2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment
The 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment was first organized on 3 October 1943 in the Army of the United States in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as an element of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional). It was consolidated on 10 August 1944 with Company H, 475th Infantry (first constituted on 25 May 1944 in the Army of the United States), and the consolidated unit was designated as Company H, 475th Infantry. The unit was inactivated on 1 July 1945 in China. Between the service of this unit and the honors assumed from various consolidations, the unit colors carried streamers for participation in 16 campaigns during the Second World War: Algeria-French Morocco (streamer with arrowhead inidicating participation in the initial assault), Tunisia, Sicily (streamer with arrowhead), Naples-Foggia (streamer with arrowhead), Anzio (streamer with arrowhead), Rome-Arno, Normandy (streamer with arrowhead), Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe, New Guinea, Leyte (streamer with arrowhead), Luzon, India-Burma, and Central Burma. The unit traces part of history to the famous "Merrill's Marauders" of Burma in World War II.
Again, due to various consolidations, the unit carries honors for 4 campaigns during the Korean War: CCF Intervention, First UN Counteroffensive, CCF Spring Offensive, and UN Summer-Fall Offensive. The unit was redesignated on 21 June 1954 as Company H, 75th Infantry and allotted on 26 October 1954 to the Regular Army. It was activated on 20 November 1954 on Okinawa and inactivated there on 21 March 1956.
The unit was reactivated on 1 February 1969 in Vietnam and inactivated there on 15 August 1972 in Vietnam. During the conflict in Vietnam, the unit was awarded streamers for participation in 9 campaigns: Counteroffensive Phase VI, Tet 69/Counteroffensive, Summer-Fall 1969, Winter-Spring 1970, Sanctuary Counteroffensive, Counteroffensive Phase VII, Consolidation I, Consolidation II, and Cease-Fire.
The unit was redesignated on 1 October 1974 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Infantry, and activated at Fort Lewis, Washington with its organic elements concurrently constituted and activated. This activation came after Army Chief of Staff, General Creighton Abrams, directed the activation of 2 battalion-sized ranger units in the fall of 1973, recognizing the need for a highly trained, rapidly deployable, and lethal assault force.
Between February and March 1975, a cadre was trained at Fort Benning, Georgia, and formed a solid core of leaders capable of instilling ranger values and doctrine into the first volunteers of the Battalion. In April 1975, the Battalion conducted its first training event and progressed from individual to team, squad, platoon and company training, and culminated with an externally evaluated battalion exercise in December 1975. At the completion of the event, the chief of staff of the Army declared the 2nd Ranger Battalion "world-wide deployable."
In 1980, a new era of Ranger training began with a focus on special operations. 2nd Battalion trained in countries through the world and participated in many significant events to include combat, shows of force and demonstrations of various duration in key regions included England, Thailand, Central and South America and Africa.
During the US' deployment on 25 October 1983, to Grenada, the mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. During Operation Urgent Fury the 1st and 2d Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault (500 feet), seized the airfield at Point Salines, rescued American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance.
Headquarters and Headquarters Company was consolidated on 3 February 1986 with former Company A, 2nd Infantry Battalion. Company A, 2nd Infantry Battalion had been first constituted on 11 March 1943 in the Army of the United States as Company A, 2nd Ranger Battalion and activated on 1 April 1943 at Camp Forrest, Tennessee. It was redesignated on 1 August 1943 as Company A, 2nd Ranger Infantry Battalion before being inactivated on 23 October 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia. It was redesignated on 29 July 1949 as Company A, 2nd Infantry Battalion. It was activated on 15 September 1949 in the Canal Zone and inactivated there on 4 January 1950. It was again redesignated on 25 October 1950 as the 2nd Ranger Infantry Company and allotted to the Regular Army. It was activated on 28 October 1950 at Fort Benning, Georgia and inactivated on 1 August 1951 in Korea. The unit was redesignated on 24 November 1952 as Company A, 2d Ranger Infantry Battalion and on 14 June 1955 as Company A, 2nd Infantry Battalion. It was activated on 1 July 1955 in Iceland and inactivated on 11 March 1960 at Fort Hamilton, New York. Company A, 2nd Infantry Battalion was consolidated on 15 April 1960 with the 4th Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Regiment, 1st Special Service Force (first activated on 9 July 1942), and the consolidated unit redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. It was again consolidated on 30 September 1960 with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group (first activated on 11 June 1952), and the consolidated unit was designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces, with its organic elements concurrently constituted and activated 20 March 1961.
The lineage and honors of former Company A, 2nd Infantry Battalion were withdrawn on 3 February 1986 from that of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces, as part of the consolidation with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Infantry. The consolidated unit was redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, with the remainder of 10th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces thereafter having a separate lineage.
In 1989, the 2nd Battallion, along with the entire Ranger Regiment, took part in Operation Just Cause, in which US forces restored democracy to Panama. Rangers spearheaded the action by conducting 2 important operations. The 2nd and 3rd Ranger Battalions and a Regimental Command and Control Team conducted a parachute assault onto the airfield at Rio Hato, to neutralize the 6th and 10th Rifle Companies of the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) and seize General Manuel Noriega's beach house. Following the successful completion of these assaults, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force (JTF)-South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW), and over 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained 5 killed and 42 wounded.
In September 1994, 2nd Battalion deployed to Haiti in support of Operation Uphold Democracy. In December 1996, while training at the Jungle Operations Training Center in Panama, the Battalion quelled rioting inside Cuban refugee camps during Operation Safe Haven.
Following the events of 11 September 2001, 2nd Ranger Battalion continuously supported the Global War on Terrorism. In March 2002, 2nd Battalion deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and conducted numerous air assaults, raids, patrols, and ambushes against anti-coalition forces.
In December 2002, elements of 2nd Battalion again deployed, this time in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, followed in February 2003 by the whole Battalion. This period marked the first time in history of the modern ranger regiment that a ranger battalion was required to conduct long-duration and sustained combat operations. 2nd Battalion was the first American force with boots on the ground in Baghdad and established a base of operations for follow on units. The Battalion later participated in operations to capture known and wanted terrorists operating within the country.
Between November and December 2003, the Battalion deployed again to Afghanistan in support of the Global War against Terrorism. Rangers pursued enemies in the most remote regions of the country. Unhindered by extreme altitudes and bitter cold, the battalion conducted mountain patrols at altitudes upwards of 9,000 feet, mobile patrols through major population centers, and conducted air assaults and direct action raids into heavily defended enemy objectives.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|