, 5.98 meters Fuel capacity, 300 liters
Width, 2.49 meters Range, 1,000 km
Height, 2 meters  
Ground clearance, 0.4 meters  


*Specifications indicated by square brackets [] are for 6 x 6 configurated vehicles.

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The VAB can

  • cross a 1-meter trench (6 x 6 only).
  • mount a .5-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 50-percent grade.
  • climb a 35-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. Armament for the VAB varies. Current production models for the French Army include a 12.7-mm M2 machine gun. Some versions have a 7.62-mm machine gun mount. Some versions have HOT ATGWs, some have a 25-mm cannon and one 7.62-mm machine gun, some have a 20-mm cannon, while still others have an 81-mm mortar.

f. Countries Served. The VAB is in service in the following countries:

Brunei Mauritius
Central African Republic Morocco
Cyprus Oman
France Qatar
Ivory Coast United Arab Emirates
Lebanon  

The VAB is also in service in other undisclosed countries, including some in the Middle East.

8. YP-408 Armored Personnel Carrier (Netherlands) (Figure 2-8).

In 1984 the Netherlands Army had eight battalions of YP-408s, but all were due to be phased out by1989. They are being replaced by FMC armored infantry fighting vehicle (AIFV), called the YPR 765 by the Netherlands Army. Surinam has Five YP-408s. The YP408 APC served in Lebanon where it was painted white for UN troops. Many YP-408s are being refurbished for export.

Figure 2-8. YP-408 (8 x 8) APC.

a. Variants. There are several variants of the YP-408. These are discussed in the following subparagraphs.

(1) PWI-S(GR). Pantser Wagen Infanterie-Standaard (Groep) is the Dutch designation for the basic APC.

(2) PWI-S(PC) (Command Vehicle). This platoon commander's vehicle is similar to the PWI-S(GR) but is equipped with additional communications equipment and another periscope is mounted at the rear. The vehicle has a crew of nine, which includes the platoon commander, gunner, driver, and six infantrymen.

(3) PWCO (Command Vehicle). Externally recognizable by its three radio antennas, this company or battalion commander's vehicle has a commander, three staff men, driver and gunner. The seats on the left have been replaced with a folding table, mapboard, and additional communications equipment. A tent can be erected at the rear. The heater works independently of the main engine. A flexible exhaust pipe prevents gases entering the vehicle when it is stationary.

(4) PW-GWT (Ambulance). This unarmed model has a driver and two medical orderlies. It can carry two stretcher patients and four seated patients. Spare stretchers may be carried on the outside.

(5) PW-V (Freight). Internally the same as the PW-GWT, this can be converted to an ambulance. It does not have a radio as standard equipment. It can carry 1,500 kg of cargo, and is crewed by a driver and a gunner.

(6) PW-MT (Mortar Tractor). This version carries a seven-man mortar team and 50 mortar bombs kept in position with a special rack. The vehicle tows a French 120-mm Thomson-Brandt mortar. The lower part of the rear doors have been shortened to allow them to open when the mortar is being towed.

(7) PWAT (Anti-tank Vehicle). This is the basic APC fitted with the Hughes TOW ATGW system.

(8) PWRDR (Radar). This model has the British ZB298 ground surveillance radar.

b. Recognition Features. The YP-408 has the following recognition features:

  • Four large wheels on each side.
  • Three trapezoid-shaped tool boxes mounted between the road wheels.
  • Sloping glacis plate with protruding engine hood.
  • Two rear doors.
  • Sloping sides with three troop compartment covers.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The YP-408 has an all-welded steel hull. The engine is in the front, the driver and gunner are behind the engine, and the personnel compartment is at the rear.

The driver sits to the rear of the engine on the left. The machine gunner is on the right. The driver's hatch cover opens to the left. He has a 360-degree traversable single periscope, one to the front, and another to the left. The driver's seat can be adjusted vertically for driving head out. A canvas cover with window and wiper can be fitted. The gunner has periscopes to the front and left. The gun mount for the 12.7-mm machine gun can be traversed through 360 degrees. The gunner has two hatch covers, each opening vertically to his side for some protection while using the machine gun.

The troop compartment has six hatch covers, three on each side of the roof. Five infantrymen sit on each side of the hull facing each other on bench seats. They enter and exit the vehicle through two doors in the rear which have firing ports.

The YP-408 has eight wheels. The second axle is not driven. If one of the tires of the first axle or rear tandem axle has a puncture, a wheel from the second front axle can be used as an emergency spare. The wheel with the puncture then is fitted on the second axle and suspended from the hull with a special chain to keep it clear of the ground. The tires have reinforced side walls for driving at a reduced speed of 50 km/h if punctured.

The YP-408 is not amphibious and has no NBC system. It does have a heater. It can be fitted with infrared night vision equipment.

The engine crankcase ventilation can be closed off by the driver from his seat. This creates an over-pressure in the crankcase when there is a risk of water entering the engine. An engine-driven air compressor supplies air to the brake system and also can be used to inflate the tires. Many automotive components of the YP-408 are the same as the DAF YA 328 (6 x 6) tactical truck. Specifications of the YP-408 are:

Measurements
Crew, 2 Ground clearance, 0.518 meters
Passengers, 10 Speed, 80 km/h
Configuration, 8 x 6 Fuel capacity, 200 liters
Combat weight, 12,000 kg Range, 400-500 km
Length, 6.23 meters Tires, 11 x 20
Width, 2.4 meters Armor, 8-15mm
Hull Height, 1.8 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The YP-408 can

  • cross a 1.2-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.7-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 70-percent side slope.
  • ford 1.2 meters.

e. Armament Characteristics. The YP-408 has a 12.7-mm machine gun. There are three smoke dischargers on each side of the hull front.

f. Countries Served. The YP-408 is in service in the Netherlands and in Surinam.

9. AMX 10P Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV) (France) (Figure 2-9).

Figure 2-9. AMX 10P.

The AMX 10P was developed in 1965 to replace the AMX VCI which was based on the chassis of the AMX 13 light tank.

a. Variants. There are several variants of the AMX 10P. These are discussed in the following paragraphs.

(1) AMX-10P 25 ICV. This is the standard AMX-10P hull without the two-man turret. In the center is a new GIAT Dragar one-man turret with a 25-mm dual-feed cannon which has 175 rounds of high explosive and 45 rounds of armor-piercing ammunition for ready use. Mounted coaxially is a 7.62-mm machine gun with 200 rounds of ready-use ammunition. A thermal camera and stabilized turret are optional. The gunner has four forward periscopes and two rear vision blocks. The commander sits to the left of the turret; has a hatch cover opening to the front, and six periscopes.

(2) AMX-10P Marine. Used by the Indonesian Marines, this version has a Baudouin 6 F11 SRX diesel engine and is specially modified for naval operations. A 12-inch water jet gives a water speed of 10 km/h. The vehicle has reinforced waterproofing, special protection against salt corrosion, four bilge pumps, streamlined track links, new air intakes, side rings, and an emergency pneumatic engine starter. A strong transparent wave breaker on the front can be raised and lowered hydraulically by the driver. In place of the 2-man turret is a turret with externally-mounted 12.7-mm machine gun mounted over the rear troop compartment. The vehicle has a 2-man crew and can carry a 13-man landing party.

(3) AMX-10 Ambulance. This unarmed version has a fixed commander's cupola with three forward vision blocks. There is a driver and two orderlies. There can be three stretcher patients or one stretcher and four seated patients. The ambulance has air conditioning, a searchlight, washing facilities, oxygen, and blood-transfusion equipment.

(4) AMX-10 ECH Repair Vehicle. This vehicle has the Toucan I one-man turret. There is a crew of five which consists of the commander/chief mechanic, three mechanics, and the driver. There is a 6,000 kg capacity crane mounted on the right side of the roof at the rear. When the crane is being used, two jacks are positioned under the rear of the hull between the ground and the floor of the vehicle. The vehicle is used to change engines on other vehicles of the AMX 10P family. It is also used for changing torsion bars on AMX 10Ps and on AMX 30s.

