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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

A-135 / ABM-3

In the late 1970s a brand-new missile defense system was in development. It was called the A-135 Amur and entered service in 1990 and five years later it was put on combat alert in the Moscow region. Currently, the A-135 is part of the 9th division of the 1st air- and missile-defense army [part of the Russian Aerospace Forces]. The system has been modernized for several times, first of all, including its computing devices. As a result, the system now runs much faster.

The multi missile defense system of the Central Industrial Region and Moscow second-generation A-135 is an evolution of the first-generation A-35. Elaboration of the upgraded version of the missile defense system A-35 - A system-35M - was conducted NIO-4 OKB-30 under the direction of G.V.Kisunko until his dismissal in 1975.

The A-135 system attained "alert" (operational) status on 17 February 1995. It is currently operational although its 53T6 (NATO:SH-11) component is deactivated (as of February 2007). A newer missile is expected to replace it. There is an operational test version of the system at the test site in Sary Shagan , Kazakhstan.

The development of a missile defense system A-135 began in 1971. The structure of the new missile defense system, which was to replace the outdated A-35M, was supposed to include two types of missiles - 51T6 designed for extra-atmospheric intercept targets at altitudes of up to one hundred thousand meters and range to 600 kilometers, and 53T6. Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to begin construction of the A-135 was signed in 1978; It also contained an order to start developing a modernized missile defense system.

It should be noted that the creation and construction of the A-135 was carried out in the framework of the Soviet-American indefinite "ABM Treaty" signed in 1972. According to the document, each party had the right to build a maximum of two missile defense systems, each equipped with no more than a hundred fixed launchers. In 1974 the terms of the agreement tightened - the parties are now allowed to have no more than one system. US agreement put the system on a military base in Grand Forks, but a year later it was dismantled. The Soviet Union decided to cover the Moscow missile defense system. "ABM Treaty" was not valid from June 2002, when the United States withdrew from the agreement and began to develop its own missile defense system in Europe.

By June 1975 it was already possible to clearly define the purpose and time periods of development and creation of the new Moscow ABM system. A.G. Basistov became the general designer. V.K. Sloka was the chief designer of the multifunctional Don-2NP [PILL BOX] radar. A.G. Basistov headed the Council of Chief Designers, who were working on a new effective ABM system. Construction of the A-135 mostly completed in mid 1980s. During the creation of a series of successful tests confirmed the ability to intercept missiles ballistic targets, including such complex as cloven independently targetable warheads. On the alert firing system A-135, has a total of one hundred interceptor missiles, stood up in 1995, after a lengthy testing and debugging.

In addition to the missile (51T6, according to unconfirmed reports, it was equipped with a nuclear warhead to improve the chance of destroying ballistic targets) in the A-135 and entered the radar "Don 2NP" placed not far from the Moscow region Sofrino. Radar is a truncated pyramid, the length and width of which is equal to one hundred meters, and height - 35 meters. This station is able to control the space at a distance of two thousand kilometers (according to other sources - 3.7 thousand kilometers) and at a height of up to 40 thousand kilometers. The radar provides supercomputer "Elbrus-2".

This system, the ABM-3, became operational at Moscow in 1989. Five new launcher sites were constructed, and two Galosh sites were converted for the new system. The Moscow Industrial Area ABM Defense System (A-135) was accepted on alert duty by presidential edict of 17 February 1995. The Moscow anti-ballistic missile system, known as A-135, includes the full complement of 100 interceptor missiles permitted by the treaty [though published reports provide conflicting accounts as to the exact number of missiles]. The system includes three dozen long-range SH-11 Gorgon missiles, as well as over five dozen short-range SH-08 Gazelle missiles, which are quick-reaction, high-acceleration interceptors. Both types of interceptors are silo-launched.

The A-135 missile-defense system was designed to intercept and destroy warheads during trajectory phases three and four. Our scientists were ahead of their time and the Americans in these developments. The Americans did not yet have a similar system.

Anti-ballistic missile firing complexes were positioned around the capital along a radius of about 100 kilometers. Each complex was a small, heavily guarded town with operational, technical, and residential zones. The technical zone consisted primarily of powerful radar, a super-high-speed computing center that executed rendezvous and control tasks, anti-ballistic missile launch systems, and the anti-ballistic missiles themselves, capable of destroying an enemy nuclear warhead with its own nuclear charge. Hundreds of engineers in officers’ uniforms were on duty around Moscow in the missile-defense bastions that were packed with special-purpose radio engineering complexes. The very well-furnished residential zones of these towns had all the necessities for the tranquil life of the servicemen and their families.

Ballistic missile early warning centers using gigantic antenna systems, or “arrays,” were erected in the Moscow region, Latvia, and Armenia. They were also erected near Krasnoyarsk but never went into service. All the launch complexes and early warning centers were linked by the most state-of-the-art communications system, over which a single command center controlled this massive and once-unique system.

According to some reports, it is claimed that this system was taken off-line in December 1997 and remained inactive, although this does not appear to be confirmed by American statements on this subject. In February 1998 the commander in chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces -- Colonel General Vladimir Yakovlev -- said that the system needed some minor modifications, After these were completed, however, the "nuclear umbrella" over Moscow would once again be opened, he said. A few days later, Col. Gen. Vladimir Yakovlev, commander-in-chief of strategic missiles forces, said the ABM system with conventional warheads on the Galoshs and Gazelles, was combat ready and would shortly be placed on 24-hour alert status. This suggested that Russia had abandoned plans to employ nuclear warheads on SH-11 Galosh and SH-08 Gazelle missiles. Experts had warned of the potential damage to Moscow, saying the detonation of a single warhead could contaminate a 77 square mile area.

The ABM-3 incorporated several improvements over the Galosh. Mechanically steered radars were replaced by much more capable phased-array radars. And two types of interceptor missiles were used, taking advantage of atmospheric bulk filtering to discriminate decoys from actual warheads. The interceptors were deployed in underground silos to reduce their vulnerability to direct attack. Nonetheless, the ABM-3 was the technological equivalent the U.S. Sentinel/Safeguard ABM, and clearly shared the major limitations and vulnerabilities of that system.

The components of the ABM-3 include:

* 32-36 of the SH-11 long-range exo-atmospheric interceptor missiles, which are somewhat smaller than the massive Galosh and is probably three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a range of 300-400 kilometers and a multi-megaton warhead.

* 64-68 of the SH-08 short-range endo-atmospheric interceptors, which are a two-stage solid-fuel with a range of about 100 kilometers and a low-yield nuclear warhead. It is similar in design and mission to the U.S. Sprint missile, although its maximum acceleration is reportedly significantly lower. In at least one test of the SH-08 short-range ABM interceptor, two interceptors were fired from a single launcher in an interval of two hours, although no reloading equipment was observed in the area. No other details on this incident have come to light. Given the short battle-time available to ABM systems, two hours does not seem to be particularly "rapid".

* The ABM-3 phased-array short-range battle management radar replaced Try Add radars at Moscow ABM sites to support SH-08 interceptors It is similar in function to American Missile Site Radar, although smaller and less capable.

* The Pushkino large battle-management phased-array radar constructed near Moscow provides 360 degree coverage and will supplement Dog House and Cat House radars in supporting SH-04 long range interceptors.

* The Pechora-type bi-static phased-array early warning radar supplemented the Hen House radars. Deployment began in the late 1970's at seven sites: Pechora, Lyaki, Mishelevka, Olenegorsk, Sary Shagan, Kamchatka and Abalakova.

Officially 51T6 missiles were removed from the set of A-135 in 2002-2003 due to the expiration of the service. However, according to unconfirmed reports, they are still in the silos and are on alert. In addition, it is believed that the modernized or 51T6 missiles, based on them, would be part of a modernized system A-235. The contract to build the latest was signed in 1991, with completion scheduled for 2015.

The Russian military conducted a test in December 2011 of an advanced missile short-range missile defense system at the Kazakhstan Sary-Shagan. The launch was a success; the missile hit a conditional goal in the set time. As announced Ministry of Defense of Russia,antimissile 53T6, which, judging by the index was in service since 1995, passed the test.

Launching missiles 53T6 held at 12:01 by Moscow time on the range Sary Shagan in Kazakhstan. The aim of the test was the confirmation of the tactical and technical characteristics of anti-missile missile defense system. Tools interception index 53T6 is currently included in the missile defense system A-135, put into service in 1995 and deployed around Moscow. Deputy Commander of the Aerospace Defense Sergei Lobov said that running anti-missile missile struck a conditional goal in the set time.

