Andrews AFB, Maryland
Andrews Air Force Base is the home of the 89 Airlift Wing (AMC) and Air Force One. It frequently plays host to the President and Vice President of the United States, congressional delegations, foreign heads of state and many other dignitaries and distinguished visitors. More than 60 other separate units and special missions are located there. Andrews AFB is adjacent to Camp Springs, in Prince George County, Maryland, and is 10 miles Southeast of Washington, DC. The 4,320-acre base hosts more than 20,000 active duty military people, civilian employees and family members.
The Naval Air Facility associated with Andrews AFB supports one Navy Reserve and one Marine Corps Reserve F/A 18 squadron. The airfield host is the US Air Force 89 th Airlift Wing, whose VIP missions include operation of the presidential support fleet, including Air Force One. Other tenants include an Air National Guard F-16 Wing and an Air Force Reserve C-141 Wing.
While this is an excellent recruiting location for the Navy Reserve, there are operational limitations at this airfield. Presidential aircraft operations take priority over all other non-emergency traffic, and may require short notice and/or extended sterilization of the airfield and airspace. Training airspace is limited, both geographically and operationally. As with NAS Patuxent River, civil air traffic limits the availability and utility of charted SUA. In addition, the lack of a priority access to and use of NAWC Patuxent River airspace does limit the effectiveness of this unit's training.
Established first as Camp Springs Army Air Field, Andrews' history began 25 Aug 1941. The base became operational 2 May 1943. The name of the base was changed to Andrews Field 31 Mar 1945, in honor of LtGen Frank M. Andrews, commander of European operations for all Army Air Forces.
In July, 1961 Andrews became the home of the official presidential aircraft, known as "Air Force One" when the president is on board. In 1963, the Naval Air Facility (NAF), originally established at Anacostia in 1919, moved to Andrews. The NAF handles Naval VIP flight operations and is home for a Marine Corps detachment that flies the FA-18 Hornet. Coast Guard Air Station Washington DC occupies space at Andrews AFB. Andrews AFB has evolved to become one of the most modern bases in the Air Force.
The military history of Andrews AFB began in the 1850's during the Civil War when Union troops occupied a small country church near Camp Springs, Md., as sleeping quarters. At present, the same church is used on the base and is known as Chapel Two.
Established first as Camp Springs Army Air Field, Andrews' history began Aug. 25, 1941, the day President Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote a letter to the secretary of war directing the use of the land on which the base now stands. Located 10 miles southeast of Washington, D.C., in Prince George's County, Md., the base was under construction during the remainder of 1942 and became operational May 2, 1943, with the arrival of the first Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.
With the establishment of the Air Force as a separate military service on Sept. 18, 1947, the name was modified to its present form, Andrews AFB. Serving largely as a headquarters base in a curtailed operational capacity during the post-World War II years, Andrews has been the home of the Continental Air Command, Strategic Air Command and the Military Air Transport Service. Headquarters Command held command reins at Andrews from 1947 through 1952 and again after 1957. Headquarters Military Air Transport Service controlled the base during the interim period.
The year 1947 marked the arrival of the first permanently assigned jet powered aircraft, the F-80 Shooting Star, at Andrews. The long-lived and versatile training version of the F-80, the T-33, still played an important role in proficiency flying programs at Andrews more than 30 years later.
With the onset of the Korean War in June 1950, Andrews rapidly became involved in combat readiness training for B-25 medium bomber crews. Combat readiness training and proficiency flying for military pilots assigned non-flying duties in the Washington area have remained two key elements in the local mission since the establishment of the base.
Andrews' air defense role was strengthened in the 1950s with the latest in fighter-interceptor hardware appearing on the flightline. F-94 Starfires, F-102 Delta Daggers and finally, F-106 Delta Darts formed the backbone of the three fighter interceptor squadrons which operated from the base until 1963.
In the late 1950s Andrews began an annual open house and air show on base. This event later evolved into the Department of Defense Joint Services Open House, an annual event that now brings more than 700,000 visitors to the base every year. The open house is held every year over Armed Forces Day weekend.
In the years since 1959, Andrews' flight operations and importance have increased greatly. In 1961, the last of the Military Air Transport Service's flying units at Washington National Airport transferred to Andrews. This was followed a year later by the transfer to Andrews of all fixed-wing flying activities from Bolling Air Force Base. Andrews has become firmly established as the main port of entry for foreign military and government officials en route to Washington and the United States. In July, 1961, Andrews became the home of the official presidential aircraft, known as "Air Force One" when the president is on board. Before 1961, the presidential airplane had been kept at Washington National Airport and Bolling AFB.
tragic time for Andrews AFB occurred Nov. 22, 1963, when the 35th president of the United States was assassinated in Dallas. The body of John F. Kennedy arrived at Andrews at 6:08 p.m. the same evening, accompanied by his widow Jacqueline B. Kennedy, newly sworn in President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife Ladybird. The air terminal was jammed with thousands of people, including the largest gathering of news media representatives ever assembled at any time on Andrews AFB. Since that time, Andrews has seen the arrival of other fallen leaders, but no other death has caused such national attention.
