Strategic Missile Troops
[ex-Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya]
Origin RVSN is connected with the development of domestic and foreign rocket weapon, then nuclear rocket weapon, with the improvement of its combat employment. In the history RV:
1946 - 1959. - the creation of nuclear weapons and first models of the guided ballistic missiles, the development of the rocket connections, capable of solving operational problems in the front operations and strategic tasks in the adjacent theaters of military actions.
1959 - 1965. - formation RVSN, development and setting to standby alert of rocket connections and parts of the intercontinental ballistic missiles (MBR) and the intermediate range rockets (RSD), of the capable of solving strategic problems in the military geographic regions and in any theaters of military actions. In 1962 RVSN participated in the operation "Anadyr, in the course of which 42 RSD R -12 and R -14 were secretly placed in Cuba, and they introduced the significant contribution to the permission of Caribbean crisis and averting of American intrusion in Cuba.
1965 - 1973. - the development of the group of intercontinental ballistic missiles with the single starts (OS) 2- GO of generation, equipped with the monoblock head parts (GCH), transformation RVSN into the chief constituent of the strategic nuclear forces, which introduced the basic contribution to reaching of military-strategic equilibrium (parity) between THE USSR and THE USA.
1973 - 1985. - equipment RVSN with the intercontinental ballistic missiles of the 3rd generation with divided GCH and means of overcoming the antimissile defense of potential enemy and mobile missile complexes of distance.
1985 - 1992. - armament RVSN with the intercontinental stationary and mobile missile complexes of the 4th generation, liquidation in 1988 -1991 yr. intermediate range rockets.
Since 1992. - formation RVSN VS RF, the liquidation of the missile complexes of intercontinental ballistic missiles to the territory of the Ukraine and Kazakhstan and the conclusion from Belorussia in Russia mobile BRK "poplar", rearmament of the obsolete types of missile complexes on BRK with the standardized monoblock rockets of stationary and mobile basing "Poplar- M" of the 5th generation.
The material the basis of creation RVSN was the development in THE USSR of the new branch of defense industry - missile construction. In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers OF USSR from 13.5.1946 g. ? 1017-419 "questions of rocket armament" is determined the cooperation of the main ministries of industry, scientific research and experimental works are begun, special committee on jet-propulsion technology with the Council of Ministers OF USSR is created.
In the ministry of armed forces they are formed: special artillery unit for the mastery, the preparation and the launch of rockets of the type V-2, the scientific research reactive institute for Chief Directorate of Missile Troops and Artillery, the state central range of jet-propulsion technology (range Of kapustin steep bank), the administration of rocket armament in the composition GAU. The first rocket connection, armed by long range ballistic missiles became the brigade of the special designation OF RVGK - RESERVE OF THE SUPREME COMMAND (commander - Major General of artillery A.F. Tveretskiy). During December 1950 the second according to the calculation brigade of special designation is formed, in 1951 - 1955. - the 5 additional connections, which received the new designation (since 1953), the engineer brigades OF RVGK - RESERVE OF THE SUPREME COMMAND.
Up to 1955 they were armed by the ballistic missiles of the r-th, R -2, with the distance 270 km and 600 km, equipped GCH with usual VV (gen. the designer OF S.P. Korolev). To 1958 the personnel of brigades conducted more than 150 combat training booster rockets. In 1946 - 1954 brigades they entered into the composition of the artillery OF RVGK - RESERVE OF THE SUPREME COMMAND and were subordinated to the commander of the artillery of the Soviet Army. Management by them achieved a special staff section of the artillery of the Soviet Army. During March 1955 is introduced the post of the deputy minister of defense OF THE USSR for special armament and jet-propulsion technology (marshal of the artillery M.I. Of nedelin), with which was created the staff of reactive parts.
The combat employment of engineer brigades was determined by the order VGK, by solution of which was provided for giving these connections to fronts. Management by engineer brigades was achieved the front commander through the commander of artillery.
On 4 October, 1957, from the range Baikonur by personnel of individual engineering test part by a combat missile R -7 in the world history was for the first time realized the successful launching of the first artificial earth satellite. Because of the efforts of Soviet missilemen began new epoch in the history of humanity - era of practical cosmonautics.
In second half the 50's to the armament of connections and parts are accepted by equipped nuclear GCH strategic RSD R -5 and R -12 (the design project leaders OF S.P. Korolev M.K. Of yangel') with distance 1200 and 2000 km and MBR R -7 and R -7A (the design project leader OF S.P. Korolev). In 1958 the engineer brigades OF RVGK - RESERVE OF THE SUPREME COMMAND, armed by medium-range rockets R -11 and R -11M, are transmitted into the composition of ground forces. The first connection MBR became object with the conditional designation of "Angar" (commander - Colonel OF M.G. Grigoryev), that finished formation at the end of 1958. During July 1959 the personnel of this compound accomplished THE USSR'S first combat training launching MBR.
The need for the centralized management by troops, equipped with strategic missiles, they caused the organizational formulation of new form VS. In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers OF USSR ? 1384-615 from 17.12.1959 g. are created RVSN as independent form VS. According to President's Decree RF ? 1239 of 10 December, 1995, this day is noted as annual holiday - day RVSN.