It is surprising that, although the new missile was said to be "a fundamentally new development", its index had not changed, as was done in the case of upgrading an existing or developing new weapons. In any case, many of the important details about the "new" missiles had not been announced, including belonging to a missile defense system, and technical specifications. The predecessor of the new 53T6 - the old 53T6 - with a length of ten meters, diameter of one meter and a mass of about ten tons capable of destroying ballistic objects at a distance of 80 kilometers and at an altitude of 30,000 meters.

The previous time antimissile 53T6 was launched in Kazakhstan was in October 2010. Presumably, the aim was to check the recent launches of various components improved as part of a large-scale program of modernization of the missile defense system to the A-235.

Moscow’s missile defense system will be able to effectively protect the Russian capital against any attack for many decades, a senior Aerospace Forces commander said in a radio interview on 28 November 2015. “The A-135 Amur system will stay ahead of the emerging threats for the next few decades…. We are constantly upgrading our pride and joy – the Don-2N radar — and deploying new missiles that will double the system’s combat characteristics,” Colonel Andrei Cheburin told Russian News Service radio on Saturday.

The missile defense system protecting Moscow and the Central Industrial Region consists of a number of silo-based antimissiles traveling at twice the speed of a bullet. “That’s why the Americans call them ‘gazelles’…Their state-of-the-art homing system ensures 100 percent acquisition and destruction on incoming ballistic targets. Righty now we are modernizing our antimissiles to further improve their combat characteristics,” Colonel Cheburin said.

The A-135 includes the Don-2N radio-radar station, located in Sofrino, near Moscow. It detects warheads flying in space, at a distance of up to 3,700 km and the information is transmitted to the 5K80 command point. Then, the information is processed and transmitted further to missile launching sites. Each of the missile launching sites deployed around Moscow has 12-16 silos containing 53T6 interceptors capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 60 km and at an altitude of up to 45 km. As of 2016, 68 53T6 interceptors were in service.

  • OKB-134 "Vympel" GosMKB imeni I.I.Toropov

    State Engineering Design Bureau JSC Vympel [Pennant] is a specialized developer and producer of aircraft missiles, guns, bombs and surface-to-air weapons. Its history dates back to as early as 1949, and it is named after its first Chief Designer professor Ivan I.Toropov.

    At present Vympel is a multifunctional enterprise with experienced research and development staff, advanced production complex, computer centre and test facilities. The enterprise is Russia's and one of the world's leading design bureaus, engaged in development of air-to-air guided missiles of different types. The enterprise also specializes in developing air-to-surface guided missiles, guided missiles for groung and sea-based air defence systems, and their target derivatives. The enterprise has developed the majority of aircraft guided missile release/ejection units, hardpoints and rack for bombs, torpedoes, nacelles, gun pods, rocket pods and decoy dispensers for Russian aircraft and helicopters.

    During its 55-year history the enterprise has developed over 50 types of air-launched missiles (about 40 types are operated in more than 30 countries) and some 200 types of convertional air weapons. The main military products, currently offered for export, are air-to-air guided missiles: R-73E (R-73EL), RVV-AE, R-27R1 (R-27ER1), R-27T1 (R-27ET1), R-27P1 (R-27EP1); and R-33E; air-to-surface guided missiles: Kh-29TE and Kh-29L; aircraft missile ejection unit - AKU-170E; and decoy dispenser unit - UV-30MK.

    Within the frame wark of the convertion program, the enterprise developed a number of civil products, based on defence technologies, including airfield equipment, drilling rigs, pyrotechnic shears, medical equipment, porous strainers for different-purpose gas systems, ets.

    JSC "GosMKB" Vympel "them. I.I.Toropova" is the leading design bureau in Russia for the development of airborne weapons, including:

      guided missiles "air-to-air" for various applications; guided missiles "air-surface"; guided missiles for land and naval air defense systems and targets based on them; start-up and ejection device for aircraft guided missiles; beam and cassette holders for suspension torpedoes and bombs; gondolas and blocks for small arms and unguided missiles; passive jamming devices for the protection of aircraft and helicopters; locking of lifting devices for airplanes and helicopters.

    Aircraft Armament Development State ICD "Vympel" is used on the world-famous fighting airplanes and helicopters with a brand MiG, Su, Yak, Tu, Il, Be, Mi, Ka and operated in Russia, the CIS countries and many countries of the world. The enterprise has developed and put into operation more than 200 samples of military equipment and their modifications, established the scientific and technical foundation for the creation of new advanced models. The company employs qualified scientific and technical staff, including 4 doctors of technical sciences, more than 30 candidates of technical sciences. Through the state intermediary "Rosoboronexport" and JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ", the company is actively involved in military-technical cooperation with foreign states. Over 50 samples of military products Gos ICD "pennant", including the worldwide known "air-to-air" of R-60, F-73E, RVV-AE, P-27T (P, P), "air- surface "X-29T (TE, a), and" surface-to-air "3M9 used in more than 30 countries around the world.

    The main directions in the field of military-technical cooperation with foreign states are:

      foreign customer delivery of military products; execution of development work on the subject of the enterprise in the interest of foreign customers; the execution of works to extend the service life, the foreign customer previously delivered military products; perform maintenance (servicing) previously supplied foreign customer of military products; participation in the international aerospace exhibitions in Russia, France, England, Germany, Austria, United Arab Emirates, India, China, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Chile, Turkey, Greece and the Philippines.

    The Bureau, a number of civilian products using the technologies of defense topics, including airfield equipment, drilling rigs, rescue pyrotechnic shears, small sensors, mobile medical laboratory, medical mikrotermokonteynery, heaters, lamps using an old design, poristo- strainers for gas systems for various use and so forth.