In February 1973, Andrews was the scene of joyful reunions as U.S. prisoners of war began returning to the United States from Vietnam.
In a major reorganization, Headquarters Command, U.S. Air Force, was disbanded July 1, 1976, restructured under the Military Airlift Command as the 76th Airlift Division and transferred its headquarters from Bolling AFB to Andrews. The 76th remained the parent unit of the Andrews host command, redesignated as the 1st Air Base Wing.
In October 1977, the 76th Airlift Division became the 76th Military Airlift Wing. The 1st Air Base Wing was redesignated the 76th Air Base Group, and the 89th Military Airlift Wing became the 89th Military Airlift Group. The 76th MAW remained the parent unit at Andrews.
In October 1979, Pope John Paul II was greeted by thousands of well wishers at Andrews when he arrived for a visit to Washington, D.C., at the end of his historic tour of the United States.
That same year, Andrews saw such historic events as the arrival and departure of the vice premier of the People's Republic of China, Deng Xiao Ping; a visit by the prime minister of England, Margaret Thatcher; and trips by the prime minister of Israel, Menachem Begin, and the late president of the Republic of Egypt, Anwar Sadat.
On Dec. 15, 1980, the 76th Airlift Division was reestablished, the 76th Air Base Group became the 1776th Air Base Wing and the 89th Military Airlift Group became the 89th Military Airlift Wing.
In 1981, the people of Andrews witnessed the inauguration of Ronald Reagan and the return of the U.S. hostages from Iran.
On Oct. 1, 1985, the 76th Airlift Division was inactivated as the result of activation of the Headquarters Air Force District of Washington at Bolling AFB. The 1776th Air Base Wing was designated the "host wing" for Andrews AFB and assumed base support responsibilities.
In 1985, the Andrews flightline again captured the nation's attention with the return of TWA Flight 847 hostages from Beirut, and the arrival of such dignitaries as the Soviet foreign minister, Britain's Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales. By the close of 1987, all eyes were centered on Andrews when General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union arrived for a summit visit with President Ronald Reagan.
Andrews hosted the farewell to President Reagan at the end of his tenure and a welcome to President Bush prior to his inauguration. It hosted the Congressional Budget Summit in 1990 and Air Force Stealth Week in 1991. It was also a key arrival and departure point for troops, diplomats and refugees throughout Desert Shield/Storm and even hosted a live television special honoring the men and women of the armed services. The base also provided ample support for the National Victory Day parades in Washington, D.C., and New York in honor of the troops.
During Operation DESERT STORM, Andrews handled 16,540 patients in makeshift hospital facilities located in the base tennis center.
On July 12, 1991, the 89th Military Airlift Wing was redesignated as the 89th Airlift Wing and assumed duties as the host wing at Andrews AFB. Support functions previously performed by the 1776th Air Base Wing now fall under the 89th and the 1776th was inactivated. With the consolidation of the two wings, the newly formed 89th Airlift Wing is one of the largest wings in Air Mobility Command with a work force approaching 9,000 people.
Since the 89th became the host wing, the base has seen arrivals and departures of Russian President Boris Yeltsin, British Prime Minister John Major, Israeli delegations and many others. Thousands gathered at the Andrews flightline to bid farewell to President Bush at the end of his tenure and welcome President Clinton in 1992. And in 1993, the base witnessed deployments to and return of troops from Somalia and several humanitarian relief efforts.
In April of 1994, the 89th was in the spotlight as a crew flew aircraft 27000 to pick up former President Nixon's body and transport it to California for his funeral. Aircraft 27000 was the aircraft that Nixon flew on as Air Force One during his tenure.
Sept. 17, 1994, the world watched on as the 89th flew a delegation of former President Carter, Senator Sam Nunn and former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell to Haiti for talks with military Haitian leader Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras in a last attempt to restore Jean Bertrand Aristide to power.
December 1994, the 1st Airlift Squadron brought freed North Korean hostage, Army helicopter pilot, Chief Warrant Officer Bobby Hall home. July 11, 1995, Capt. Scott F. O'Grady first stepped foot on American soil at Andrews after his F-16 was shot down over Bosnia. In March 1996, the 1st Helicopter Squadron earned the Maintenance Effectiveness Award for flying more than 175,000 safe flying hours. June 17, 1996, C-137 number 58-6970 , the first jet aircraft used by Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy, was retired from the Air Force and flown to the Museum of Flight in Seattle for display.
