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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


R-1 / SS-1 SCUNNER

The R-1 / SS-1 SCUNNER was the first Russian ballistic missile system, incorporating V2 parts and Alcohol and LOX propellants. The SS-1A is essentially unrelated to the SS-1b or SS-1c SCUD, which use storable liquid [RFNA and Hydrazine] propellants. The term "scunner" is a Scottish & Northern dialect word for an annoying person or thing, a nuisance, an object of disgust or loathing. The decision to copy the German V-2 missile did not come quickly. Following construction of an initial batch of V-2 missiles in Germany (the N series), and the removal of available German rocket specialists to Soviet territory, Stalin spent some time before deciding what to do with them. It was not until 26 July 1947 that a decree was issued for test of the V-2 missiles at the new rocket test ground at Kapustin Yar. The first Russian launch of a V-2 from Kapustin Yar was conducted on 18 October 1947. The first R-1 test flight from Kapustin Yar was conducted on 10 October 1948.

The R-1 missile was developed by organizations headed by S.P. Korolev (rocket, complex), V.P. Glushko (engine), N.A. Pilyugin (control system and ground check-starting equipment), V.P. Barmin (ground launch, refueling and other equipment), V.I. Kuznetsov (command instruments). In the creation of the R-1 missile, 13 research institutes and 35 plants were employed. The engine of the RD-100 rocket was tested in May 1948.

Decision of the USSR Council of Ministers on the creation of an R-1 missile from domestic components was issued on April 14, 1948. The first series of R-1 missiles represented an almost exact copy of the A-4 missiles with a revised design of the tail and instrument compartments, and the refueling of the rocket with fuel (alcohol). The nomenclature of missile technology is the launcher type 8U22; Installer 8U24; gantry crane 8T21 for missiles R-1 and P-2 by OKB-1 S.P.Korolev approved by the State Planning Committee of the USSR April 9, 1949

The first R-1 missile, assembled at the pilot plant NII-88 (the first series for LKI - 12 missiles), was launched on September 17, 1948. The launch was unsuccessful due to the failure of the control system, the missile deviated from the route by 51 degrees. The first successful launch in this series of tests of the R-1 missile took place on October 10, 1948 (according to other sources on October 31). In the first stage of flight tests of R-1 missiles at the Kapustin Yar test site, 9 launches were carried out in 1948 and 20 missiles in 1949 in the framework of flight-design tests. Failures were due to poor quality of manufacturing of missile systems and systems, insufficient volume of inspections of assemblies and instruments, and inadequacy of some systems.

On May 7, 1949, the first launch of P-1A, a modification of the missile for testing the detachable warhead, was carried out. In the first test series, 4 launches took place. The 5th and 6th launches were with scientific equipment on board. November 30, 1950. The R-1 missile was put into service with the first missile compound - 92 Special Purpose Brigade RVGK, stationed at the Kapustin Yar test site.

Despite the obviousness of the shortcomings in the design, the R-1 missile was practically an exact copy of the German V-2. Nevertheless, R-1 played its historic role, allowing in a short time to create in the USSR all the conditions necessary for the further development of a new type of weapons and to determine the ways and directions of this development. Back in 1946, before the development of the R-1 missile, the first missile unit of the Soviet Army was formed - a special-purpose brigade of the RVGK. The personnel of the brigade began acquaintance with the new technique in Germany, then took part in carrying out the launches of the V-2 and R-1 rockets in the USSR. Based on the experience of the work of the special purpose brigades, the development of questions of military operation and combat use of long-range missiles was begun.

Since 1953, in Dnepropetrovsk, the design and development work on the modernization of R-1, aimed at improving the processability of production and improving its operation. As a result, the R-1M missile differed from the prototype with a simplified design and a significantly modified control system, which doubled the accuracy of the firing. In 1955, after ten launches, the R-1M flight tests were successfully completed, but did not go into mass production, since it no longer satisfied the increased requirements of customers, primarily in range.





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