    • November 18, 1949 - Date of formation of the company ( "Plant ? 134" - a pilot plant for arming aircraft). The company was established to design and manufacture prototypes gunnery and bombing aircraft weapons.
    • Since its establishment in 1949 to 1961 - Design Bureau was headed Toropov Ivan Ivanovich (1907-1977), the first Manager. As Chief Designer now led from 1949 to 1961 and from 1961 to 1977 taught at the Moscow Aviation Institute, Professor. For outstanding achievements in the creation of airborne weapons and missile technology was awarded two Orders of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, the Order of Krasnaya Zvezda and many medals. Laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, was awarded in 1950 for the development of bomber weapons systems Tu-4, along with other professionals;
    • 1953 - The development of the standard units of PBB (bomb holder drive), MRI (the mechanism of explosion-nevzryv), BC (Lock Box) Bomber weapons vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh bombs suspension.
    • 1955 - The development of weapons systems bomber Tu-16 and Tu-95. Began experimental research and development work in the development of "air-to-air" missiles K-7, K-13 (P-3C).
    • 1958 - Bureau has begun to develop national anti-aircraft missiles to homing ZM9 troop air defense missile system "Cube". To launch the world's first to "Vympel" was created a new type of engine - a combination of rocket and ramjet engine (KRPD) solid fuel. During the 1958-83 GG 7 rocket modifications have been created for the complex "Cube" and "Buk-1."
    • 1960 Year - commercialized rocket "air-to-air" short-range P-AP thermal homing head (GOS). This missile and its subsequent modification (R-3R with a semi-active radar seeker, R-13M, R-13M1) has long stood for MIG-21 and VOP front aircraft fighter aircraft armament, Mig-23, and others.
    • From 1961 to 1981 - Design Bureau headed by chief designer Andrey Leonidovich Lyapin (1912-1983), In which the continued creation of missiles "air-to-air" P-ZR, R-23R, R-23T, R-24, P-24T, R-73, R-27R, 27T P, P-33, and others. Simultaneously, the development was finished class "surface-to-air" missile ZM9 (complex "Cube").
    • 1963 - The development of complex BV-PLO for the Be-12.
    • 1965 - Completed testing IVS-90A-037 Tu-95. The development of the R-3P complex BW ASW to Ka-25 and BV-TPS complex for IL-38 helicopter.
    • 1967 - Plant ?134 renamed Machine-Building Plant "Vympel" (the Ministry of Health "Vympel"). The development of complex BV-PLO for the Tu-142.
    • November 7, 1967 - Rocket 3M9 first demonstrated at the military parade on Red Square.
    • 1968 - the beginning of the R-33 missile development for the fighter-interceptor MiG-31.
    • 1970 - The development of the first dedicated missiles melee P-60. BV completed complex second generation development for the Su-24 (M).
    • 1973 Year - adopting rocket "air-to-air" dipped battle P-60, rocket "air-to-air" medium-range R-23 with two removable GOS - semiactive radar and heat for MIG-23 aircraft.
    • October 11, 1974 - For the successful fulfillment of government assignments for new aircraft weapons and missile technology samples in connection with the 25th anniversary of the company was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. AL chief designer Lyapin awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor, a large group of employees awarded government awards.
    • 1978 - A set of bomber weapons to supersonic fighter-bomber MiG-25RB. Is the standard weapon rocket R-24.
    • 1980 Year - adopting rocket "air-to-air" long-range R-33 with a semi-active radar seeker for interceptors MIG-31. Is the standard weapon rocket "air-surface" X 29 weapons fighter-bomber and attack aircraft (MIG-27, SU-17, SU-25, etc.). The missile has two modifications: X-29L with a semi-active laser GOS and X-29T passive television GOS.
    • On July 27, 1981 on December 14, 2004 - Design Bureau headed by Gennadiy Aleksandrovich Sokolovskiy. Born August 10, 1934. Doctor of technical sciences, professor, academician of the International and Russian Engineering Academy, Academician of the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences, Academician of the International Academy of Informatization, member of the Presidium of the Scientific Council at the Security Council of Russia. Honorary Professor of Beijing and Shanghai Aviation Institute of Martian Polytechnic Institute and Luoyang Center opto-electronic devices. Laureate of the State Prize of Russia (1998), the USSR Council of Ministers Prize (1990). Honored Engineer of the Russian Federation. Honorary aircraft manufacturers. Since 2006 - chief scientific adviser to the CEO.
    • 1981 - On the Translation Group of experts of NGOs "Lightning" with the transfer of topics missile R-73, X-29.
    • 1983 Year - adopting rocket "air-to-air" P-73 short-range and low manoeuvrable combat.
    • 1986 - A set of bombing and mine-trawler weapons (BW and MTV) for amphibious aircraft "Albatross".
    • 1988 - adopting passive jamming device HC-26.
    • 1989 - Ministry of Health of "Vympel" renamed the Engineering Design Bureau (ICB) "Vympel". Demonstrated first open R-27, P-73, P-23, P-24, X-29 at "Hodynka-89."
    • 1990 - completed the state tests HC-3A passive jamming device on the MiG-31.
    • 1992 - ICD "Vympel" was renamed to State Engineering Design "Vympel bureau (" Vympel "GosMKB). The company participates for the first time at the International Air Show "Mosaeroshow-1992" and the first to demonstrate their products abroad at the International Air Show "Farnborough-1992".
    • 1994 - adopting the missile "air-air" medium-range fourth generation PBB-AE.
    • 1997 - adopting the missile target 3M20M3.
    • July 27, 1999 - Decree of the Government of Moscow ? 686 GosMKB "Vympel" in connection with the 50th anniversary of its creation was named I.I.Toropova - the first major enterprise designer.
    • November 18, 1999 - 50 years since the founding of GosMKB "Vympel".
    • 2001 - A new trend in the enterprise are OCD missile integration on foreign-made aircraft. Plane integration of R-73E missiles South African Air Force, "the F1 Mirage" was shown at the Moscow Aviation and Space Salon "MAKS-2001".
    • In August, 2001 - the exposition of the International Aviation and Space Salon "MAKS-2001" was visited by the Russian Federation President VV Putin and Mayor of Moscow Yuri Luzhkov.
    • In August, 2003 - the exposition of the International Aviation and Space Salon "MAKS-2003" visited the President of the Russian Federation VV Putin.
    • In December 2004 - Acting Director General of the company appointed Burak Boris Korneevich.
    • In 2005 the company became part of the "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ".
    • June 22, 2005 - Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State Engineering Design Bureau" Vympel "named I.I.Toropova transformed into an open joint stock company" State Engineering Bureau "Vympel" named after II Toropova ".
    • July 14, 2005 - General Director of JSC "State ICD" Vympel "them. I.I.Toropova "appointed RAC Viktor Antonovich. Born July 23, 1960. Candidate of Technical Sciences. Previously led the JSC "Polishelk", ZAO "High optical tehologii", OAO "Dux".
    • In August, 2007 - the exposition of the International Aviation and Space Salon "MAKS-2007" visited the President of the Russian Federation VV Putin.
    • On December 18, 2012 as General Director of the Company appointed Nikolay Anatolevich Gusev.
    • October 26, 2015 - Open Joint Stock Company "State Engineering Bureau" Vympel "named after II Toropova "(short of" GosMKB "Vympel" imeni Toropov ") was renamed to Joint Stock Company" State Engineering Bureau "Vympel" named after II Toropova "(abbreviated as AO" GosMKB "Vympel" imeni Toropov ").

    OKB-2 Grushin

    Isayev, Bereznyak, Mishin, Melnikov, Bushuyev, and Chertok — future Heroes of Socialist Labor and winners of numerous awards, were graduates of Bolkhovitinov’s “school” — Factory No. 293, located on a small piece of land in Khimki. This piece of land occupied by Factory No. 293 suffered through a period of obscurity while awaiting the advent of the missile age. In 1953, Petr Dmitriyevich Grushin arrived at the factory to serve as chief and chief designer.

    On 20 November 1953, Special Design Bureau No. 2 (OKB-2) was set up using the facilities of the pilot production plant of Factory No. 293. Incomprehensibly, for a short time, it became part of the atomic Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Petr Dmitriyevich Grushin was appointed chief and chief designer of OKB-2. After many changes in affiliation to various high-ranking government agencies, Factory No. 293 came to be referred to as the Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau (MKB).

    From 1953 through 1991, a period of 38 years, the chief and general designer of Fakel was future academician and twice-decorated Hero of Socialist Labor Petr Dmitriyevich Grushin. Although little known among Western space historians, Petr Dmitriyevich Grushin (1906–93), the former deputy of Semyon Lavochkin, was one of the most influential missile designers in the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Because he oversaw the development of several generations of air defense missiles, Grushin was promoted in 1966 to membership in the Central Committee of the Communist Party, a rare honor bestowed not even to Korolev during his life.

    OKB-2’s first anti-aircraft missile was put into service for the Air Defense Troops in 1957. OKB-2 (Isayev’s, Mishin’s, and Chertok's alma mater) was awarded the Order of Lenin for producing this family of missiles. Grushin was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor, and in 1958 Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev both came to the factory to present him the award.

    Grushin’s 1D (or V-750) missile was the first in the world to strike an actual enemy aircraft, the US Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft piloted by Francis Gary Powers. He was shot down near Sverdlovsk on 1 May 1960. While giving Grushin his due, it bears mentioning that his missiles were part of the larger S-75 system, the general designer of which was Aleksandr Andreyevich Raspletin. Both Grushin and Raspletin became academicians that year. They were distinguished, extremely talented engineers, gifted with organizational skills and trailblazing enthusiasm. Grushin’s missiles in Raspletin’s S-75 system destroyed hundreds of American airplanes during the Vietnam War.

    In 1961, a unique problem was solved for the first time: Grushin’s V-1000 missile, guided by Kisunko’s radar and computer system, struck the warhead of an R-12 ballistic missile launched from Kapustin Yar. Not long before Gagarin’s launch, after a hot day at the firing range in Tyura-Tam as we were taking a stroll, Isayev remarked apropos Grushin’s missiles: “Just think, those Americans were shot down by missiles that were developed at the place where we first began to understand what a liquid propellant engine was.” Isayev had every right to be proud. Grushin’s missiles,

    TsNPO Vympel

    The Vympel Central Scientific-Production Association (TsNPO Vympel), subordinate to the Ministry of the Radio Industry, was established in 1970 to bring organizational order into this field. This organization brought together dozens of the nation’s most powerful radio engineering teams, who had experience developing large-scale radar systems for various applications.

    The development of the “hard kill” systems themselves—the anti-ballistic missiles, their warheads, and possible space-based systems to kill enemy missiles using particle beam or laser beam weaponry—was not part of Vympel’s scope of work. As before, the Ministry of the Aviation Industry was in charge of the missiles for air defense and missile-defense systems, the Ministry of the Defense Industry was in charge of time fuses and kinetic energy weapons, and the Ministry of Medium Machine Building was in charge of all types of nuclear warheads and problems related to particle beam weapons.

    The new NPO Astrofizika, headed by the son of Minister of Defense Ustinov, was created in the Ministry of the Defense Industry to develop a laser “death ray” weapon. Nikolay Dmitriyevich Ustinov (1931–), was a leading scientist at the Luch Central Design Bureau (TsKB Luch), which produced military laser weapons. Teams of top-notch specialists worked on dozens of different Central Committee and Council of Ministers decrees, VPK resolutions, Ministers’ orders, and also on their own plans.