The flightline and its aircraft are only one facet of life at Andrews. In February 1997, Andrews served as the backdrop for a memorial service when the remains of Ambassador Pamela Harriman were returned to the United States.
And more recently, in May of 1998, C-137 tail number 26000, left the wing for retirement at the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. That aircraft carried President Kennedy to Dallas on the day he was shot and returned his body to Andrews later that evening. President Johnson took his oath of office on board the airplane, which also carried President Nixon to China on his famous "journey for peace."
On Aug. 13, 1998 Andrews hosted a memorial service for the return of 10 Americans killed in the bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Kenya. President Clinton, Secretary of State, Madeline Albright and Secreatary of Defense, William Cohen eulogized the victims. During 1998, two new aircraft entered the 89th Airlift Wing inventory. Four C-32A aircraft and two C-37As came into active service as a replacement for the aging C-37s.
Secretary of Defense Recommendations: In its 2005 BRAC Recommendations, DoD recommended to realign Andrews AFB, MD, by relocating the Air Force Flight Standards Agency (AFFSA) and its two C-21 aircraft to Will Rogers World Airport AGS, OK. Consolidating AFFSA and two other agencies relocated in this recommendation at Will Rogers World Airport would create synergy between the Air Force administrative aviation functions and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) located at Will Rogers World. This recommendation would also move federal assets out of the National Capital Region, reducing the nation's vulnerability. Assuming no economic recovery, this recommendation could result in a maximum potential reduction of 191 jobs (115 direct jobs and 76 indirect jobs) over the 2006-2011 period in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, Metropolitan Statistical economic area (less than 0.1 percent).
In another Recommendation, DoD would realign Martin State Air Guard Station (AGS), MD. DoD recommended to move the Aerial Port Squadron of the 175th Wing (ANG) to Andrews AFB, MD. The Aerial Port Squadron would be realigned to a nearby base with a robust airlift mission, retaining these skilled and highly trained ANG personnel.
DoD also recommended to close Cannon Air Force Base, NM. As a result, it would distribute the 27th Fighter Wing's F- 16s to the 113th Wing, Andrews Air Force Base, MD (nine aircraft) and several other installations. DoD claimed that this move would sustain the active/Air National Guard/Air Force Reserve force mix by replacing aircraft that retire in the 2025 Force Structure Plan.
In another recommendation, DoD would realign Naval Air Facility Washington, MD, by relocating the installation management functions to Andrews AFB, MD, establishing Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, MD.
In another recommendation, DoD would close 14 different leased spaces in Arlington and consolidate them at Andrews AFB.
Secretary of Defense Justifications: Consolidating AFFSA, AIS, and GATOPO at Will Rogers World Airport creates synergy between the Air Force administrative aviation functions and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) located at Will Rogers World. Associating the ANG operation at Will Rogers (64-airlift) with the AFR operation at Tinker (four-tankers) consolidates and streamlines Air Force reserve component operations in Oklahoma City at a base of high military value. Additionally, this realignment creates two larger C-130 squadrons at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth (53) and Rosecrans Air Guard Station (114) from three undersized squadrons. Finally, this recommendation moves federal assets out of the National Capital Region, reducing the nation's vulnerability.
All installations employed military, civilian, and contractor personnel to perform common functions in support of installation facilities and personnel. All installations executed these functions using similar or near similar processes. Because these installations shared a common boundary with minimal distance between the major facilities or are in near proximity, there was significant opportunity to reduce duplication of efforts with resulting reduction of overall manpower and facilities requirements capable of generating savings, which would be realized by paring unnecessary management personnel and achieving greater efficiencies through economies of scale. Intangible savings would be expected to result from opportunities to consolidate and optimize existing and future service contract requirements. Additional opportunities for savings would also be expected to result from establishment of a single space management authority capable of generating greater overall utilization of facilities and infrastructure. Further savings would be expected to result from opportunities to reduce and correctly size both owned and contracted commercial fleets of base support vehicles and equipment consistent with the size of the combined facilities and supported populations. Regional efficiencies achieved as a result of Service regionalization of installation management would provide additional opportunities for overall savings as the designated installations are consolidated under regional management structures. The quantitative military value score validated by military judgment was the primary basis for determining which installation was designated as the receiving location. Assuming no economic recovery, this recommendation could result in a maximum potential reduction of 253 jobs (150 direct jobs and 103 indirect jobs) over the 2006-2011 period in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Division economic area (less than 0.1 percent).