(5) AMX-10 HOT (Anti-tank). This model is the basic AMX 10P with the Toucan II turret replaced by a new two-man Lancelot turret. It has 4 ready-to-launch HOT missiles and 14 more in the rear of the hull. The crew of five consists of the commander and gunner in the turret, two missile loaders, and the driver. The missiles are launched by the gunner who is seated on the left side of the turret. The gunner has an M509 sight, and the commander has a laser rangefinder with a range of 8,000 meters. The turret also has six periscopes and two vision blocks. The only known user of the vehicle is Saudi Arabia.

(6) AMX-10 PC Command Vehicle. This is the command version of the AMX 10P. It is identical to the basic vehicle except that it has additional communications equipment and a crew of six (two officers, one NCO, two radio operators, and the driver). There is a portable generator mounted on the top of the hull at the rear which is placed on the ground when the vehicle is being used in a static role. Two of the vehicles can be placed back-to-back with a canopy erected between them. In addition, an awning can be erected at the side of the hull.

(7) AMX-10P with RATAC. A roof-mounted Radar For Field Artillery Fire (RATAC) takes place of a turret. The crew consists of a commander, radar operator, assistant radar operator, radio operator, and driver. The radar operates in four modes: ground surveillance, acquisition and identification, angular deviation, and automatic tracking. The radar is in the forward part of the vehicle on the right side, and the radar console is behind it. The plotting table is at the rear of the vehicle on the right. The vehicle also has a navigation system and an identification system. Height including radar is 2.84 meters. At least 24 have been sold to Saudi Arabia.

(8) AMX-10RC. This reconnaissance vehicle is armed with a turret-mounted 155-mm gun. The vehicle has a 6 x 6 configuration and shares many automotive components with the AMX10P.

(9) AMX-10 SAO (Artillery Observation Vehicle). This vehicle is used for battlefield observation and artillery fire control. It is an AMX-10P with its Toucan II turret replaced by a new two-man turret armed with an externally-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun on the right side. There are four electrically-operated smoke dischargers on the top of the turret. The turret has a laser rangefinder with an 8,000-meter range. The rangefinder is coupled to a day sight with a x8 magnification and a night sight with a x4.5 magnification. The turret also has a binocular telescope with a magnification of x2.5 and x10. The crew of five consists of the commander (who normally operates the binocular telescope), second in command (who normally operates the laser rangefinder), two radio operators, and a driver. This vehicle is equipped with a vehicle attitude corrector which enables it to establish its exact position.

(10) AMX-10 SAT (Artillery Survey Vehicle). This is the AMX-10 PC command vehicle modified internally for a gyrostabilized theodolite, topographic survey theodolite, distance measuring equipment, and navigation system.

(11) AMX-10 TM (Mortar Tractor). This version has a Toucan I turret with a 20-mm cannon and a 7.62-mm machine gun. It tows a 120-mm Thomson-Brandt rifled mortar and carries 60 rounds of ammunition. There is a crew of six.

(12) AMX-10 VOA (Artillery Observer Vehicle). This artillery observer vehicle is based on the AMX 10P command vehicle chassis. It has a crew of four, consisting of the commander, the observer, a radio operator, and a driver. The turret is manned by one or two men. The turret has equipment for day and night observation and for local defense. The turret equipment enables the acquisition of target coordinates and the manual or automatic transmission of artillery messages. There is a 7.62-mm machine gun and four smoke dischargers.

(13) AMX-10 SAF. Also known as the AMX-10PC SAF, this model is used with the ATILA artillery fire control system. It has a five-man crew, auxiliary power unit, two air conditioning systems for the electronics and crew, a computer, a data processing center (including screen and keyboard), and three radio sets.

(14) AMX-10 PAC 90 Fire Support Vehicle. This version basically consists of an AMX 10P ICV hull equipped with the GIAT TS 90 turret. The Indonesian Marine models of this vehicle have automotive characteristics and modifications similar to the AMX 10P Marines previously described. The primary role of the AMX 10 PAC is anti-tank and fire support on the battlefield at ranges of between 1,000 and 2,500 meters. It can also be used as a reconnaissance vehicle or as an APC. It can also transport MILAN anti-tank or 81-mm mortar teams.

The 90-mm gun can fire canister, HE, HE long range, HEAT, smoke, and APFSDS ammunition. The turret carries 20 rounds of ammunition, 12 HEAT and 8 HE. Another 10 rounds are carried in the hull. There is a 7.62 machine gun mounted coaxially to the left of the main gun, and there are 2,000 rounds of ammunition for it in the turret and another 1,200 rounds in the hull. The vehicle has two smoke dischargers mounted on each side of the turret toward the rear.

The four infantrymen sit at the rear of the hull. They enter and leave by the large ramp in the hull rear which has two doors, each with a firing port. There are four periscopes in the rear of the troop compartment, one in each side and two at the rear.

b. Recognition Features. The AMX-10P has the following recognition features:

  • Fully tracked.
  • Five road wheels and three return rollers.
  • Low silhouette.
  • Sloped front.
  • Turret mounted on the left side of the chassis over the fourth road wheel.
  • Turbine engine.
  • Trim vane on the front slope for amphibious operations.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The hull of the AMX 10P is made of all-welded aluminum. The driver's compartment is at the front of the vehicle on the left. The engine compartment is to his right. The troop compartment is at the rear of the hull. In front of the driver are three periscopes. Air inlet and outlet louvers are on top of the hull, and the exhaust outlet is in the right side of the hull. The complete powerpack can be replaced in two hours.

In the center, offset slightly to the left, is a two-man Toucan II turret. The gunner sits on the left and commander on the right. Both their hatch covers open to either side. The commander has a telescopic sight, a direct anti-aircraft sight, and a direct-fire external sight. The gunner has a periscope with various possible sight combinations. The commander and gunner also have seven periscopes for all-around view.

The AMX-10P is fully amphibious, but can be delivered without this capability. It is propelled by two water jets on either side of the ramp. Bilge pumps are in the engine and troop compartments. A trim vane is erected at the front, and stowed on the glacis plate when not in use. Standard equipment includes a heater and NBC system on the right side. Some key specifications are:

Measurements
Crew, 3 Track width, 420mm
Passengers, 8 Track length on ground, 3 meters
Combat Weight, 14,500 kg Road speed, 65 km/h
Hull length, 5.78 meters Water speed, 7 km/h
Hull width, 2.78 meters Fuel capacity, 528 liters
Overall height, 2.6 meters Maximum road range, 600 km
Ground clearance 0.45 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The AMX-10P can

  • cross a 2.1-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.7-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 30-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. Mounted externally on the turret is the 20-mm cannon. The gunner can select either high-explosive or armor-piercing rounds. He has a burst selector and a cyclic rate of fire of 700 rounds per minute. Maximum effective range is 1,500 meters. The turret carries 325 rounds of ready ammunition.

Above and to the right of the cannon is a 7.62-mm machine gun that fires 900 rounds per minute and has an effective range of 1,000 meters. A small searchlight is mounted coaxially with these guns. Two smoke dischargers are on either side of the forward part of the turret. The basic AMX-10P may also carry two Euromissile MILAN launchers with 10 missiles carried in the hull.

f. Countries Served. The AMX-10P is in service with:

France Saudi Arabia
Indonesia United Arab Emirates
Qatar  

10. Marder Infantry Combat Vehicle (Germany) (Figure 2-10).

The Marder infantry combat vehicle was built on a chassis which could be used for a number of basic vehicles. A new version called the Marder 2 is under development and will begin replacing the current vehicles in the German Army in the mid 1990s.

The Marder shown in Figure 2-10 has a 7.62-mm machine mounted on the rear. These machine guns are being removed.