    NIIRP Nauchno-issledovatelskiy Institut Radioprioborostroyeniya Red Banner of Labor Research Institute of Radio (NIIRP), located in Moscow, is a developer of communication system, a means of environmental monitoring, management of complex objects. NIIRP was in affiliation of the Russian Agency for Control Systems. From 2004, SA Podlepa helds the position of chief designer of "NIIRP", who succeeded B.P. Vinogradova. NIIRP was created by the decision of the USSR Council of Ministers on 30 December 1961 by decree # 1181-511. The company was formed from from one of the units of the KB-1 (now - NPO Almaz / Diamond). NIIRP in accordance with a number of resolutions of the Government was the lead institution of the Russian Federation on the development and creation of tools and missile defense systems. Within the framework of the state order of the Institute with the participation of a large cooperation established system "A", "A-35", and "A-135" It was the leading Institute for the development and creation of tools and systems, missile defense, a series of systems A-35 and A-135. For the development of these systems, in 1966, some leading experts NIIRP were awarded the Lenin Prize, and in 1977 and 1997 respectively - the State Prize. As of 2002, NIIRP had 900 employees, including 545 researchers, including 12 doctors and 67 candidates of sciences. More than 200 NIIRP workers were awarded orders and medals of the USSR and the Russian Federation, and 251 employees were awarded the title "Honored Engineer of the Russian Federation." NIIRP actively involved in conversion work, the results of which have received numerous diplomas and medals. Work has been exhibited at the World Exhibition of Inventions. "Brussels - Eureka", Brussels (Belgium); All-Russian Exhibition Center in Moscow; International Salon of Inventions and Technology, Geneva (Switzerland); International Exhibition of Inventions in Orlando (USA); International Exhibition of Inventions of Paris (France). From 1996 to 2000, the developers of the Institute at the international exhibitions and salons was awarded 1 Grand Prix, 2 gold medals with distinction, 5 gold, 8 silver and 2 bronze medals. NIIRP owed "Almaz" 1.6 million rubles (3.2 million fines) for heat and electricity. In spring 1998, "Diamond" filed a lawsuit on bankruptcy institute, the value of which the fixed assets is 443 million rubles. This security of the country is common according to market rules. That company went "fatherly" to strangle her child. Or by skillfully seizing the property of a child lost in the market. They say the claim submission was caused by the personal dislike of the former general director of "Almaz" to the former director NIIRP. The insolvency (bankruptcy) of the parent company was responsible for coordinating all work on missile defense. Its conversion to an external control takes place in parallel with the statement in the Security Council the country's missile defense concept. According to the concept, NIIRP was the head. According to the decision of the Arbitration Court, it was bankrupt, as the authorities did not fit into the steep market turns. Who was appointed by the authorities? Gosoboronprom replaced in recent years five NIIRP Directors. While one of the appointees, V.Sergeev, was under investigation, and the second, Vladimir Gruzdev, actually went bankrupt institution somehow escaped the investigation, and the third, Ivan Chikin, the external manager, was generally forbidden to lease the territory. Because the market beginning was not joined with the government, they were under strict government restrictions. Take the state defense order. Payment for work performed is done after a long delay, without any adjustment for inflation. One source of funds for structures such NIIRP was the lease of premises. The same "Almz" had a good income from it - every square meter on the trade-Sokol (here at the Institute of Building 8) brought 180-200 dollars per year. But NIIRP was state-run, and therefore did not have the right to hand over the area to ??unauthorized structures. The Ministry of State Property was exclusively strict. But not for everyone. Somehow, it also supported the initiative of the Director NIIRP Gruzdeva and signed a tripartite agreement (Institute - DKF certain company with a registered capital as much of 10 thousand rubles - SPC) of the deposit of the company in the rent housing "G" area of ??12 thousand square meters $ 12 per-year per square meter. The tiny company earned annually 2.5-3 million dollars on deposit in the so-called sub-lease space institute. Neither the Institute nor the budget is not received by this single dollar. Without receiving money from the state, the institution broke payments to budgets of all levels and extra-budgetary funds, not calculated with subcontractors for light, heat and water. In this case, the basic debt multiplied penalties and fines. At the end of 2001 NIIRP had overgrown debts in the amount of 172.8 million rubles. A third of debt was running interest, penalties and interest. While at the same time, the institution had income of 76.9 million rubles - clean, without any cheating. President Vladimir Putin signed a decree "On Joint Stock Company" Concern PVO "Almaz - Antey" on 23 April 2002. According to this, NIIRP was converted into a joint stock company and was included in the group with the whole property complex. In response to an external control A. Ignatenko, supposedly carrying out direct orders of General Director of Almz I. Ashurbeyli, a man better known in Moscow trading and market circles than in the industrial and research and design, rapidly sold the last facilities at very low prices. Law "On the State Defense Order" prohibits the conversion of facilities designed to perform military orders. But the reality was that the institute had already sold 30 buildings. And they say that NIIRPovtsam would have to rent their former premises from their new owners. JSC "NIIRP" from 30 November 2009 , by resolution of the Board of Directors of the Group began the process of reorganization and joining GSKB "Almaz-Antey". In December 2010, the reorganization process was completed. Now JSC "NIIRP" is a part of "GSKB" Almaz-Antey" as the Science and Technology Center.


    Grigory Vasilievich Kisunko was a Russian scientist in the field of radio electronics. He was a designer, head of KB-1 Ministry of defence industry of the USSR, engineer-Colonel, doctor of technical sciences, and Professor. Grigoriy Vasilyevich Kisunko (1918–98) was the “patriarch” of the Soviet anti-ballistic missile program. In the 1960s and early 1970s, he was chief designer at OKB-30, which later became the heart of the large Vympel Central Scientific Production Association (TsNPO Vympel) that conducted research on anti-ballistic missile and early warning systems during the Soviet era.

    Grigory Vasilievich was a son of an "enemy of the people", in fact his father was just the working-driver, who was shot in 1938 for allegedly preparing an armed uprising against Soviet rule. From a young age, he lived, studied, fought and worked under the heavy yoke of "exposure", without losing the advantages of integrity, and not sparing his health and energy for the creation of a reliable weapon to protect the homeland from a nuclear attack.

    Kisunko was born 20 July 1918 in Goda v Sele Bel'manka, now in Kuybyshev region of Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. His father - Vasily Trofimovich Kisunko, was born in 1896 in Ukraine. In 1912 he began work as a handyman, locomotive fireman on the railroad, and worked at the Mariupol Metallurgical Plant. After the outbreak of the imperialist war, he was drafted into the army and served as a private in the Caucasus front. The mother - Nadezhda Avramovna Kisunko {before marriage Scriabin), was born in 1894, a Ukrainian. As a 10-year-old she lived on rotten "for the grub, and clothing" in a well-off rural area, and upon reaching the age of 14 went as a domestic worker in the city of Mariupol and Ekaterinoslav. After the October Revolution, until 1930 they lived as middle peasants in the village Belmanka. In the year 1930 the family moved to the town of Mariupol (known as Zhdanov 1948-1989), where his father worked at a machine plant. Ilyich's mother worked as a cleaner at the same plant. On 03 April 1938 his father was arested by the NKVD in Mariupol, and on false charges his father was sentenced to capital punishment on April 29, 1938 in Donetsk. In March 1965, his father was posthumously rehabilitated. Mother a year after the arrest of his father was forced to leave the job because of the cleaner appeared symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis. Since then, she's was dependents on here son. In 1934 he graduated from 9 years of schooling. Because of material difficulties in the family, he left school and went to the city of Lugansk (from 1935-1958 and 1970-1990 knmown as Voroshilovgrad). There he entered the physico-mathematical faculty of the Pedagogical Institute, from which he graduated in 1938, with honors, majoring in physics. In the autumn of 1938 Kisunko enrolled in the graduate school in the Department of theoretical physics of the Leningrad State Herzen Pedagogical Institute. In June 1941 he graduated with a thesis for the degree of candidate of physico-mathematical sciences.

    On 04 July 1941, he enrolled as a volunteer in the Leningrad people's militia, in an ordinary 2-th infantry regiment 5th Infantry Division, but from there it was sent to the Kujbyshev district of the city of Leningrad (1991-Saint Petersburg). Kisunko was assigned as a cadet in military school of air surveillance, warning and communication (INPUT) of the Red Army in the town of Pushkin, the Leningrad region.

    From 18 February 1942 onwards, by the order of the main Department (GU) air defence (TC), as a Lieutenant Kisunko was sent to the 337th separate radio battalion of the Special Moscow PVO army. Here he served until December 1944 ad Assistant platoon commander-Chief of station for the technical part, Commander of a platoon - the head of the station, an engineer company of radio aircraft detection stations.

