Anacostia Naval Station
The Anacostia Naval Station is adjacent to the north end of Bolling AFB, directly across the Anacostia River from Fort McNair. The Defense Information Systems Agency's (DISA) White House Communications Agency and the Navy housing office are located on Anacostia Naval Station. The remote mail center serving the White House is located at a Secret Service-controlled facility on property shared by the Anacostia Naval Station and Bolling Air Force Base. In the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, FEMA established a mobilization center in Washington DC, at Anacostia Naval Station.
The Marine Helicopter Squadron One (HMX-1) facility at Anacostia is a self-contained detachment, dedicated solely to presidential helicopter support. The facility is staffed with personnel assigned to HMX-1 at MCAF Quantico, VA. It is an extensive facility including: hangar facilities, helicopter landing pads, 500 ft runway, living quarters, underground fuel storage with above ground gang-point refueling system, fuel trucks and aviation ground support equipment. HMX-1 operates from its main headquarters, the Marine Corps Air Facility at Quantico, Va., and from its alert facility, Naval Air Station Anacostia in Washington, DC. Since being established in 1947, HMX-1 has been responsible for the development and tactical implementation of helicopters in the Marine Corps. This operational test and evaluation mission remains HMX-1's primary task, along with the Presidential Mission (Executive Flight Detachment) that was assigned in 1957, shortly after President Eisenhower enjoyed his first flight in a Marine Corps helicopter.
During World War II, U.S. Navy photographers were assigned to provide aerial reconnaissance photographs for intelligence and tactical planning, especially in the Pacific theater, and ground photography for both combat and noncombat events. The headquarters for naval photography was located at the Anacostia Naval Station in Washington, DC, which remains the headquarters of the Navy Imaging Command and the Naval Media Center. In 1951 military musician training was consolidated at the U.S. Naval School of Music, Anacostia Naval Station, Washington D.C. On August 12, 1964, the U.S. Naval School of Music was relocated to the U.S. Naval Amphibious Base (Little Creek), Norfolk, Virginia.
Around 1800, the Anacostia River was a major thoroughfare for trade in the area now known as the District of Columbia, particularly for Bladensburg, a deep water port in Maryland. By 1850, however, the Anacostia River had developed sedimentation problems due to deforestation and improper farming techniques related to tobacco farms and settlements. Channel volumes were greatly decreased and stream flow patterns were altered. Due to the continuation of the urbanization process, the river was never able to flush out the excessive amount of sediment and nutrients.
On May 20, 1998, the Navy and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signed two Consent Agreements/Consent Orders (CACOs) applicable to the Washington Navy Yard and Anacostia Naval Station. EPA and the Navy signed the CACOs to settle two administrative complaints brought by EPA against the Navy alleging violation of hazardous waste compliance regulations at the Navy Yard and Anacostia. In settling these cases the Navy demonstrated that a number of the allegations were invalid and agreed to pay a penalty of $69,000, representing a 90% reduction from the original $704,300 penalty imposed by EPA.
The United States Government acquired, for use by the Department of Defense (DOD), a total of 61.57 acres by permit from the Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Joint Committee on the Library, Botanical Gardens Nursery between 1942 and 1944. The site was originally known as the US Naval Receiving Station, Anacostia and later named the US Naval Station, Anacostia Annex. During the period of DOD use, the Navy used the site for additional facilities in connection with the Washington Navy Yard Training schools, classrooms, laboratory space, barracks, and numerous support facilities were present at the site. In addition, the Navy also erected temporary structures for research work on camouflage, ordnance, and instruments. In 1961, the majority of the functions of the site were relocated to a 95-acre site located at the north end of the Naval Air Station, Anacostia. On 6 October 1967, the Navy released 6.93 acres of the site back to DOI who then conveyed same to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia on 27 September 1968 for the construction of the Anacostia Freeway. On 5 November 1971, 9.5 acres were returned to the jurisdiction of the Joint Committee on the Library. The remaining 45.14 acres of the site were transferred by the Navy to DOI sometime after 1982. The Navy has removed the DOD-installed structures at the site except for four buildings being beneficially used by the National Park Service (NPS), a DOI component.
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