Figure 2-10. Marder Infantry Combat Vehicle.

a. Variants. The following subparagraphs describe the variants of the Marder.

(1) A1 Upgrade. This four-crew model carries five infantrymen. It weighs 30,000 kg. Some 674 vehicles were upgraded to this standard. Main improvements include:

  • Better firepower from a double-belt feed for the 20-mm cannon.
  • Improved night capabilities with the installation of the PERI Z 59 night sight which uses image intensification technique with thermal pointer.
  • Remaining active infrared searchlight and sight are retained.

(2) A1A. The previous modifications were made to 1,112 vehicles, except that the passive vision equipment was not installed. All German Army Marders, except command vehicles, carry MILAN ATGW systems that reduce the number of infantrymen carried from six to five.

(3) A2. This modification includes the thermal imaging sight equipment instead of image-intensification equipment. The infrared searchlight on the left side of the turret is removed and the chassis and suspension are modified.

(4) A3. Starting in 1989, an armor package is being added to 2,100 Marders. To provide protection from the BMP-2 30-mm cannon, the 1,600-kg package includes the following:

  • Frontal armor on the hull.
  • Add-on armor on the glacis plate.
  • Conformal add-on armor on both sides of the turret.
  • Three box-type armor components on both sides of the hull. These block off the hull firing ports.
  • Spaced armor plates on the roof to cause premature detonation of top attack rounds.
  • Add-on armor with a stowage compartment at the rear door.

(5) Marder with Radar System. The Radarpanzer TUR (Tiefflieger-Uberwachungs-Radar) is an extensively-modified raised hull with a large hydraulic arm that raises a rotating acquisition radar to approximately 10 meters above ground. The RadarPz TUR hull was raised to accommodate the hydraulic, cooling, radio and data processing, power supply, display, and control equipment. The system is expected to enter service in the early 1990s and support the Roland and Gepard air defense systems. Basic specifications are:

Crew, 4 Armament, two banks of smoke dischargers at hull rear, 7.62-mm machine gun on each cupola.
Length, 7.2 meters
Width, 3.27 meters
Height, 3.58 meters
Range, 570 km

(6) Marder with LWT-3 Turret. This vehicle is a Marder equipped with a new turret armed with a 20-mm cannon which is fully stabilized. LWT-3 stands for Light Weapon Turret with three-axis stabilization.

(7) Roland Surface-to-air Missile System. The German Army has 144 Roland systems. Two missiles are at the ready-to-launch position, and another eight are in the hull ready for automatic loading. A rotating acquisition radar is mounted above a target dish radar that sits between two arms holding the missile tubes.

(8) TAM Medium Tank Family. The Tanque Argentino Mediano (TAM) developed for the Argentinean Army is described in Lesson One. Thyssen Henschel also developed 300 VCTP ICVs for Argentina. The VCTP is similar to the Marder but it has the following modifications:

  • a more powerful 720-hp engine.
  • a less sophisticated two-man turret with a 20-mm cannon and a 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine gun.
  • three gun ports in each side of the troop compartment.
  • two rectangular roof hatches hinged on the outside.
  • a remote-controlled 7.62-mm machine gun at the hull rear.
  • a capacity of 12 men including the crew.
  • 75 km/h maximum road speed.
  • two rear fuel tank drums for an increased range of 800 km.

The TAM/VCTP chassis has been used for a range of vehicles, including:

  • 155-mm self-propelled gun (using the turret of the French 155-mm GCT).
  • 57-mm Support Tank, or Begleitpanzer.
  • 57-mm anti-aircraft vehicle.
  • Dragon twin 30-mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun system.

b. Recognition Features. The Marder has the following recognition features:

  • Fully tracked.
  • Six road wheels with three support rollers.
  • Gun mounted on the turret.
  • Two firing ports on each side.
  • Long hull with inward-sloping sides.
  • Remote-controlled machine gun facing the rear.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The driver sits in the front left side of the hull. His hatch cover opens to the right, and in front of him are three periscopes. To his rear sits one infantryman who has a hatch cover opening to the right, and a periscope traversable through 360 degrees.

A two-man turret on the forward part of the roof holds the commander on the right and gunner on the left. The commander's hatch cover opens to the right, and the gunner's to the rear. The commander has eight periscopes for all-around viewing, and the gunner has three.

The Marder hull protects against small-arms fire and shell splinters. The front protects against 20-mm projectiles. Six infantrymen sit in the rear troop compartment, three on each side facing outward. Their seats can be adjusted so four men can sleep.

A power-operated ramp at the rear opens downwards. On either side of the roof are two circular roof hatches and three periscopes. Two spherical firing ports are on each side are used in conjunction with periscopes for four infantrymen to use their weapons in complete safety. All Marders have an NBC system.

A cooling fan sucks air through grills on top to the radiators mounted at the rear of the hull, one on each side of the ramp.

Measurements
Crew, 9 Track width, 450mm
Combat weight, 29,207 kg Track length on ground, 3.9 meters
Length, 6.79 meters Speed, 75 km/h
Width, 3.24 meters Fuel capacity, 652 liters
Height, 1.9 meters (hull) Range, 520 km
Track, 2.62 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Marder can

  • cross a 2.5-meter trench.
  • mount a 1-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 30-percent side slope.
  • ford 1.5 meters.
  • ford 2.5 meters with preparation.

e. Armament Characteristics. The externally-mounted 20-mm Rheinmetall MK 20 Rh 202 cannon elevates from -17 to +65 degrees, and traverses 360 degrees. Three different belts feed the cannon, so the gunner can select types of ammunition such as armor piercing or high explosive. The gun is sighted by the use of various periscopes including infrared night vision.

Coaxially mounted above and to the right of the cannon is a 7.62-mm machine gun. To the left of the cannon are six smoke dischargers. Also to the left of the gun is a searchlight, which is removed when the thermal sight is added. A remote-controlled 7.62-mm machine gun was mounted on top in the rear, but these turrets are now being removed.

The West German Army fitted all Marders except command vehicles with a Euromissile MILAN ATGW launcher.

f. Countries Served. The Marder is used in Germany, Argentina, and Brazil.

11. M2 and M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles (U.S.) (Figure 2-11).

M2 is the designation for the infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), and M3 is the cavalry fighting vehicle (CFV). The two vehicles are externally identical.

Figure 2-11. M2 Bradley IFV.

a. Variants.

(1) M2A1 and M3A1 Bradleys. First delivered in 1986, the M2A1 and M3A1 can fire all versions of the Hughes TOW ATGW, including the full-diameter TOW 2 with maximum range of 3,750 meters.

Both models have an improved NBC system. The M2A1 has a central NBC system for the commander, gunner, and driver, while the dismounted infantrymen in the rear have their own NBC suits and masks which allow them to leave the vehicle quickly.

Other improvements include:

  • Turret power indicator.
  • Padding for the driver's station.
  • Redesigned weapons interlock and top deck clearance arrangements.
  • Simplified stowage strapping.
  • New on-board rations.
  • Two camouflage nets.
  • Replacement of the single water tank by two smaller ones with the same total capacity.

The M2A1 has the Dragon AN/TAS-5 night sight, and up to five Dragons are carried in place of TOWs. Mine and flare stowage was re-arranged for more mines and fewer flares. The M3/M3A1 does not have the firing ports and associated vision blocks of the M2/M2A1. This cavalry version has two individual seats with four periscopes in the missile loading hatch. The M2A1/M3A1 also has revised fuel and fire-suppression systems.

A second set of improvements starting in 1988 included:

  • Enhanced vehicle survivability by restowing ammunition and fuel.
  • Internal armor protection of key components.
  • Spall liners and improved vehicle smoke screening.
  • Additional armor protection including explosive-reactive armor for hull and turret.
  • A ballistic shroud to be provided for the commander's back-up sight.
  • Introduction of a new 25-mm round.
  • Improved drive train and suspension.