    From December 1944 to October 1950 he was lecturer, senior lecturer, and Deputy Head of the Department of theoretical fundamentals of radar at the Military red banner Academy named after S.M.Budenny. In October 1950 year was seconded to the Ministry of armaments of the USSR to work with KB-1, leaving the ranks of the Soviet army.

    The KB-1 participated in the creation of the first domestic air defense missile systems - S-25 and S-75. Kisunko served as Chief of the development of microwave devices, Chief Technical supervisor, Department head of complex laboratories to develop RF devices. He was Deputy Technical Manager for the testing guidance station for S-25 surface-to-air missiles, and the Chief of Department of development of anti-aircraft missile systems.

    At the conclusion of development of System-25 and the production of the pilot sample of the S-75, Kisunko was tasked to lead the creation of the KB-1, a new SKB majoring in problematic subjects. In 1955, at KB-1, a division was created to work on the missile-defense system. Grigoriy Vasilyevich Kisunko, a 36-year-old doctor of science and electrodynamics specialist, was appointed division head. He began by setting up proof-of-concept experiments. They were necessary to prove that, at distances of 1,000 kilometers and more, it was possible to “see” a target—a warhead that had separated from a missile—and distinguish it from the missile hull. Subsequently, Kisunko was appointed head of the SDB (OKB) and Chief Designer of the KB-1 on special topics. In the light of this team of scientific elaborations of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers adopted decision No. 107-101 dated February 3, 1956 year of establishing a system of special polygon and the appointment of Kisunko as Chief Designer of System A.

    By Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR ("closed") of April 20, 1956, for participation in the development of a system S-25, Grigory Kisunko was awarded the title of hero of Socialist Labor with the order of Lenin and the gold medal "Hammer and Sickle".

    In 1958 he was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (from 1991, the Russian Academy of Sciences). In the same year, Kisunko was given the personal title of "Chief Designer of 1st degree" by the Minister of aviation industry of the USSR.

    On April 8, 1958 year, having considered progress on System A, the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers adopted decision No. 389-185 on the development project of A-35, and appointe Kisunko the General Designer of the system. After the development of the project was accepted by the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of Ministers of the USSR, Decree No. 27-9 of January 9, 1960 authorized the establishment of the A-35 system.

    Work on the creation and testing of the System A was successfully completed so that the system, for the first time in domestic and global practice, warheads of ballistic missiles were destroyed on their flight paths. Grushin’s V-1000 missile, guided by Kisunko’s radar and computer system, struck the warhead of an R-12 ballistic missile launched from Kapustin Yar. The positive assessment of these works and on their results at the same time clarifying the features of A-35 was given in the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers No. 823-351 dated August 31, 1961 year. In October 1961 and October 1962 by Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers in the area of deployment of the System A, special operations were conducted, K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5 using IMS products to conduct specialized studies in which the System A served as the main scientific-experimental and measuring base. Scientific management studies in radar parts was entrusted to Kisunko.

    To ensure the development of system A-35 and related special topics of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers adopted decision No. 1181-511 of 30 December 1961, for the allocation of OKB-30 was transformed into an independent scientific and design organization. On 30 December 1961 Kisunko was appointed head of the newly formed independent OKB-30 [as part of KB-1] and General Designer of the missile defense system A-35. Kisunko's design bureau gained a higher status in KB-1, which was reflected in the change in designation from SKB-30 to OKB-30 [that is, from special design bureau to general design bureau] On March 24 1966 OKB-30 was transformed into the OKB "Vympel" and Kisunko became its director and scientific director. In 1966 year Kisunko, who led the staff working on the establishment of System A, was awarded the Lenin Prize.

    With this Organization (later Vympel Design Bureau), Kisunko was tasked to lead as the head-chief designer of the OKB. In 1970 by order of USSR Ministry of the Radio Industry [MRP / MCI] was created the Central Scientific Industrial Association TsNPO "Vympel", incorporating OKB "Vympel", from which the three institutions have been established (one of them was the parent of the main enterprise). In the CNPO Kisunko served as Deputy General Director for scientific work and head of SNI-35 and its modernization (S-35), while technical guidance, testing and upgrading System-35 as its Chief Designer.

    Kisunko described some of the peripeteia of this grandiose project, which the Soviet's Cold War opponents subsequently rated very highly. The author of The Secret Zone gave a very harsh and subjective assessment of the actions of certain scientists and leaders - Raspletin, Mints, Kalmykov, and Chelomey.

    While testing the system A-35 and putting it into operation, there were performed two stages in 1972 and 1974 respectively. In 1974, under the technical guidance of Kisunko as Chief Designer, the program completed all preparatory work for the modernization of A-35 to the extent specified by the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers No. 376-119 dated June 10, 1971 onwards: conceptual design and additions thereto - 1972-1973, TTT A-35M System - May 1973, research and experimental development on the range and special bench of computer technical solutions for implementing the system with its modernization in 1974.

    Kisunko proposed the creation of a system of "Aurora" in three stages: to defend Moscow, the European part and the Asian part of the USSR. For target detection and target firing system it proposed to use two radar rings. On the periphery were to be placed AL Station Mintz 5N12G decimeter and centimeter range 5N12N around Moscow - station "Danube" UHF. The proposed use centimetric radar "Istra" as-firing radar. "Aurora" system should be able to destroy nearly 300 goals. From September 1974 to May 1975, in accordance with the decision of three ministries (USSR Ministry of the Radio Industry [MRP / MCI], IOM, ILO), Commander-in-Chief of the missile forces and air defense forces Commander, Kisunko served as technical leader of a special range of works carried out for the benefit of all designated offices. In this same period, work was begun on the A-35 system objects to introduce previously worked out technical solutions for modernization that Kisunko headed up until August 13, 1975.

    On August 13, 1975, by order of the USSR Ministry of the Radio Industry [MRP / MCI], Kisunko was transferred from the Central Scientific Industrial Association "Vympel" and appointed as the first Deputy Director of the Central Research Institute of Radio Electronic Systems for research. Consequently, the final phase of the test works on modernization of the system A-35 was held without his participation. In 1977 these works were completed and the system adopted.

    In addition to the above government jobs, in 1968 by Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers, Kisunko had been entrusted with the functions of General Designer of territorial missile defense system. However, this work was not developed due to the negotiations, and then the signing of the ABM Treaty between the USSR and the United States. In 1974 the appointment of Kisunko as General Designer of territorial missile defense system was abolished.

    On December 31, 1974 a letter signed by the Minister Pleshakov to the Commander of the Air Defense addressed a proposal to stop work on the A-35 modernization. Faced with the fact of direct administrative strangulation modernization of A-35 - and even at the ministerial level! - Kisunko later wrote

    "I had no choice but to send a letter directly to L.I.Brezhnev. From the Assistant Secretary General, I learned that Leonid Ilyich forwarded it to the Minister of Defense Grechko and Ustinov Secretary of the CPSU. Three months of bureaucratic fuss about my letter was invisible to me, until I was acquaintedwith the order of Ministry of Radio Industry of April 28, 1975: in the SEC created NIO-4, appointed him governor, and my responsibility "responsibility for the rework of A-35 equipment and systems in the prescribed amount and within the given time frame...."

    "I was no doubt that after my letter, L.I.Brezhnev found it necessary to take the last and decisive step in my dismissal from the ABM. And I was not wrong.... the party committee decided to hear me - how things are going with the modernization of the A-35 in view of the previously imposed sanction me.... I was charged for my dissenting opinions in a number of scientific and technical issues that do not coincide with the views of the majority....

    "Golovkin adds: "Students and colleagues do not support Grigory Vasilevich. We need a single line on missile defense as a whole. " "Without Kisunko", - says Shvygin."

    Kisunko and Bassistoff were among some of the other distinguished scientists and designers working in the same field of defense among who there were irreconcilable differences, and even long-standing feuds. That the success of one of them is often simply crossed out the fate and life of a competitor. And though many of them were favored by the regime, crowned with stars heroes laureate awards and academic ranks, not just once or twice, it was defeat in the struggle for the state order for Adopting "your" combat system or complex led to heart attacks, in the removal of your favorite things, and actual oblivion. To survive such a blow to forgive his opponent's success was not possible to everyone.

    The exacerbation of differences from the principled standpoint of Kisunko's views on the A-35 and the development of specialized topics, resulted in Kisunko being excluded from this topic. Kisunko found it impossible to further stay in USSR Ministry of the Radio Industry [MRP / MCI] and in July 1979 year requested report to the Minister of Defense of the USSR about the recall itself as a member of USSR Ministry of the Radio Industry [MRP / MCI].

