US Army Military Police School
The mission of the US Army Military Police School is to train MP leaders and soldiers who are well grounded in warfighting doctrine, capable of performing the five MP functional areas across the spectrum of conflict and to design organizations and equipment to facilitate the accomplishment of those functions now and into the future.
The Military Police Corps is one of the youngest branches of the United States Army. It was officially established on 26 September 1941. It's traditions of duty and service are unsurpassed in our armed services. Soldiers have been performing police duties from the time of the Revolutionary War, when these duties were assigned mainly to a mounted police force called the "troops of the Marechaussee". Soldiers as the Veteran's Reserve Corps and Provost Corps performed military police duties during the Civil War.
MPs served with distinction in the Spanish American War, WWI, WWII, the Korean Conflict, and in Vietnam. As a result of their distinguished service in Vietnam, the Military Police Corps was designated a combat support and service of the Army on 14 October 1968.
Since Vietnam, the versatility of the Military Police Corps has made it a "Force of Choice" for use in Low Intensity Conflicts and Operations Other Than War in which our nation has been involved, such as Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada and Just Cause in Panama. During Operations Desert Shield and Storm, the Military Police provided Area Security, conducted Battlefield Circulation Control, and exercised custody over thousands of Iraqi prisoners.
Since 1991, the Military Police has assisted in restoring hope to Somalia and upholding democracy in Haiti. Military Police are maintaining order in war-torn Bosnia, as well as conducting patrols, operating checkpoints, and conducting investigations in an effort to keep the peace in Kosovo. At home, they have been busy providing disaster relief, quelling prison unrest, and combating urban riots while still fulfilling their fundamental function of maintaining discipline and security within the Army.
The Military Police Corps has been a very busy organization during the years of its existence, and as one of the most deployed branches of the service, it appears that it will remain so for the foreseeable future.
As a result of several events throughout the decade of the 90s, the protection of U.S. forces and facilities from terrorist attack assumed a prominent role in the operational plans of the major Army commands and, subsequently, the training programs of each service. The Department of Defense (DoD) has provided guidance and standards through the 2000 series of directives. These documents describe specific training requirements for military personnel, DoD civilians, and family members as well as commanders at specific echelons. A series of force-protection assessments in the late 1990s found that the Army, as well as the other services, was not adequately prepared to respond to terrorist attack, and especially those where weapons of mass destruction (WMD) might be used.
Military installations are, in fact, small cities that provide homes for service members, their families, and critical tenant organizations. Their importance to the country's defense, as well as the psychological and political impact an attack on a U.S. military installation would create, make them prime targets for terrorist attacks.
The U.S. Army Military Police School is the Army's designated proponent for AT training and is preparing training courses and materials to transition from the current training scheme to the new requirements. The first ATO course began in the summer of 2001 at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.
In the last several years, considerable funding and technical assistance have been provided to civilian emergency response and service agencies, and they have planned and trained extensively for the possibility of such attacks. One could conceivably say that lesser assistance and funding have been provided to DoD. The current training requirements for DoD personnel are prescribed in DoD Instruction (DODI) 2000.16, DoD Combating Terrorism Program Standards. Four specific levels of training are defined. Army Regulation 525-13, Antiterrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP): Security of Personnel, Information, and Critical Resources from Asymmetrical Attack, prescribes the same standards for Army personnel. DODI 2000.16 is in the final stages of revision and will have several changes that will impact on installations, units, and individuals.
The first change is a new title, DoD Antiterrorism Program Standards. Of considerably more impact are the changes to the training requirements. Under the current DODI 2000.16, four levels of training are specified. Those four levels remain in the revised version, but the training standards for the levels have changed, considerably in some cases. Level I training requirements are the most pronounced.
Currently, Level I AT awareness training is only required for persons/units deploying OCONUS. The revised DODI 2000.16 specifies considerably expanded requirements in Standard 22. The DoD components shall ensure that every military service member, DoD employee, and local national hired by the DoD, regardless of rank, is made aware of the need to maintain vigilance for possible terrorist actions and employ AT tactics, techniques, and procedures. Additionally, all contractors employed by the DoD shall be offered Level I AT awareness training. Thereafter, all DoD components shall provide Level I AT awareness training. The major changes are the new requirements for AT awareness training to be included in all initial entry programs, for all CONUS based personnel who are deployable to receive an annual refresher training, for CONUS personnel to receive training when the threat level goes to MODERATE, and for all dependents 14 years old and older to receive training prior to traveling to OCONUS.
Level II AT training, as before, is designed to provide the training for officers/NCOs/ civilian staff officers who are designated to serve as the AT advisor to the commander and to provide Level I AT awareness training. The revised DODI 2000.16 specifies Level II as antiterrorism officer (ATO) training. Each service is responsible for providing appropriate instruction consistent with topics specified in the revised document. It is the responsibility of the CINC and/or service to ensure that each installation and/or deploying unit is assigned at least one Level II ATO trained individual.
Level III AT training remains the medium for training prospective commanders at the grade of O5/O6 with the knowledge and materials to supervise a comprehensive AT program and manage AT issues. As with Level II, each service must develop a standardized Level III curriculum, which includes specified topics.
Level IV AT training for senior service personnel and O6 to O8 commanders is basically unchanged and is designed to provide the knowledge to provide oversight for AT programs. This training program is sponsored by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and hosted by the J-34.
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