(2) High Survivability Bradley. This vehicle features additional armor protection. This increases the weight to approximately 30,000 kg. It is powered by a 600 horsepower engine instead of the 500 horsepower production model.

(3) Multiple Launch Rocket System. The MLRS (M993) has been designed for the Bradley in forward battlefield areas. It is carried on the M987 Fighting Vehicle Systems Carrier. Another member of this family is the Armored, Forward-Area, Rearm Vehicle (AFARV) which rearms main battle tanks and other vehicles. Recent variants on this chassis in the testing stages are the Armored Maintenance Vehicle and the Electronic System Carrier.

(4) Bradley Air Defense Vehicle. The U.S. Army selected the Bradley chassis to mount a Oerlikon-Buhrle ADATS air defense system. It is a power-operated turret with electro-optics in the center and four ADATS missiles in the ready-to-launch position either side of the turret.

b. Recognition Features. In the front left sits the driver with a rear-opening hatch cover. He has four periscopes, three to the front and one to the left side.

The turret is in the center on the right side of the vehicle. The gunner sits on the left, and the commander on the right, each with a rear-opening hatch cover. Each have periscopes to the front and side. The gunner has a day/thermal night sight with optical relay for the commander. Main features are:

  • Fully tracked.
  • Six road wheels (gap between third and fourth road wheels).
  • Straight skirting.
  • Center-mounted turret with a TOW launcher on the left side.
  • Amphibious.
  • 25-mm gun.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The hull of the M2 is made of all-welded aluminum armor with spaced laminate armor fitted to the hull, sides, and rear. The manufacturer claims that the armor can defeat 95 percent of all the types of ballistic attack encountered on the battlefield under IFV/CFV doctrine. Latest production M2A2/M3A3 Bradleys have an additional layer of applique steel armor, plus explosive-reactive armor.

The M2 holds seven infantrymen. The M2A2 holds a six-man squad after elimination of the seat to the rear of the driver's position.

The commander dismounts with the infantrymen through the rear. A large hydraulic ramp has an integral door in the left side. Over the top of the troop compartment is a rear-opening hatch cover. There are six firing ports: two in each side of the hull and two at the rear. Each has a periscope over it, enabling infantrymen to fire M231 5.56-mm weapons from inside. The M2A2 has no side firing ports, but retains the two in the ramp.

Torsion-bar suspension on each side supports six dual rubber-tired road wheels, with drive sprocket in front. There are two track-return rollers. Hydraulic shock absorbers are on the first, second, third, and sixth road wheels. The single-pin tracks have replaceable rubber pads.

The M2 is amphibious and propelled in the water by its tracks. A special water barrier can be erected in about five minutes. The M2A2/M3A2 has a redesigned water barrier. Another program is looking at inflatable bags which would be attached to the armored skirts on each side. These can be inflated with a simple onboard blower in less than four minutes without the crew leaving the vehicle. When afloat, the bags will be completely submerged under water. If one is punctured by small arms fire, it will be topped up with air by the blower.

When airlifted in the C-141 Starlifter, the head of the gunner's integral sight, and the skirt plates are removed in all road arm positions (six each side) are snubbed in the up position using the steel cables provided.

Measurements*
Crew, 3, Ground clearance, 0.432 meters
Passengers, 6 [2] Road speed, 66 km/h
Combat weight, 22,590 [22,443] kg Water speed, 7.2 km/h
Length, 6.453 meters Fuel capacity, 662 liters
Width, 3.2 meters Range, 483 km
Height to turret roof, 2.565 meters Armor, aluminum or laminate
* [] indicates M3.

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Bradley can

  • cross a 2.54-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.914-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 40-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The main gun is a McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company M242 25-mm Chain Gun. Mounted coaxially to the right is a 7.62-mm M240C machine gun. The 25-mm automatic cannon has dual feed and fires various armor-piercing and high-explosive ammunition at a range up to 3,500 meters. The M791 APDS-T ammunition can defeat the BMP-1 at a range of 2,500 meters. The gunner can select single shots, 100, or 200 rounds-per-minute rates of fire. Empty cartridge cases are automatically ejected outside. Maximum effective range is 1,400 meters. The turret has a stabilization system which allows firing while on the move.

The Bradley also has the Hughes TOW with a twin tube launcher retracted along the left side of the turret when not in use. The TOW can engage enemy armor out to 3,750 meters.

On the front of the turret are two smoke dischargers, with four smoke grenades in each. Also there is an engine smoke-generating system similar to that on most former Soviet vehicles.

f. Countries Served. The Bradley is in service with the U.S. Army and on order with Saudi Arabia.

12. Wheeled Light Armored Vehicles (Canada) (Cougar, Grizzly, and Husky).

The Canadian Armed Forces selected a Swiss MOWAG Piranha (6 x 6) as a basis for an armored vehicle, general purpose (AVGP). The Canadians have three versions of the Piranha. They are the Cougar 76-mm gun, wheeled fire support vehicle (WFSV), the Grizzly wheeled armored personnel carrier (WAPC), and the Husky wheeled maintenance and recovery vehicle (WMRV). The Cougar is shown in Figure 2-12.

Figure 2-12. Cougar Wheeled Fire Support Vehicle.

a. Variants. The three versions are discussed in the following subparagraphs.

(1) Cougar 76-mm Gun Wheeled Fire Support Vehicle (WFSV). A total of 195 Cougars were built. It is the basic vehicle fitted with basically the same turret used on the British CVR(T) Scorpion and the Australian M113A1 fire support vehicle. The turret has a 7.62-mm machine gun mounted coaxially to a 76-mm L23A1 main gun and four smoke dischargers on either side. Ten rounds of 76-mm and 220 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition are carried in the turret, and 30 rounds of 76-mm and 15 boxes of 7.62-mm ammunition are in reserve in the hull. The Cougar has a crew of three. It carries a laser rangefinder.

(2) Grizzly Wheeled Armored Personnel Carrier (WAPC). This is the basic vehicle fitted with a Cadillac Gage 1m turret armed with a 12.7-mm machine gun, a 7.62-mm machine gun, and four smoke dischargers on either side. The Grizzly carries 10 boxes of 12.7-mm ammunition and 18 boxes of 7.62-mm ammunition. The hull sides and rear have firing ports and vision blocks. The Grizzly has a three-man crew, and carries eight fully-equipped infantrymen.

(3) Husky Wheeled Maintenance and Recovery Vehicle (WMRV). This vehicle has a crew of three. It is equipped with a 4,536-kg capacity crane. The vehicle is used for field repair and recovery work.

b. Recognition Features. Some key features are:

  • Three road wheels on each side with a large gap between the first and second.
  • Long glacis.
  • Two-man turret.
  • Two gun ports on each side.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. All vehicles have heaters for the engine and crew compartment and are fitted with cold-starting aids. They have an AN/VVS-501 passive night-driving periscope for the driver.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Width, 2.53 meters
Passengers, 6 Height, 2.53 meters
Configuration, 6 x 6 Road speed, 101.5 km/h
Combat weight, 10,500 kg Water speed, 7 km/h
Length, 5.968 meters Fuel capacity, 204 liters
Ground clearance, 0.392 meters Range, 603 km
  Armor, 8 to 10mm

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Cougar/Grizzly/Husky can

  • cross a 0.406-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.381 to 0.508-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 30-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The armament of the three vehicles is described in the paragraph on variants above.

f. Countries Served. The Cougar/Grizzly/Husky vehicles are used by Canada.

13. LAV-25 Canada/U.S. (Figure 2-13).

The LAV-25 is a light armored vehicle that is air transportable in current U.S. Air Force cargo transports. The C-5A can carry eight, the C-141 two, and the C-130 carries one. The U.S. Marine Corps CH-53E helicopter can transport one LAV-25 in the sling position. The LAV-25 has also been successfully air-dropped and was operational within 12 minutes. The vehicle is used by the U.S. Marine Corps. It has an 8 x 8 configuration, and it is based on the Piranha, which was previously described.