    On August 13, 1979 he was appointed Scientific Adviser of 45th Central Scientific Researc Institute of Ministry of defence of the USSR. In the year 1987 he retired, after which he worked as the head of the laboratory of the Department of theoretical problems of the USSR Academny of Sciences and Russian Academny of Sciences.

    Kisunko was the author and organizer of the development of missile guidance systems to ballistic targets and precision radars ( radar ) tracking ballistic and space targets. He picked up directly at the creation of unique radar tracking of military missiles, to obtain baseline data for the design of radar satellites and manned spacecraft. As a result, a whole galaxy of such funds was created : RE1 , RE2 , RE3 ; RTN1 , RTN2 , RTN3 ; RCC and RCT and radar "Argun" MCF-fire complexes in systems A, A-35 and A-35M.

    It should also be said , that the radar developed GV Kisunko provided in 1985 current tracking over long space station "Salut-7", a period of her autonomic "abnormal operation" , concluded a docking area with this spacecraft station "Soyuz T-13" (with astronauts Vladimir Dzhanibekov and Viktorom Savinyh on board ) , and also gave an accurate prediction touchdown of the landing of the ship machine ( crew during landing ( after the partial shift change ) - Vladimir Janibekov and Georgy Grechko ).

    GV Kisunko initiated the creation of laser radars and directed the work on their development. In the field of basic research he found international recognition of his work on electrodynamics of microwaves problems , automated control complex, and new methods of radar and gravitational wave astronomy. In his books, monographs on the theory of electromagnetic hollow cavities, electrodynamics hollow systems and ultrahigh frequency, more than one generation of experts on radio and electronics studied.

    In 1987, by order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR, Grigoriy Vasilevich Kisunko was discharged from the Armed Forces of the USSR. After the resignation, GV Kisunko worked as head of the Laboratory Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR theoretical problems (since 1992 - Russian Academy of Sciences). Kisunko was a member of the CPSU(B) since the year 1944. Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in the 7the and 8th convocations (1966-1974). He was a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1958), doctor of technical sciences (1951), Professor (1956), and the author of a number of fundamental scientific papers on electrodynamics.

    Lieutenant-General-engineer (1967). Awarded 2 orders of Lenin (20.04.1956; 19.07.1968), order of the Patriotic War 1 (11.03.1985), order of the red banner of labour, order of the Red Star (30.12.1956), Russian order "for merits before Fatherland" 4-th degree (16.11.1998, posthumous), medals, including 2 "for military merit (19.11.1951; 25.04.1953).

    Laureate of Lenin Prize (1966).

    Kisunko's wife - Kisunko Armor Isaevna - was born in 1915, and a member of the CPSU since 1942. Jewish, from 1934-1938 she was a student, from 1938-1941 a post-graduate student, and from 1941-1945 on the party and propaganda work. From 1945-1948 she was a teacher of fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism, and after 1948 did not work because of an eye disease. She continued party advocacy work on a volunteer basis. His son - Vasiliy Grigorevich Kisunko, born in 1940 - was a junior researcher at the Institute of Art History, CPSU member since 1970, at a member of the USSR Union of Journalists and the USSR Union of Cinematographers from 1940 birth. His son - Aleksandr Grigorevich Kisunko, born in 1947 - was an Associate Professor of Mathematics at MIREA, and non-partisan. Grigory Vasilievich Kisunko lived in the hero-city Moscow, until he died 11 October 1998. He was buried at the Troyekurovskoye cemetery in Moscow.

    He was an honorary citizen of the city of Priozersk (Kazakhstan), a school is named after him in Moscow.

    Colonel-General Yuri Vsevolodovich Votintseva - the former commander of the missile and space defense, said in an interview with the newspaper "Pravda" December 10, 1992: "The greatest contribution to the development of missile defense were made by Kisunko and Musatov. But in the most intense period of work on the system, because of the intrigues in the Ministry of Radio Industry, they were removed from the case." Kisunko composed an epigraph for the last chapter of his memoirs The Secret Zone: “There is no sadder tale on this Earth than that of the Soviet anti-ballistic missile.”
  • "Secret Zone : Confessions General Designer" G.V.Kisunko by G.V.Kisunko, Contemporary 1996
  • "Confessions General Designer" G.V.Kisunko- Review
  • Kisunko Grigoriy Vasilevich Creator missile defense (BMD) of the USSR
  • "Aurora" territorial missile defense system