Cannon has a unique F-16 force structure mix. The base has one F-16 Block 50 squadron, one F-16 Block 40 squadron, and one F-16 Block 30 squadron. All active-duty Block 50 bases have higher military value than Cannon. Cannon's Block 50s move to backup inventory using standard Air Force programming percentages for fighters. Cannon's F-16 Block 40s move to Nellis Air Force Base (seven aircraft) and Hill Air Force Base (six aircraft to right-size the wing at 72 aircraft) and to backup inventory (11 aircraft). Nellis (12) and Hill (14) have a higher military value than Cannon (50). The remaining squadron of F- 16 Block 30s (18 aircraft) are distributed to Air National Guard units at Kirtland Air Force Base, NM (16), Andrews Air Force Base, MD (21), Joe Foss Air Guard Station, SD (112), and Dane-Truax Air Guard Station, WI (122). These moves sustain the active/Air National Guard/Air Force Reserve force mix by replacing aircraft that retire in the 2025 Force Structure Plan.
The recommendation to close the leased building and move the current headquarters operations to Andrews AFB meets two important Department of Defense (DoD) objectives with regard to future use of leased space and enhanced security for DoD activities. Additionally, the recommendation results in a significant improvement in military value as a result of the movement from leased space to a military installation. The average military value of the noted components of Headquarters Air Force (HAF) based on current locations ranges from 230th to 333rd of 334 entities evaluated by the MAH military value model. Andrews Air Force Base is ranked 51st out of 334. Implementation will reduce the Department's reliance on leased space which has historically higher overall costs than government-owned space and generally does not meet Anti-terrorism Force Protection standards as prescribed in UFC 04-010-01. The recommendation eliminates 190,000 Usable Square Feet of leased administrative space within the NCR. This, plus the immediate benefit of enhanced Force Protection afforded by a location within a military installation fence-line, will provide HAF components with immediate compliance with Force Protection Standards. HAF's current leased locations are non-compliant with current Force Protection Standards.
The collocation of National Guard Headquarters elements to two sites, Army National Guard Readiness Center, Arlington, VA, and Andrews Air Force Base, MD, will enhance Joint Service interoperability. Currently, the National Guard Headquarters entities are housed in three locations in metropolitan Washington, DC, creating a disjointed hindrance to organizational and operational efficiency. By virtue of being located at two operating sites, the Guard commands would significantly increase interaction between themselves for improved force enhancement. A positive result of the co-location is a reduction in force manning levels by eliminating duplicative staff. Various common support functions; i.e., administrative support, contracting and supply functions, would be merged, resulting in a decrease in staffing size. The recommendation eliminates 237,000 Usable Square Feet of leased administrative space within the Washington, DC, area. Leased cost expenditures of $11M per year and Anti-terrorism and Force Protection costs will significantly decrease through the construction of new facilities on a military reservation.
Community Concerns: No formal comments were received from community officials or civic organizations, but individual concerns were expressed in support of "community basing," recommending that existing ANG units be increased in size by assigning active-duty personnel and their associated aircraft to ANG facilities. Individuals maintained that this approach would allow the Air Force to close more active bases and realize greater savings than closing relatively inexpensive ANG bases. Other individual proposals suggested that the VIP transportation mission be transferred from the active Air Force to the ANG.
Community leaders questioned DoD's security standards when looking at closing the leased space, stating they were unnecessarily more stringent than those developed by the Interagency Security Committee (tasked with developing and evaluating security standards for Federal facilities.) Also, the communities questioned whether DoD had surveyed each facility to determine compliance and the level of compliance with the DoD security standards (or even those "less stringent" standards approved by OMB in September 2004.) The communities felt BRAC was not the proper instrument to effect DoD employee relocation from leased facilities.
Advocates expressed concerns about the negative impact on operational readiness and manpower implications. They argued the current "scattered" arrangement of leased office space makes more strategic sense than does concentration, that relocation will disrupt synergies with other agencies of the Federal Government and the Pentagon, and, finally, that leased space is better able to accommodate contingency, mobilization, surge, and future total force requirements than its alternative, military construction. Similarly, communities claimed their quality of life could be reduced because of transportation problems such as increased traffic, lack of public transportation, and increased commuting times, with the attendant issues of air pollution and increased fuel consumption.
Commission Findings: The Commission found that this realignment was consistent with the Air Force's goals of creating larger, more efficient fighter aircraft squadrons and improving intermediate level maintenance processes. The Commission also found that the Secretary of Defense's overall intent and concept of realigning C-130 aircraft out of Will Rogers Air Guard Station was supportable. The Commission found that efficiencies would be gained by consolidating all Air Force aviation administration functions at Will Rogers Air Guard Station.