Figure 2-13. LAV-25.

a. Variants. There are several variants of the LAV-25, and they are described below.

(1) Logistics Vehicle. This vehicle has a higher roof with twin hatches for the rapid loading and unloading of cargo. The crew of three consists of the commander, driver, and loadmaster. There is a crane for loading and unloading cargo at the left rear of the hull. Armament consists of a pintle mounted 7.62-mm machine gun and two four-barrelled smoke grenade launchers.

(2) Mortar Carrier. This version has a crew of four consisting of the commander, driver, and three mortar men. The vehicle carries an 81-mm mortar and 94 rounds of ammunition. The mortar is mounted in the center of the vehicle, and fires through the three-part roof hatch. There is also a pintle-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun and two four-barrelled smoke grenade launchers.

(3) Maintenance/Recovery Vehicle. This vehicle has a crew of five. There is the commander, the driver, and two mechanics. There is a 7.62-mm pintle-mounted machine gun and two four-barrelled smoke grenade launchers. The vehicle is equipped with a portable auxiliary power unit, a crane with a 1,814 kg capacity, and a rear-mounted winch with a capacity of 13,608 kg. There are four stabilizers to provide a more stable platform when the crane is in use.

(4) Anti-Tank Vehicle. This vehicle has an Emerson twin TOW launcher mounted on top of the hull above the third wheel. The launcher carries two ready-to-launch missiles, and there are 14 more missiles in the hull. Secondary armament consists of a 7.62-mm or a 12.7-mm machine gun on a pintle and two four-barrelled smoke dischargers. The vehicle also carries a ground mount for the TOW and a hand-held laser rangefinder. The vehicle has a crew of four consisting of the driver, commander, gunner, and loader.

(5) Command and Control Vehicle. This version has a similar hull to the logistics vehicle, and has extensive communications equipment installed. The crew consists of the vehicle commander and driver. There is space for a unit commander and four staff members or radio operators. Armament consists of one pintle-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun and two four-barrelled smoke dischargers.

b. Recognition Features. The LAV-25 has the following recognition features:

  • Four large wheels on each side.
  • Amphibious.
  • Boat-shaped hull.
  • Two water-propulsion propellers at the rear.
  • Rear-mounted turret.
  • Four gun ports on each side.
  • High center of gravity.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The U.S. Army designation for this vehicle was the M1047. The Army version and the Marine Corps versions were very similar. The Army version had increased ammunition stowage, but was not intended to carry troops. The LAV has a 275 horsepower diesel engine which could be increased to 300 horsepower by charged injection. In Marine Corps winter mobility tests, it took an average of 15 minutes to install chains on the tires. The chains improved the mobility of the LAV in snow and did no damage to hard surface roads or the vehicles.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Width, 2.499 meters
Passengers, 6 Height, 2.692 meters
Configuration, 8 x 8 Road speed, 100 km/h
Combat weight, 12,882 kg Water speed, 10.46 km/h
Length, 6.393 meters Range, 668 km

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The LAV can

  • cross a 2.057-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.5-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 70-percent grade.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. The Marine Corps LAV-25 has a Delco two-man turret armed with a 25-mm McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Chain Gun, a coaxially-mounted 7.62-mm M240 machine gun, and a pintle-mounted 7.62-mm M60 machine gun. A bank of M257 smoke dischargers are on either side of the turret. A stabilization system allows aiming of the 25-mm cannon while traveling cross country. There are 210 rounds of 25-mm ammunition in the ready-to-use position, and 420 rounds stowed.

There are 420 ready-to-use rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition, 1,200 rounds stowed.

f. Countries Served. The LAV-25 is used by the United States.

14. Daimler Ferret Scout Car (U.K.) (Figure 2-14).

A replacement for the Daimler Dingo scout car of World War II, the Daimler Ferret was produced from 1952 to 1971. Throughout its production life, the basic hull remained unchanged, but more powerful engines and different turrets were installed.

Figure 2-14. Daimler Ferret Mk 1 (left) and Mk 4 Scout Cars.

a. Variants. The several variants of the Ferret are discussed in the subparagraphs below.

(1) Ferret Mk 1. An open top which may be covered by canvas is featured on this version also called Car Scout 4 x 4 Liaison FV701(C). It has a 7.62-mm Bren machine gun or a 7.62-mm (.30-cal) Browning machine gun with 450 rounds.

(2) Ferret Mk 1/2 (FV704). This vehicle is identical to the Mk 1 except for a three-man crew, this variant is designated Car Scout Liaison Mk 1/2. There is an armored roof with periscopes, vision blocks, and rear-opening hatch cover.

(3) Ferret Mk 2. This is basically a Mk 1 fitted with a turret. It is officially known as the Car Scout 4 x 4, Reconnaissance (Ferret) Mk 2 FV701(E).

(4) Ferret Mk 2/2. This was a local modification carried out in the Far East. It is basically the Ferret Mk 2 with an extension collar fitted between the top of the hull and the machine gun turret to enable the commander/gunner to have a better field of fire.

(5) Ferret Mk 2/3. Officially designated Scout Car Reconnaissance Mk 2/3 (Daimler Ferret 4 x 4)FV701(H), this is the later production model of the Mk 2.

(6) Ferret Mk 2/4. This is a Ferret Mk 2/3 with additional armor.

(7) Ferret Mk 2/5. This is a Ferret Mk 2 brought up to Ferret Mk 2/4 standards.

(8) Ferret Mk 2/6 (FV703). Designated Scout Car Reconnaissance/Guided Weapon Mk 2/6, this model is a Mk 2/3 with one Vigilant ATGW ready-to-launch missile on each side of the turret. In place of the spare wheel on the left side are two more missiles. The wire-guided missile has a range of 200 to 1,375 meters. The last known users were Libya and the United Arab Emirates, but they may have been placed the vehicles in reserve.

(9) Ferret Mk 3/7. This is a Ferret Mk 2/6 with the missile system removed. It is, therefore, basically a Ferret Mk 2/3.

(10) Ferret Mk 3. This is the Mk 1/1 improved to Mk 4 standards with a machine-gun turret.

(11) Ferret Mk 4 (FV711). This model is an early Ferret rebuilt with stronger suspension, disc brakes, and large tires. Around the top of the hull is a collapsed flotation screen that provides the vehicle the capability to propel itself across lakes and rivers by its wheels. Watertight stowage containers are on either side of the hull, and servicing points have been reduced.

b. Recognition Features. The Ferret has the following recognition features:

  • Two large wheels on each side.
  • A spare wheel center-mounted on the left side.
  • Square sides.
  • Some have turrets, some do not. Turret is flat-topped and angular shaped.
  • Angular shaped hull.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The Ferret has an all-welded steel hull that is divided into three compartments: the driver's compartment in the front, the fighting compartment in the center, and the engine compartment in the rear. The driver sits in front with three hatches: one in front and one on each side. Each hatch has an integral periscope. The front hatch may be folded down onto the glacis plate. This can be fitted with a splinter-proof windscreen with wiper blade and electric motor. The two side hatches open upwards when not in a combat area.

In the center is a manually-operated turret. A hatch cover in the roof rear can be locked in three different positions. A rear part of the turret folds down horizontally for use as a seat. In front of the turret roof is a sight periscope for aiming the turret-mounted machine gun. A vision slit with glass block is in each side of the hull below the turret ring. Two hatches are at the rear of the fighting compartment. A hull escape hatch is on each side between the front and back wheels. These are covered by a spare tire on the left and a stowage box on the right.