    Anatoly Georgievich Basistov

    basistov.jpg">In 1973, modernization of the hardware-software complex of the A-35 system was initiated to upgrade it to an A-35M ABM defense system. At about the same time, a team under A.G.Basistova Basistov, a prominent Soviet scholar in radio engineering and electronics, sketched out a new project for a future A-135 ABM defense system. In August 1977, official tests began on the A-35M ABM defense system, and in December of that year it was brought into service and put on combat alert on May 15, 1978. After various organizational experiments, General Designer Anatoliy Basistov began to take hold of the field. By the early 1990s, the new generation A-135 missile-defense system had been set up around Moscow. Veteran of the Great Patriotic War, Basitov graduated from a navigator Regiment of bombers. At the end of the war Bassistoff sent to study at the Leningrad military Air Force Academy, which he finished on an accelerated rate, and May 5, 1945 flew to Berlin to get acquainted with the production of missiles and use technology V-1 and V-2. In 1950 A.G.Basistova was seconded to the famous SB-1 / KB-1, which initially was led by the son of Lavrenty Beria - Sergo, then by Academician Alexander Raspletin. There he began work on the creation of anti-aircraft missile system S-25, its remote control systems, and in parallel to study at the Moscow Energy Institute. Here, under the direction of Alexander Andreyevich Raspletina, Amo Sergeyevich Elyana and Pavel Nikolayevich Kuksenno grew glorious cohort of talented enthusiasts - participants of the scientific and technological revolution, which unfolded in the Air Defense Forces in the early 1950s. A.G.Basistov was among them. Then, in the Soviet Union in an unprecedented short period of time it was created by anti-aircraft guided missiles (Zuro). The first one was the S-25 (its original designation of "Golden Eagle"). A practical guide this giant hard work at the state level by a third under the command of General Directorate VM Ryabikova and his trusted deputy V. D. Kalmykova and Vetoshkina SI Scientific work in the chapter and its subordinate organizations, headed A. N. Schukin. There were cases when in the course of affairs in the system C-25 interfered with Stalin. A weekly meeting dispatching Beria (up to 1953) received the grim nickname - "Black Friday". A great help for the S-25 provided the renowned nuclear scientist BL Vannikov. Anatoly G. with great warmth remembered its work in time for testing and debugging a pilot and then a prototype radar B-200. These works took place in the summer of 1952, in the flight test airfield near the town of Zhukovsky near Moscow. There he worked as a representative of the probation department KB-1 led by Valeriya Dmitrievicha Kalmykova and Alexander Andreyevich Raspletina. Both of them began to Bassistoff not only teachers in the technique, but also a role model in everything: in the style of work, dedication to their work, with regard to the people. Dmitriy Fedorovich Ustinov later, as Minister of Defense, at a meeting said significant words: "We all came out of the S-25." The leadership of KB-1 transferred A.G.Basistov for Moscow to work on the commissioning of combat objects S-25 system. Their construction, equipment instruments and equipment was carried out simultaneously with the test-firing of anti-aircraft missile system at the landfill. After configuring and debugging the Moscow region of S-25 were transferred to the operation of special purpose military units Air Defense Forces of the First Army. In 1954 he became deputy chief designer of the air defense system S-25, carried out its field tests, provide technical guidance construction of the head of the complex. He led the development of the Leningrad Air Defense System. In 1958, under the leadership of General Designer AA Raspletina was initiated to develop a new anti-aircraft missile system S-200. Tactical and technical requirements for it differed from the previous two principal features: giant firing range (over 200 km) and the ability to destroy not only the aircraft, but also small-sized unmanned flying bombs. AG Basistov became deputy chief designer of the S-200. Soon, with his active creative participation to determine the principles of technical construction of the system. Decided inter alia: apply the method of semi-active homing missiles at the target with the seeker, have six ground-based radar tracking purposes and coupled with the command post radar detection and target setting. A year later, the prototype was created, then came field testing. The entire burden of this important and challenging work fell on the shoulders of Anatoly Georgievich. The tests took place at the site near Lake Balkhash. Chief of the polygon [test range] was Stepan Dmitrievich Dorokhov, chief engineer - Mihail Ignatevich Trofimchuk. The S-200 system in 1966 was adopted by and stood on alert for the protection and defense of the air borders of the USSR. Later, she brilliantly manifested itself in the Syrian-Israeli conflict in 1973. enemy planes avoided to fly into her battle zone. Anatoli Georgievich for his work on the S-200 system was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. It was during work on the system S-200 A.G.Basistov emerged as a prominent designer, talented scientist, a major organizer. Strengthened its creative relationships with design organizations, subcontractors, with factories, which began mass production of means of combat system, without waiting for ground tests C-200. And increased its authority in command of air defense forces of the country, Commander Marshal Batitsky Pavel Fedorovich. To him with great respect and P.N.Kuleshov and GF Bajdukov, and all the officers of the 4th Chief of Defense Management, who worked with him. Now, after the S-200, Anatoliy Georgievich was on the shoulder to solve any most complex design problems. For technical guidance on the development, testing and commissioning of the country's first anti-aircraft missile system of long-range S-200 he was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor, and after putting on combat duty created under his leadership Moscow missile defense system, he was awarded the State Prize of Russia. During his lifetime A.G.Basistov led the country in the field of missile defense far ahead of the United States - and this is his great personal achievement. His name is inscribed in the Dictionary of the International Biographical Center next to the name, for example, the famous cardiologist Christian Barnard. In May 1968, on the initiative of the Minister of Radio V.D.Kalmykov, by government decision Basistov AG was appointed Deputy GV Kisunko. Later in 1975, Anatoliyu Georgievichu entrusted to lead the work on the creation of a new missile defense system of Moscow - A-135. The A-135 system was put into service in 1989. The completion of these works was the top creative work of A.G. Bassistov. His work was awarded the USSR State Prize. He became a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, was awarded the academic medal of his teacher AA Rapletina. Anatoli Georgievich was assigned with the development of a missile defense system of Moscow. AG Basistov was supervisor of the program, which many then called "anti-SDI" - the Soviet answer Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. This program for many years served as a catalyst for the development of high technologies in the defense industry, linking the activities of ministries and departments to create a new generation of strategic missile defense system, it was attended by hundreds of major scientific and industrial complexes. Their activities were coordinated and guided by Anatoliem Georgievichem's Interdepartmental Scientific Council, which includes many prominent scholars, such as Yuliy Borisovich Khariton, actively interacting with Anatoliem Georgievichem and outside the framework of the regulations of the Board. And in almost all areas of research required to conduct large-scale experiments, purchased precision equipment, considerable resources are spent on the creation of a new element base due to the fact that the work was carried out in the interests of national security. In the end, it was created and successfully passed state tests fantastically complex multi-level system - essentially a combat robot missile space defense. It functions with any change of the situation is fully automatic - the person is not able to understand the variety of processes taking place at ICBM interception in the allotted time for this, especially in conditions of severe noise, including the effects of nuclear explosions. Built-in circuit organization management response at nuclear missile attack - along with the warning system missile attack - this system greatly improves the accuracy of the information early warning system at the expense of unique information capabilities of its member MRLS "Don-2N", and on the results of the selection data and echeloned intercept ICBM warheads will not leave any room for doubt about the use of nuclear weapons the enemy and serve for the timely preparation of response actions-making, ensuring the inevitability of zmezdiya. By the way, it is the need of selection warheads brought to life - just 40 years ago, after successful trials in the US ICBM "Minuteman-3" with MIRV individual guidance - the problem of transition to create a new generation of strategic missile defense systems. The problem was solved by a concentration of efforts of dozens of teams working as part of CSPA "Vympel" and in cooperation with them under the direction of A.G.Basistova due to a number of scientific and technological breakthroughs in the various defense industries, which then belonged, along with organizations engaged development of nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles and other weapons, and many others, including those working in the field of electronics and computer technology. Increase their human potential, attracted graduates from the best universities in the country, and the new base of the department, one of which was in charge of A.G.Basistova were created in MIPT. It is important to emphasize that the Moscow missile defense system in full compliance with the terms of the Treaty on the Limitation of ABM systems, with A.G.Basistova repeatedly brought to the Standing Consultative Commission under the Treaty, which also aims to promote the implementation of agreements on measures to reduce the danger of nuclear war and Limitation of Strategic arms (including SALT SALT 1 and 2). Greater role in the work on "anti-SDI" played a part of academic institutions, Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in particular, the development direction of system programming was instructed that subsequently led to the creation of industrial enterprises for the development of specialized software and algorithmic support. And indeed the Academy of Sciences largely formed at the time due to the "defense" of leaders, among them was AG Basistov. His theoretical and applied research significantly advanced the technology of creation of radar, computer science, optoelectronics, communications. Through its participation almost half a century ago, development of domestic multiprocessor computer systems got a significant impulse, with speeds that allowed realtime keep reception and processing of the signal and trajectory information simultaneously to many tens of targets with the space velocity and thus to produce and transmit to the board several ABM management team, and most importantly - to manage all these processes automatically. In the in the 1990s, under the direction of A. G. Basistova, the committee chaired by Academician E.P.Velihov developed a concept for the further development of missile defense. It was based on the latest scientific and technological developments and takes into account the real danger of the US unilateral withdrawal from the ABM Treaty in 1972. Its proposals on the organization of the necessary research and development work Anatoly G. officially reported to the Government. But no decision was not followed. The share of A.G.Basistova dropped out and drink the bitterness of downgrading the role he created strategic missile defense, this complex scientific and technical masterpiece, to the normal defense system, which, that and look to remain workable only the information part, and it is in this case derived from the failure of one rocket even if we have been informed of its launch, as "random start". But this - the consequences of a political (rather than organizational and technical) solutions, which resulted in funding for missile defense declined in recent years, the life of A.G.Basistova two orders of magnitude! After the termination of funding cost him a great effort to complete the procedure for setting the system on alert (after half a decade after the successful public testing!), which, of course, completely undermined his health. The problem of protecting from attack missile means rises more sharply with respect to their steady spread in the world, the probability of growth of their use by terrorist organizations. The growing backlog in the most high-tech region, the lack of experimental data, allowing at least a form input data for such developments, deprives Russia of the possibility of adequate and timely response to emerging threats. In this case, the main thing today, in strategic containment - to develop the direction of creating automatically adapts to changes in the external environment of the integrated system, collect and combine different levels diverse information about the