Military

20 September 2002

Bush Sends New National Security Strategy to Congress

(U.S. will use pre-emptive strategy against hostile enemies, he says)
(2250)
President Bush has crafted a new national security strategy that
essentially abandons concepts of deterrence -- which dominated defense
policies during the Cold War years -- for a forward-reaching,
pre-emptive strategy against hostile states and terrorist groups,
while also expanding development assistance and free trade, promoting
democracy, fighting disease, and transforming the U.S. military.
Defending the United States from its enemies is the first and most
fundamental commitment to the American people, Bush said in his
introduction to the "National Security Strategy," which was released
September 20 in Washington.
"Today, that task has changed dramatically. Enemies in the past needed
great armies and great industrial capabilities to endanger America,"
he said. "Now, shadowy networks of individuals can bring great chaos
and suffering to our shores for less than it costs to purchase a
single tank."
Defeating such a threat requires the United States to use every tool
in its arsenal -- "military power, better homeland defenses, law
enforcement, intelligence, and vigorous efforts to cut off terrorist
financing," he said.
The greatest threat facing the United States, the president said,
"lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." He said
terrorists and enemies of the United States are aggressively
determined and openly seeking to develop and use weapons of mass
destruction.
The security strategy spells out U.S. policy to identify and destroy
any terrorist threat before it reaches the United States.
"While the United States will constantly strive to enlist the support
of the international community, we will not hesitate to act alone, if
necessary, to exercise our right of self-defense by acting
preemptively against such terrorists, to prevent them from doing harm
against our people and our country," the strategy document said.
The strategy document also outlines a policy to work with other
nations and international organizations to defuse regional conflicts;
to prevent enemies from using weapons of mass destruction against the
United States, it allies and friends; to support and promote a new era
of global economic growth through free markets and free trade; to
expand the development of open societies and build the infrastructure
of democracy; to reduce the toll of HIV/AIDS and other infectious
diseases; and to transform the U.S. military to meet 21st century
challenges.
"The United States will use this moment of opportunity to extend the
benefits of freedom across the globe," Bush said. "We will actively
work to bring the hope of democracy, development, free markets, and
free trade to every corner of the world. The United States will stand
beside any nation determined to build a better future by seeking the
rewards of liberty for its people."
Bush said the United States also is committed to lasting institutions
like the United Nations, NATO, the World Trade Organization and the
Organization of American States.
A copy of the complete National Security Strategy can be obtained from
the White House Website at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf.
Following is the text of Bush's introduction and an overview of the
National Security Strategy:
(begin text)
The National Security Strategy of the United States of America
September 2002
The National Security Strategy of the United States of America
The White House
Washington, D.C.
The great struggles of the twentieth century between liberty and
totalitarianism ended with a decisive victory for the forces of
freedom -- and a single sustainable model for national success:
freedom, democracy, and free enterprise. In the twenty-first century,
only nations that share a commitment to protecting basic human rights
and guaranteeing political and economic freedom will be able to
unleash the potential of their people and assure their future
prosperity. People everywhere want to be able to speak freely; choose
who will govern them; worship as they please; educate their children
-- male and female; own property; and enjoy the benefits of their
labor. These values of freedom are right and true for every person, in
every society -- and the duty of protecting these values against their
enemies is the common calling of freedom-loving people across the
globe and across the ages.
Today, the United States enjoys a position of unparalleled military
strength and great economic and political influence. In keeping with
our heritage and principles, we do not use our strength to press for
unilateral advantage. We seek instead to create a balance of power
that favors human freedom: conditions in which all nations and all
societies can choose for themselves the rewards and challenges of
political and economic liberty. In a world that is safe, people will
be able to make their own lives better. We will defend the peace by
fighting terrorists and tyrants. We will preserve the peace by
building good relations among the great powers. We will extend the
peace by encouraging free and open societies on every continent.
Defending our Nation against its enemies is the first and fundamental
commitment of the Federal Government. Today, that task has changed
dramatically. Enemies in the past needed great armies and great
industrial capabilities to endanger America. Now, shadowy networks of
individuals can bring great chaos and suffering to our shores for less
than it costs to purchase a single tank. Terrorists are organized to
penetrate open societies and to turn the power of modern technologies
against us.
To defeat this threat we must make use of every tool in our arsenal --
military power, better homeland defenses, law enforcement,
intelligence, and vigorous efforts to cut off terrorist financing. The
war against terrorists of global reach is a global enterprise of
uncertain duration. America will help nations that need our assistance
in combating terror. And America will hold to account nations that are
compromised by terror, including those who harbor terrorists --
because the allies of terror are the enemies of civilization. The
United States and countries cooperating with us must not allow the
terrorists to develop new home bases. Together, we will seek to deny
them sanctuary at every turn.
The gravest danger our Nation faces lies at the crossroads of
radicalism and technology. Our enemies have openly declared that they
are seeking weapons of mass destruction, and evidence indicates that
they are doing so with determination. The United States will not allow
these efforts to succeed. We will build defenses against ballistic
missiles and other means of delivery. We will cooperate with other
nations to deny, contain, and curtail our enemies' efforts to acquire
dangerous technologies. And, as a matter of common sense and
self-defense, America will act against such emerging threats before
they are fully formed. We cannot defend America and our friends by
hoping for the best. So we must be prepared to defeat our enemies'
plans, using the best intelligence and proceeding with deliberation.
History will judge harshly those who saw this coming danger but failed