The basic scout car has no NBC system, no night vision equipment, and no amphibious ability. A deep-fording kit has a collapsible bellows-type collar that goes around the top of the commander's hatch. Another fits at the very rear of the hull. The Ferret Mk 3 and Mk 4 models have a collapsible screen that goes around the top of their hulls which allows travel across lakes and rivers using their wheels for propulsion. The Ferret Mks 1, 2, and 3 can carry steel channels on the front that are used for crossing trenches.

A Rolls-Royce B60 Mk 6A six-cylinder in-line water-cooled gas engine develops 129 horsepower at 3,750 rpm. Drive is transferred to all four wheels with a fluid-coupling transmission having five speeds in each direction. The waterproof engine will run when completely submerged without any preparation other than venting the crankcase breather pipe. Run-flat tires are each suspended with a shock absorber and single coil spring.

Measurements
Model Mk1/1 Mk 1/2 Mk 2/3 Mk 2/6 Mk 4
Crew 2 - 3 3 2 2 2
Configuration 4 x 4 4 x 4 4 x 4 4 x 4 4 x 4
Weight (kg) 4,210 4,370 4,400 4,560 5,400
Length (m) 3.835 3.835 3.835 3.835 3.96
Width (m) 1.905 1.905 1.905 1.905 2.134
Height (m) 1.448 1.651 1.879 1.879 2.03
Ground Clearance 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.432
Speed (km/h) 93 93 93 93 80
Fuel (liters) 96 96 96 96 96
Road Range (km) 306 306 306 306 306
Cross Country Range (km) 160 160 160 160 160
Armor
Hull Turret
Front,     l2-16mm Front,     16mm
Sides,     12-16mm Sides,     16mm
Floor,     6-10mm Rear,     16mm
Rear,     6-12mm Top,     8mm

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Ferret can

  • cross a 1.22-meter trench (with channels).
  • mount a 0.406-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 46-percent grade.
  • ford 0.914 meters without preparation.
  • ford 1.524 meters with preparation (Mk 4 is amphibious).

e. Armament Characteristics. The Mk 2 has a 7.62-mm Browning machine gun mounted on the turret. It traverses 360 degrees and elevates from -15 to +45 degrees. The Ferret generally carries 2,500 rounds. Three smoke dischargers are on either side of the hull.

f. Countries Served. The scout car is in service with the following countries.

Bahrain Portugal
Burkina Faso Qatar
Burma Senegal
Cameroon South Africa
Central African Republic Sri Lanka
Indonesia Sudan
Kuwait United Arab Emirates
Madagascar United Kingdom
Malaysia Yemen, North
New Zealand Zimbabwe

15. Fox Light Armored Car (U.K.) (Figure 2-15).

The Fox is air portable and normally operates attached to armored and mechanized infantry battalions. The Fox armored car is a further development of the Ferret light scout car. The Fox has an all-welded aluminum armor hull and turret that protects against medium and heavy machine gun fire and field artillery splinters.

Figure 2-15. Fox Light Armored Car.

a. Variants. The four variants of the Fox light armored car are discussed in the following subparagraphs.

(1) Panga Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle. Developed for export to Malaysia, the Panga has a redesigned hull and a one-man turret with 12.7-mm M2 HB machine gun. This model has the following features.

  • Two-man crew.
  • 5,840-kg combat weight.
  • 22 meters length.
  • 2.13 meters width.
  • 2.34 meters height (to sight).
  • Spare tire is on the right side.
  • Additional external stowage.
  • Another periscope on either side of the driver's hatch.
  • Vapor-cycle air-cooling system.
  • Hub winching equipment for self recovery.
  • Improved vehicle lighting.
  • Engine fire-extinguishing system.
  • Dual circuit brakes.
  • Electrically-operated tire pump.
  • Trench crossing channels on the front.
  • Flashing lights.
  • Public address system.

(2) Fox/25-mm McDonnell Douglas Helicopters Chain Gun. This vehicle is the basic Fox equipped with a one-man, electric-driven turret. The turret is armed with a 25-mm M242 Chain Gun and coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun. The vehicle carries a minimum of 250 rounds of 25-mm and 1,500 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition. Options include a stabilization system, escape hatches, limited slip differential, crew air cooling, and increased fuel capacity.

(3) Fox/MILAN. This is a basic Fox equipped with a one-man all-welded steel turret. A 7.62-mm McDonnell Douglas Helicopters Chain Gun is mounted in the forward part of the turret. The vehicle carries 2,600 rounds of ammunition. Mounted on the roof of the turret on the left side is a twin launcher for the Euromissile MILAN 2,000-meter ATGW with a minimum of six missiles carried in reserve. The MILAN launcher and its integral sight can be elevated and traversed independently of the turret. A bank of four electrically-operated smoke dischargers are mounted on each side of the forward part of the turret. The commander/gunner has one periscopic sight for aiming the machine gun and four vision blocks. Optional equipment includes escape hatches, limited slip differential, air cooling for the crew, 16 grenade launcher configuration, and increased fuel capacity.

(4) Fox/Scout. This is essentially the Fox/MILAN with the MILAN installation removed and the hole blanked. The conversion can be achieved in a matter of minutes using simple equipment. Armament consists of the 7.62-mm Chain Gun and four smoke dischargers.

b. Recognition Features. The Fox light armored car has the following recognition features.

  • Two large wheels on each side.
  • Large, flat undercut turret with a square bin in the rear.
  • Long, thin gun in the turret.
  • Hull larger than the Ferret hull.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The Fox has an all-welded aluminum armor hull and turret which gives protection against medium and heavy machine gun fire and field artillery splinters. The driver sits in front and has an integral periscope/hatch cover that lifts and opens to the right. The centered turret holds the commander/loader on the left and gunner on the right.

They each have a rear-opening hatch cover. The commander has a periscopic binocular instrument on a rotating mount. The gunner has two periscopes and a periscopic binocular daylight sight linked to the main gun. There is a passive night sight mounted to the right of the main gun. A flash shutter operated from the gun firing circuit protects the image intensifier from gun muzzle flash. There is a wiper and washer and armored cowl kept over the sight.

In the rear of the turret are the radios. The engine and its auxiliaries, including gear boxes, are mounted as a powerpack that can be removed through the rear. The engine is a militarized Jaguar XK engine, and has a reduced compression ratio to use military gasoline. British Army vehicles have electronic ignition. Horizontal twin radiators are set across the top to the rear of the engine.

Without preparation, the Fox can ford one meter of water. A flotation screen may be erected in two minutes. The front of the flotation screen has transparent panels for viewing. All Foxes are equipped with a bilge pump. With the flotation screen erected, the Fox is propelled and steered across rivers by its wheels.

The Fox is air transportable. Three fox vehicles can be carried in a C-130 Hercules aircraft; two for parachute drop.

Standard equipment includes infrared/white light headlamps, commander's spotlight, external side stowage boxes, drinking-water tank, electric distribution box with a cooking vessel socket, and inter-vehicle starting socket. Optional equipment includes navigation aids, powered traverse, nuclear and chemical detection equipment, and a ZB 298 surveillance radar on the left side of the turret.

Measurements

Crew, 3 Ground clearance, 0.3 meters
Configuration, 4 x 4 Speed, ground, 104 km/h
Weight, 6,120 kg Speed, water, 5.23 km/h
Hull length, 4.166 meters Fuel capacity, 145.5 liters
Width, 2.134 meters Range, 434 km
Height, 2.2 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Fox can

  • cross a 1.22-meter trench (with channels).
  • mount a 0.5-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 58-percent grade.
  • ford 1 meter.
  • ford amphibiously with preparation.

e. Armament Characteristics. The armament characteristics are discussed in the subparagraphs below.

(1) Main Armament. A 30-mm RARDEN cannon fires a new armor-piercing round and other high-explosive rounds. It fires rapid single shots or bursts up to six rounds. Cartridge cases are automatically ejected outside the turret. Maximum effective range is 2,000 meters.