31.12.1959 g. were formed: Main staff of rocket forces, central control center with the communication center and the computer center, the main administration of rocket armament, control of combat training, a number of other administrations and services. Into composition RVSN entered 12th main control MO, which knew by nuclear weapons, the engineering formations, subordinated earlier to the deputy minister of defense for special armament and to jet-propulsion technology, rocket regiments and administrations of 3 air divisions VVS, the arsenals of rocket weapon, base and the storages of special armament. Into the composition RVSN also they entered the 4th state central range MO (Kapustin steep bank); the 5th scientific research proving ground MO (Baikonur); separate scientific-experimental station into pos. Keys in Kamchatka; 4th NII - SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE MO (Bolshevo of Moscow region). In 1963 on the base of the object of "Angar" was formed by 53-1 scientific research proving ground of rocket and space armament MO (Plesetsk).
22.6.1960 g. is created the military council RVSN, into composition of which entered M.I. Of nedelin (chairman), V.A. Bolyatko, P.I. Of efimov, M.A. Nicol, A.I. Of semenov, V.F. Tolubko, F.P. of thin, M.I. Of ponomarev.
In 1960 is introduced into the action the position about standby alert of parts and subdivisions RVSN. For purposes of the centralization of combat control of rocket forces by strategic weapon in the structure of the system of administration RVSN were included the organs and control posts in the strategic, operational and tactical components, were inculcated the automated systems of communications and command of troops and by military equipment.
In 1960 - 1961 on the base of the air forces of long-range aviation they are formed the rocket armies, into composition of which entered the connections RSD. Engineer brigades and shelves OF RVGK - RESERVE OF THE SUPREME COMMAND are reorganized into the rocket divisions and the missile brigades RSD, and the administrations of training artillery ranges and brigades MBR - in the administrations of rocket housings and divisions. Rocket battalion was the basic combat unit in the connection RSD, in the connection MBR - rocket regiment. Up to 1966 they were accepted to armament intercontinental BRK R -16, R -9A (gen. the designers OF M.K. Of yangel' and S.P. Korolev). In the troops RSD were formed the subdivisions and parts, armed BY BRK R -1?, R -1? with the silo launch installations of group arrangement (gen. the designer OF M.K. Of yangel'). The first rocket connections and parts were completed mainly by officers from the artillery, VMF, VVS and ground forces. Their retraining to the rocket specialties was conducted in the training centers of ranges, in the enterprises of industry and in the courses with the military educational institutions, subsequently - with instructor groups in the parts.
In 1965 - 1973 RVSN are equipped BRK OF WASPS RS -10, RS -12, R -36, distributed over the large area (gen. the designers OF M.K. Of yangel', V.N. Of chelomey). In 1970 for purposes of an improvement in the management by troops, the increase in the reliability of combat control on the base of the administrations of rocket housings the administrations of rocket armies are created. Connections and parts with the single silo launch installations were capable of delivering the guaranteed reciprocal- counter impact under any conditions of the beginning of war. BRK 2- GO of generation ensured the remote conducting of the launch of rockets within the shortest periods, the high accuracy of impact on purpose and the vitality of troops and weapon, an improvement in the operating conditions of rocket armament.
In 1973 - 1985 in RVSN they are accepted to the armament stationary BRK RS -16, RS -20A, RS -20B and RS -18 (gen. the designers OF V.F. Of utkin and V.N. Of chelomey) and mobile ground BRK RSD -10 ("pioneer") (gen. the designer OF A.D. To nadiradze), equipped divided GCH of individual guidance. Rockets and control posts of stationary BRK were placed in the construction of separately high protection. In the rockets are used the autonomous systems for control with onboard COMPUTER, which ensure remote perepritselivaniye of the rockets before the launching.
In 1985 - 1992 RVSN they were armed BY BRK with the rockets RS -22 of mine and railroad basing (gen. the designer OF V.F. Of utkin) and by modernized rockets RS -20V of mine and RS -12M of ground basing (gen. the designers OF V.F. Of utkin and A.D. To nadiradze). These complexes have the increased combat readiness, a high vitality and a stability to the damaging factors of nuclear explosion, operational perepritselivaniye and the increased period of independence.
Quantitative and qualitative composition of the carriers of Yao and warheads RVSN as other components of strategic nuclear forces, beginning with 1972 it is limited by the maximum levels, established by the agreements between THE USSR (Russia) and BY THE USA. In accordance with the agreement between THE USSR and THE USA about the liquidation of the rockets of medium and smaller distance (1987 g.) RSD and PU to them were destroyed, including of 72 rockets RSD -10 ("pioneer") - by launching from the field combat launching sites in Chita the yr. regions it was Kansk.
In 1997 occurred the association RVSN, Military- space forces, troops of the rocket-space defense of troops of air defense VS RF into the united form VS RF - strategic rocket forces. From June 2001 RVSN are preobrazovany into 2 branches of services - strategic rocket forces and space troops.
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