to act. In the new world we have entered, the only path to peace and
security is the path of action.
As we defend the peace, we will also take advantage of an historic
opportunity to preserve the peace. Today, the international community
has the best chance since the rise of the nation-state in the
seventeenth century to build a world where great powers compete in
peace instead of continually prepare for war. Today, the world's great
powers find ourselves on the same side -- united by common dangers of
terrorist violence and chaos. The United States will build on these
common interests to promote global security. We are also increasingly
united by common values. Russia is in the midst of a hopeful
transition, reaching for its democratic future and a partner in the
war on terror. Chinese leaders are discovering that economic freedom
is the only source of national wealth. In time, they will find that
social and political freedom is the only source of national greatness.
America will encourage the advancement of democracy and economic
openness in both nations, because these are the best foundations for
domestic stability and international order. We will strongly resist
aggression from other great powers -- even as we welcome their
peaceful pursuit of prosperity, trade, and cultural advancement.
Finally, the United States will use this moment of opportunity to
extend the benefits of freedom across the globe. We will actively work
to bring the hope of democracy, development, free markets, and free
trade to every corner of the world. The events of September 11, 2001,
taught us that weak states, like Afghanistan, can pose as great a
danger to our national interests as strong states. Poverty does not
make poor people into terrorists and murderers. Yet poverty, weak
institutions, and corruption can make weak states vulnerable to
terrorist networks and drug cartels within their borders.
The United States will stand beside any nation determined to build a
better future by seeking the rewards of liberty for its people. Free
trade and free markets have proven their ability to lift whole
societies out of poverty -- so the United States will work with
individual nations, entire regions, and the entire global trading
community to build a world that trades in freedom and therefore grows
in prosperity. The United States will deliver greater development
assistance through the New Millennium Challenge Account to nations
that govern justly, invest in their people, and encourage economic
freedom. We will also continue to lead the world in efforts to reduce
the terrible toll of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases.
In building a balance of power that favors freedom, the United States
is guided by the conviction that all nations have important
responsibilities. Nations that enjoy freedom must actively fight
terror. Nations that depend on international stability must help
prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Nations that seek
international aid must govern themselves wisely, so that aid is well
spent. For freedom to thrive, accountability must be expected and
required.
We are also guided by the conviction that no nation can build a safer,
better world alone. Alliances and multilateral institutions can
multiply the strength of freedom-loving nations. The United States is
committed to lasting institutions like the United Nations, the World
Trade Organization, the Organization of American States, and NATO as
well as other long-standing alliances. Coalitions of the willing can
augment these permanent institutions. In all cases, international
obligations are to be taken seriously. They are not to be undertaken
symbolically to rally support for an ideal without furthering its
attainment.
Freedom is the non-negotiable demand of human dignity; the birthright
of every person in every civilization. Throughout history, freedom has
been threatened by war and terror; it has been challenged by the
clashing wills of powerful states and the evil designs of tyrants; and
it has been tested by widespread poverty and disease. Today, humanity
holds in its hands the opportunity to further freedom's triumph over
all these foes. The United States welcomes our responsibility to lead
in this great mission.
Signed By The President
The White House
September 17, 2002
1. Overview of America's International Strategy
"Our Nation's cause has always been larger than our Nation's defense.
We fight, as we always fight, for a just peace -- a peace that favors
liberty. We will defend the peace against the threats from terrorists
and tyrants. We will preserve the peace by building good relations
among the great powers. And we will extend the peace by encouraging
free and open societies on every continent." President Bush West
Point, New York June 1, 2002
The United States possesses unprecedented -- and unequaled -- strength
and influence in the world. Sustained by faith in the principles of
liberty, and the value of a free society, this position comes with
unparalleled responsibilities, obligations, and opportunity. The great
strength of this nation must be used to promote a balance of power
that favors freedom.
For most of the twentieth century, the world was divided by a great
struggle over ideas: destructive totalitarian visions versus freedom
and equality.
That great struggle is over. The militant visions of class, nation,
and race which promised utopia and delivered misery have been defeated
and discredited. America is now threatened less by conquering states
than we are by failing ones. We are menaced less by fleets and armies
than by catastrophic technologies in the hands of the embittered few.
We must defeat these threats to our Nation, allies, and friends.
This is also a time of opportunity for America. We will work to
translate this moment of influence into decades of peace, prosperity,
and liberty.
The U. S. national security strategy will be based on a distinctly
American internationalism that reflects the union of our values and
our national interests. The aim of this strategy is to help make the
world not just safer but better. Our goals on the path to progress are
clear: political and economic freedom, peaceful relations with other
states, and respect for human dignity.
And this path is not America's alone. It is open to all. To achieve
these goals, the United States will:
-- champion aspirations for human dignity;
-- strengthen alliances to defeat global terrorism and work to prevent
attacks against us and our friends;
-- work with others to defuse regional conflicts;
-- prevent our enemies from threatening us, our allies, and our
friends, with weapons of mass destruction;
-- ignite a new era of global economic growth through free markets and
free trade;
-- expand the circle of development by opening societies and building
the infrastructure of democracy;
-- develop agendas for cooperative action with other main centers of
global power; and
-- transform America's national security institutions to meet the
challenges and opportunities of the twenty-first century.
(end text)
(Distributed by the Office of International Information Programs, U.S.
Department of State. Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov)



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