(2) Secondary Armament. Mounted coaxially to the main gun is a 7.62-mm machine gun. Four smoke dischargers are on each side of the front of the turret.

f. Countries Served. The Fox is in service in the following countries.

Iran Nigeria
Kenya Saudi Arabia
Malawi United Kingdom

16. Lynx (or M113) Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle.

The Lynx shares many components with the M113A1 APC except it is much lower, has its engine in the rear, and has four road wheels. The vehicle has been purchased by Canada and the Netherlands. Canada calls the vehicle the Lynx, and the Dutch call it the M113 C&R. Figure 2-16 shows a Lynx command and reconnaissance vehicle.

Figure 2-16. Lynx Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle.

a. Variants.

(1) Dutch Vehicle. The Dutch version has a slightly different layout from the Canadian Lynx. In the Dutch vehicle, the driver is seated at the front of the vehicle on the left, and has a single piece hatch cover that opens to the rear. The hatch has an integral infrared periscope mounted in its roof and four periscopes arranged around the forward part of the roof. The radio operator/gunner is seated to the right of the driver and has a hatch cover that opens to the rear. He also has four periscopes arranged around the forward part of the hatch cover. A 7.62-mm machine gun can be mounted forward of this hatch cover. There is an entry door in the right side of the hull to the rear of the radio operator/gunner.

When originally delivered, the Dutch vehicles were armed with a 12.7-mm machine gun, but the Dutch Army ordered 266 Oerlikon turrets armed with a 25-mm Oerlikon cannon for installation on the vehicles.

(2) Optional Armament Installations. The FMC Corp has offered the following options:

  • Model 100-E cupola with a 7.62-mm M73 machine gun.
  • Model 74 cupola with twin 7.62-mm M73 or twin .30-cal M37 machine guns.
  • XM27 cupola (modified M26) with 20-mm Oerlikon cannon.
  • M113 cupola with 12.7-mm, 7.62-mm, or 7.62-mm machine gun pintle-mounted.
  • FMC Pedestal Mount with 7.62-mm, 12.7-mm, 20-mm, or 25-mm cannon that can be loaded, aimed, and fired from within the vehicle.
  • ATGWs mounted in launcher boxes on the roof.
  • 106-mm M40 recoilless rifle mounted on the roof.

b. Recognition Features. The Lynx has the following recognition features.

  • Fully tracked.
  • Four road wheels with no return rollers.
  • Drive sprockets in the front and idlers at the rear.
  • Small rounded turret similar to a cupola is centered on the hull.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. An all-welded aluminum hull provides protection from small-arms fire, flash burns and shell fragments.

In the top front left is a rear-opening hatch cover for the driver. He has an integral infrared periscope and five other periscope blocks arranged around the front.

To the driver's right rear is the commander/gunner's M26 turret, which traverses 360 degrees and has eight vision blocks. Further to the rear left is the radio operator's rear-opening hatch cover and three periscopes.

A large hatch in the roof opens to the right for access to the rear engine. Also in the hull rear there is an access door opening to the left.

Standard equipment includes infrared driving lights and a fire extinguisher in the engine compartment. Optional equipment can be an NBC detection and alarm system, heater, windscreen, and a capstan drum for self-recovery.

The M113 is propelled through water by its tracks. Before going amphibious, a trim vane is erected in the front, and rectangular covers go around the air louvers on top.

Measurements
Crew, 3 Track width, 381mm
Weight, 8,775 kg Track length on ground, 2.39 meters
Length, 4.597 meters Speed, road, 70.8 km/h
Width, 2.4 meters Speed, water, 5.6 km/h
Height, 1.651 meters (hull) Fuel capacity, 303 liters
Ground clearance, 0.41 meters Range, 523 km
Track, 1.885 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Lynx can

  • cross a 1.524-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.609-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • climb a 40-percent side slope.
  • ford amphibiously.

e. Armament Characteristics. An M26 manual-traverse turret has a 12.7-mm machine gun that can be aimed and fired from within the vehicle. At the rear at the radio operator's station is a 7.62-mm machine gun. Three smoke dischargers are on either side of the hull in the front.

f. Countries Served. Users are Canada and the Netherlands.

17. Scorpion and Scimitar Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle (U.K.) (Figure 2-17).

Figure 2-17. Scorpion.

The Scorpion is a light tank. The Scimitar is a reconnaissance vehicle. They were developed at the same time as the Fox wheeled vehicle. They have the same Jaguar engine as the Fox.

During the 1982 Falklands campaign, the British Army deployed two Scorpions, four Scimitars, and one Samson armored recovery vehicle. A government report stated: "The ground forces were heavily dependent on helicopters and tracked vehicles for mobility. The tracked reconnaissance vehicles, Scorpion and Scimitar, performed very well in boggy conditions, covering an average of 350 miles each. One vehicle withstood a shell which landed1.5 meters away. Another ran over a mine which severely damaged the vehicle but left the crew unharmed."

a. Variants. The following subparagraphs provide information on the variants of the Scorpion and Scimitar.

(1) Belgian Scorpion and Scimitar. The Belgian Army's Scorpions and Scimitars underwent two major repair and maintenance programs. The first program included modifications to rectify cracks in the armor. The second program was combined with a mid-life general overhaul and improved safety for the crew, better operational capability, improved reliability, and easier maintenance.

(2) Irish Scorpions. These Scorpions have a 12.7-mm machine gun on an anti-aircraft mount installed on the turret roof.

(3) New Zealand Scorpions. The New Zealand Scorpions include an electronic ignition system, a Dunlop power traverse system, American radios, and no NBC protection or image intensification night sights.

(4) Omani Scorpions. The Omani Scorpions had many modifications. These are listed below.

  • Installation of a central warning system.
  • Larger rubber mud flaps at rear.
  • Fiberglass track shrouds replaced by rubber shrouds.
  • Driver's mine plate increased to 20 mm.
  • Larger rear hull stowage bin.
  • Left tool bin replaced by larger bin with facility to stow two extra jerry cans.
  • Additional stowage bin on right side of hull.
  • No NBC pack. This allows for an additional five rounds of 76-mm ammunition and three boxes of machine gun ammunition in its place.
  • No. 25 reel and bracket installed.
  • Turret fume extractor.
  • Helio MG pintle fitted adjacent to commander's hatch aperture.
  • Stowage bins either side of the turret.
  • Two-color camouflage paint.
  • Mounting points to enable Clark-type radio mast to be erected at the front of the vehicle.
  • Vickers Instruments L20 laser sights to complement the L22 TLS fitted in the Omani Chieftain tanks.

(5) Scorpion 90. This export model can deal with all types of targets and can inflict severe damage on main battle tanks. The Scorpion with a 90-mm Cockerill Mk III gun was first produced with the American Cadillac Gage power traverse and elevation system now superseded by Marconi Command and Control Systems equipment. Malaysia has 26 Scorpion 90s with the Perkins diesel engine and German smoke/fragmentation grenade dischargers.

Nigeria has 33 Scorpion 90s with the Belgian OIP-5 fire-control system. In 1988, Venezuela reportedly ordered 84 Scorpion 90s.

(6) Scorpion Improvement Program. Alvis produced Scorpions with its Jaguar XK gasoline engine replaced by a Perkins turbo-charged six-cylinder diesel model T6-3544. It develops 200 horsepower at 2,700 rpm. The weight increased from 8,073 kg to 8,260 kg. The vehicle's range increased from over 640 km to over 840 km. Acceleration to 48.3 km/h improved from 18.5 seconds to 16 seconds.

Laser rangefinders for the Scorpion come in various configurations for sights and fittings. A Far Eastern customer, believed to be Thailand, ordered 160 Vickers L20 sights. Omani has this sight fitted with a Ferranti laser rangefinder. The United Arab Emirates has a Barr and Stroud Tank Laser Sight.