This recommendation directing aircraft movement and personnel actions in connection with Air National Guard installations and organizations is designed to support the Future Total Force. The Commission expects that the Air Force will find new missions where needed, provide retraining opportunities, and take appropriate measures to limit possible adverse personnel impact. The Commission's intent is that the Air Force will act to assign sufficient aircrew and maintenance personnel to units gaining aircraft in accordance with current, established procedures. However, the Commission expects that all decisions with regard to manpower authorizations will be made in consultation with the governor of the state in which the affected Air National Guard unit is located. Any manpower changes must be made under existing authorities, and must be made consistent with existing limitations. Some reclassification of existing positions may be necessary, but should not be executed until the Air Force and the state have determined the future mission of the unit to preclude unnecessary personnel turbulence.
DoD's justification for closing Cannon was the Air Force's overriding strategy to more effectively employ the shrinking Air Force structure by organizing its weapon systems into fewer, larger squadrons and by eliminating excess physical capacity. The Commission found this recommendation would allow the Air Force to relocate newer model F-16s as backup inventory to Active and to Air National Guard units. These moves would sustain the Active, the Air National Guard, and the Reserve force mix by replacing F-16 aircraft that will be retired in the 2025 Force Structure Plan.
The Commission's review and analysis validated the community concern that the Department failed to assess each leasedspace location individually for compliance with DoD Force Protection standards. The Commission also acknowledged community concerns about personnel relocation, impact on military readiness, and possible advantages that leased space may have over military owned facilities. These concerns were carefully weighed and considered, but in the final analysis the Commission found they did not collectively rise to the level of a substantial deviation. The experience of prior rounds of BRAC has shown that numerous leased-space facilities have been closed and relocated successfully and without excessive disruption. Moreover, the Commission felt that the majority of the concerns raised about the proposal were more properly categorized as implementation issues that could be successfully managed over the six-year implementation period.
Commission Recommendations: The Commission found that the Secretary of Defense deviated substantially from final selection criterion 1, as well as from the Force Structure Plan. Therefore, the Commission recommends the following:
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD, by relocating the Air Force Flight Standards Agency (AFFSA) and its two C-21 aircraft to Will Rogers World Airport Air Guard Station, OK.
Realign Randolph Air Force Base, TX, by relocating the USAF Advanced Instrument School (AIS) to Will Rogers Air Guard Station.
Realign Tinker Air Force Base, OK, by relocating the Global Air Traffic Operations Program Office (GATOPO) to Will Rogers Air Guard Station.
Realign Will Rogers Air Guard Station by relocating the 137th Airlift Wing (ANG) to Tinker Air Force Base and associate with the 507th Air Refueling Wing (AFR). Distribute the 137th Air Airlift Wing's (ANG) C-130 aircraft to meet the Primary Aircraft Authorizations (PAA) requirements established by the Base Closure and Realignment recommendations of the Secretary of Defense, as amended by the Base Closure and Realignment Commission.
If the State of Okalahoma decides to change the organization, composition and location of the 137th Wing (ANG) to integrate the unit into the Future Total Force, all other personnel allotted to the 137th Wing (ANG) will remain in place and assume a mission relevant to the security interests of the State of Okalahoma and consistent with the integration of the unit into the Future Total Force, including but not limited to air mobility, C4ISR, Information Operations, engineering, flight training or unmanned aerial vehicles. Where appropriate, unit personnel will be retrained in skills relevant to the emerging mission.
This recommendation does not effect a change to the authorized end-strength of the Oklahoma Air National Guard. The distribution of aircraft currently assigned to the 137th Wing (ANG) is based upon a resource-constrained determination by the Department of Defense that the aircraft concerned will better support national security requirements in other locations and is not conditioned upon the agreement of the state.
Establish 8 PAA C-130 aircraft at the 136th Airlift Wing ANG, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, TX.
Establish 10 PAA C-130 aircraft at the 139th Airlift Wing (ANG), Rosecrans Memorial Airport Air Guard Station, MO.
The 137th Airlift Wing's Expeditionary Combat Support remains in place at Will Rogers Air Guard Station, Oklahoma.
The Commission found that this change and the recommendation as amended are consistent with the final selection criteria and the Force Structure Plan. The full text of this and all Commission recommendations can be found in Appendix Q.
The Commission found the Secretary's recommendation to close the leased spaces consistent with the final selection criteria and the Force Structure Plan. Therefore, the Commission approves the recommendation of the Secretary.
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