A package of improvements for export vehicles includes:

  • Avimo NV53 day/night commander's sight.
  • Avimo NVL53 day/night gunner's sight with integral laser rangefinder.
  • Power traverse and elevation drives.
  • External 7.62-mm machine gun mount which can be used by the commander or the gunner.
  • New fume extraction system.
  • Improved transmission.
  • Improved suspension and enhanced cross-country mobility.
  • Fire suppression system.

(7) Scorpion Dieselization Package. This variant uses a proven diesel engine design. It allows for system compatibility and offers all of the financial, logistics, operational, and technical advantages associated with diesel powered vehicles. Diesel conversion packages can be undertaken in-country.

(8) Scimitar Reconnaissance Vehicle (FV107) (Figure 2-18). The Scimitar has the same hull and turret as the Scorpion but is armed with a 30-mm RARDEN cannon instead of the 76-mm gun. It fires 30-mm Hispano Suiza Oerlikon ammunition as well as many British rounds. It also fires a new APDS-T round. The gun fires in rapid single shots or bursts up to six rounds. Empty cartridge cases automatically eject outside the turret. Coaxially to the left of the main gun is a 7.62-mm machine gun. Four smoke dischargers are on each side of the turret front.

Figure 2-18. Scimitar Reconnaissance Vehicle.

b. Recognition Features. The Scorpion and Scimitar have the following recognition features.

  • Five road wheels on each side.
  • Long, front slope to hull.
  • Short 76-mm gun barrel or long, slender 30-mm gun.
  • Possible prominent, upturned exhaust on the right side.
  • Amphibious and air transportable.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The hull is made of all-welded aluminum armor and provides the crew with protection against attack over its frontal area from 14.5-mm projectiles and against 7.62-mm armor piercing rounds over the remainder of the vehicle. The aluminum armor is also particularly effective against shell splinters. There are three compartments: drivers in the front left, engine in the front right, and fighting in the rear. The driver's hatch cover opens to the left. In front is a single wide-angle periscope.

The all-welded aluminum turret holds the commander on the left and gunner on the right, each with a rear-opening hatch cover. The commander has seven periscopes and a rotating roof-mounted sight in front of his hatch. The gunner has two periscopes and a roof-mounted sight. To the right of the main gun is a passive night sight. The image intensifier tube has a flash shutter. The window has a wiper and washer and armored cover. In the turret bustle are radios. At the rear of the hull is a light metal stowage box. Another stowage box is on the left side of the hull of British Army Scorpions.

A Lockheed C-130 can carry two Scorpions. An NBC system is at the rear of British Army Scorpions. Optional equipment includes an NBC detector kit, vehicle navigation system, and an air-conditioning system which has been fitted to United Arab Emirates vehicles.

The Scorpion can ford a one-meter depth without preparation. A flotation screen is carried collapsed around the top of the hull. This can be erected by the crew in five minutes. Then the vehicle is propelled and steered across water by its tracks at a speed of 6.5 km/h. When fitted with a propeller kit, the Scorpion goes 9.5 km/h. Some key specifications are:

Model Scorpion Scorpion 90 Scimitar

Designation FV101 N/A FV107
Crew 3 3 3
Weight 8,073 kg 8,723 kg 7,800 kg
Length hull 4.79m 4.79m 4.79m
Width 2.235m 2.226m 2.242m
Height 2.102m 2.102m 2.096m
Track 1.708m 1.708m 1.798m
Track width 432mm 432mm 432mm
Speed 80.5 km/h 72.5 km/h 80.5 km/h
Fuel Capacity 423 liters 391 liters 423 liters
Range 644 km 756 km 644 km
Main armament 76mm 90mm 30mm

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Scorpion and the Scimitar can

  • cross a 2.057-meter trench.
  • mount a 0.5-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • ford 1.067 meters without preparation.
  • ford amphibiously with preparation.

e. Armament Characteristics. The Scorpion is armed with a 76-mm L23 gun. It has a vertical sliding breech and is loaded with fixed ammunition. It recoils approximately 280 mm. The weapon fires various high-explosive, smoke, canister, and illuminating rounds.

Mounted coaxially to the main gun is a 7.62-mm machine gun that can be used as a ranging machine gun. A four-barrelled smoke discharger is on each side of the turret.

The Scimitar armament is discussed above in the subparagraph on the Scimitar.

f. Countries Served. This reconnaissance vehicle is in service with:

Belgium Kuwait Tanzania
Brunei Malaysia Thailand
Abu Dhabi New Zealand Togo
Ghana Nigeria United Arab
Honduras Oman Emirates
Iran Philippines United Kingdom
Ireland Spain  

18. Spartan Armored Personnel Carrier (U.K.) (Figure 2-19).

The Spartan is used for various roles including missile resupply for the Striker and carrying Royal Artillery Javelin Manportable SAM teams or Royal Engineer assault teams. The Spartan has a similar hull to the Striker. The Spartan carries four infantryman, plus the driver, vehicle commander/gunner and section commander/gunner.

Figure 2-19. Spartan APC.

a. Variants. There are several proposals and trials models for variants of the Spartan APC. These are discussed in the following subparagraphs.

(1) Spartan Anti-Aircraft Variant. One proposal is to fit the Spartan with the French EST TA 20 turret armed with twin 20-mm cannon.

(2) Spartan with Hughes TOW ATGW System. There is one proposal to equip the Spartan with a Hughes TOW launcher on the roof and carry nine missiles in the rear of the vehicle. The vehicle would also carry a tripod to enable the missile to be used on the ground.

(3) Spartan with Euromissile HOT ATGW System. For trails purposes a Spartan APC has been equipped with a Euromissle HOT HCT turret with four HOT 4,000-meter ATGWs in the ready-to-launch position.

(4) Spartan with Euromissile MILAN ATGW System. This system has been ordered by the British Army. The vehicle is a Spartan APC fitted with a Euromissile MILAN MCT compact turret mounted over the roof. It has two missiles in the ready-to-launch position and 11 missiles carried internally. This system can be installed during manufacture, or it can be retrofitted to existing vehicles without major modification.

b. Recognition Features. The Spartan APC has the following recognition features.

  • Fully tracked.
  • Five road wheels.
  • Long front slope.
  • Uses Scorpion basic chassis.

c. Vehicle Characteristics. The driver sits at the front on the left with a forward-opening hatch cover. He has a single wide-angle periscope. Behind the driver is the vehicle commander/gunner with eight periscopes in a cupola with one large monocular sight. Mounted to the right of the cupola is a 7.62-mm machine gun that can be aimed and fired from inside the vehicle. The cupola's hatch cover opens to the left. To the right is a right-opening hatch cover for the commander/radio operator who has three periscopes.

The personnel compartment has a single rear door hinged on the right side. It has an integral vision block. On top of the troop compartment are two roof hatches opening to either side. Two periscopes are on the left side; one on the right. There is no provision for troops to fire their weapons from inside. Three infantrymen sit on the left side. A fourth sits to the rear of the commander, facing the rear. A ZB 298 ground surveillance radar may be mounted on the roof.

The Spartan has many of the same characteristics as the Scorpion/Scimitar described in an entry above. The Spartan has the following specifications:

Measurements
Crew, 3 Track, 1.708 meters
Passengers, 4 Track width, 432mm
Weight, 8,172 kg Speed, 80.5 km/h
Length, 5.125 meters Fuel capacity, 386 liters
Width, 2.242 meters Range, 483 km
Height, 2.26 meters  
Ground clearance, 0.356 meters  

d. Vehicle Capabilities. The Spartan APC can

  • cross a 2.057-meter trench.
  • mount 0.5-meter vertical step.
  • climb a 60-percent grade.
  • ford 1.067 meters without preparation.
  • ford amphibiously with preparation.

e. Armament Characteristics. The Spartan has a 7.62-mm machine gun with 3,000 rounds of ammunition. It also carries 4 smoke dischargers on each side.


Practice Exercise

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