hundreds of thousands of objects and their characteristics, and the ability to automatically, both in Moscow missile defense system, to solve problems intercept an ICBM in conjunction with tasks interception BR medium-range missiles, including maneuvering, as well as cruise missiles. Algorithms support a binding decisions at each hierarchical level control should form appropriate for the current circumstances "threshold" on the basis of criteria defined by the national security concept and military doctrine and alliance obligations, taking into account the current capacity and efficiency of defense systems, including missile defense and early warning. In this case, obtained under the supervision of air space, and optical and radar high-quality information is the surface of the Earth to be used in the formation of a single information and control field, ensuring the adoption and implementation of operational decisions in a variety of crisis situations, including those relating to the growing threats of natural and man-made disasters For example, fire detection, monitoring the transport of dangerous goods, etc. Thus, the technological advance, resulting in works carried out under the direction of A. G. Basistova , can serve as a basis supradepartmental system of crisis management of the economy, allowing in times of peace based on the analysis of the diverse information and forecast the most likely developments to reduce risks and and minimize the damage in terms of sudden disasters. Anatoly Georgievich on September 16, 1998, died on the 78th year of life. Aurora" will not be Elaboration of territorial missile defense system began simultaneously with the project A-35 . Preliminary design was completed in 1963, but there was a pause in connection with the project a priority , "Taran" . In 1965, after it was stopped, "Taran", and it became clear that the system of A-35, even in a phased development is not able to reflect the massive raid of ballistic missiles equipped with the means to overcome missile defense, the Ministry of Defense and the Main Command of Air Defense, with the consent of the Central Committee of the CPSU, We insisted on the development of a new project of territorial missile defense system. The main problem we faced was the problem of selection of ballistic targets. It was assumed that the massive raid on the US ICBM of the USSR all missiles at the same time come to the line of our radar detection means that all enemy ballistic missiles will be equipped with decoys, and that means the missile defense radar and early warning system of our country must necessarily interact with each other. It is estimated that each enemy ICBM could be equipped with seven decoys. November 5, 1965 the USSR Defense Council heard reports from Chief of the Air Defense Air Marshal VA Sudtsa and General Designer GV Kisunko on the status of the system A-35 , the ways of its modernization through the establishment of the second stage and on the job development of preliminary design of the system , "Aurora" , workable in a massive raid advanced ballistic missiles. Meeting was chaired by Leonid Brezhnev . G.V.Kisunko proposed the creation of a system of "Aurora" in three stages: to defend Moscow, the European part and the Asian part of the USSR. For target detection and target firing system it proposed to use two radar rings. On the periphery were to be placed AL Station Mintz 5N12G decimeter and centimeter range 5N12N around Moscow - station "Danube" UHF. The proposed use centimetric radar "Istra" as-firing radar. "Aurora" system should be able to destroy nearly 300 goals. After reviewing the proposals G.V.Kisunko, AL Mintz said that it considers it inappropriate to use radar in the missile defense system "Aurora". Speaking Marshal ISKonev , he said that designers want to destroy the whole country. Summed up by Leonid Brezhnev. He noted that the problem is very complex, and advised to focus on basic research. On the same day the decision of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers "On creation of the first stage of the missile defense of the European part of the country" G.V.Kisunko was set to develop a new system pilot project "Aurora" and the second stage of the A-35 system, AL Mints - development of a missile defense system with multi-function radar, YG Burlakov - development of ballistic radar target selection. As a base for the system "Aurora" and for the second stage A- 35 Kisunko decided to use purpose firing radar "Istra" , using a "Aurora" modification "Istra-2". Realizing the impossibility of solving the problem of selection even with the help of an upgraded radar, Kisunko proposed to solve the problem using the "clears" trans-atmospheric explosions of special warheads high power, carried out in order of battle attacking ballistic missiles. The proposal was based on the fact that the warheads weighing more than 300 kg, in contrast to the light decoys weighing about 5 grams, after the explosion SBCH interceptors will have minimal extra speed and will be "identified" radar. Clears "punches were applied to the new anti-missile intercept long-range A-900 . The second type of missiles - the modernized A-350 - designed to destroy ballistic missile warheads after "clearing" as large and low-level special charges of variable thickness for each height. In addition to the combat blocks IDB, interceptors, the project received the index of A-351 , have been destroyed as a warhead separated from a global missile and warhead missiles flying at flat trajectory. Some sources reckon system "Aurora" to dvuheshelonnym. This is not true. System scheme was single echelon with two types of missiles. The system was supposed to enter the four multi-firing system with the placement of the three of them in the suburbs, and one - in the Kuibyshev region. Distinction between the functions of detection and missile guidance persisted. As a means of early warning Kisunko suggested the use of the station "Danube-memory" AN Musatova to locate them in Solnechnogorsk and Zagorsk and perform guidance by radar target channel. In fact, it was a completely new missile defense system, which is not supposed to use the A-35 means-fire system. Says deputy chief designer of the missile defense system, the head of department NIIRP O.V.Golubev . "The preliminary design G.V.Kisunko first proposed to build an information system based on radar with phased array antennas . Unlike radar with parabolic antennas, they have the ability to simultaneously support a plurality of objects (both warheads and decoys), thanks to a multi-module structure receiving-transmitting antenna curtains as in the "Aurora", as in "A-35" involves the use of one -. extra-atmospheric - echelon interception purposes, the most difficult was the and the task of warheads recognition on the background of decoys . It turned out that the natural characteristics that distinguish warheads from false targets that could be detected by radar observations enough for efficient selection. In solving this problem, the idea of ??so-called nuclear breeding, which, one might say, the whole concept of the system "Aurora" was built. The idea was to apply the dynamic impact by explosion nuclear warhead high power over the elements of complex ballistic targets. It was assumed that after such a blow lightweight decoys will be destroyed or "blown away" with the area of ??complex objectives and a strong heavy targets will receive a mechanical impulse, which will change the parameters of their movement. On the basis of comparison of parameters of movement components of complex target before and after the explosion and carry anticipated recognition warheads. All questions of the construction of the system "Aurora" was elaborated by the summer of 1967 in the conceptual design. Illustrated outline maps of the European part of the Soviet Union, all covered with overlapping colored areas - defense zones, which G.V.Kisunko with his characteristic humor and metaphors called "bast shoes" left a great impression for all who know them. One can only speculate as would have happened in the military-industrial complex, and in general in the country, if it began the creation of this complex and giant system. Perhaps the realization of the project "Aurora" would lead to economic collapse of the USSR. Possibly contributing to the intensive development of key industries and fuller disclosure of scientific and technical capacity, the project would lead to the economic stability of the state and strengthening its role on the world stage. Hard to say". Says the former director of the Institute for computer complexes Yu.V.Rogachev . "In 1965 Karcev proceeded to theoretical research in the field of computers ultra-high performance, and in March 1967, made a presentation on the work of the multicomputer complex M-9 performance of one billion operations per second at a symposium at the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Machine interested D .V.Kisunko . acquainted with the project, he decided to use a set of M-9 missile defense system "Aurora" . However, the Ministry of instrument making , as part of which was INEUM , not part of the military-industrial complex, and the leadership of the Ministry believes that such projects should be engaged Minradioprom . In April 1967, a meeting was held with the Deputy Chairman of the MIC L.I.Gorshkova involving M.A.Kartseva me, Deputy General Designer I.D.Omelchenko Academician Lebedev , senior officials of Ministry of Radio Industry, Minelektronproma and Minpribor. Gorshkov asked the opinion of Academician Lebedev. Worked on computers for missile defense systems, Lebedev evaded specific evaluation of M-9, but confirmed that in the West, "something like that done." Ministry of Radio categorically refused master of the M-9, how to develop Minpribor. Yet Kartseva tasked with creating conceptual design of the new machine. May 5, 1967 by government decree spetsrazrabotok M.A.Kartseva department was removed from the Ministry of Equipment and INEUM transferred to Minradioprom to develop a computer system for the M-9 missile defense system "Aurora". August 23 the same year, on the basis of the laboratory was established branch * 1 OKB "Vympel" . However, in October 1967, following the rejection of "Aurora" Commission Y. Votintseva on M-9 work was stopped, and just moved into the territory of CB-1 team was left without a new job. Fortunately, objects Rho were put into operation, and all our help was needed. " Says General YV Votintsev . "In the summer of 1967 I was called PF Batitsky , he said that next week he will meet with Dmitriem Fedorovichem Ustinovym and asked to prepare a certificate of the status of the missile defense system and PKO facilities. Some days we with Vasiliem Aleksandrovichem Edemskim , Evgeniem Konstantinovichem Braginym and several control officers prepared USSR small card with deposited thereon objects, as well as "clamshell" for each object. In the CC, to Ustinov , went in-Chief, Colonel-General Afanasiy Fedorovich Scheglov and me. Just a few minutes PF Batitsky reported a significant backlog of deadlines on almost all sites. Emphasizing fragmentation and poor organization leadership with numerous industry organizations, he recalled Ustinov about the positive experience gained by the Third Chief Directorate and its chief VM Ryabikova when creating the C-25 system . Just briefly on the status of each site and reported to me. After hearing, Dmitri said something like this: - You're right. We now have all-powerful ministry and the work becomes more difficult with them. Main TSU type control for missile defense and the SSP are no longer create. Experience the C-25 is not claimed. Beria yourself is eliminated with Ryabikova ... One of these days I will gather ministers, designers, plant managers. The conversation will be impartial. In the near future you will be presented a number of alternative conceptual designs of missile defense systems. I have met with them, and not all of them satisfied me. It is necessary to evaluate them, to match. Together with the MIC, the General Staff, the Ministry established the competent inter-ministerial commission. Decide Pavel Fedorovich, with the chairman of the commission. Maybe they will mate Votintsev. But it's up to you. In general, the Commission is yours, and the work it should begin as soon as possible. They returned with the commander of his "Seagull". I sat with the driver, and Batitsky and his first deputy - behind. Cut off from my glass, they are about something animatedly talking, gesticulating vigorously. Arriving, Commander in Chief said: - Just in time for dinner. I went after him, but I held Athanasius Fedorovich: - Yura! Pavel Fedorovich Ustinov your report content. You will be chairman of the commission. Get ready. Now let's go to dinner. In August 1967 the directive of the General Staff and the military industrial complex solution was determined by the composition of the Commission for consideration of new sketch missile defense projects . In her sixty people came. Among them were general designers Boris Vasilevich Bunkin , Petr Dmitrievich Grushin , Grigoriy Vasilevich Kisunko , academicians Aleksandr Lvovich Mints , Yuliy Borisovich Hariton , Viktor Mihaylovich Glushkov , a member of the STC General Staff Rafgat Ahtyamovich Valiyev , the head of the STC Air Defense Forces Gennadiy Sergeevich Legasov , Deputy Minister of Radio Vladimir Ivanovich Markov , deputy chief of the 4th GU MO Mihail Grigorevich Mymrin , the head of the 4th MO GU Mihail Ivanovich Nenashev , and others. I was appointed chairman of the commission. My deputies are G.V.Kisunko, AL Mintz and M.I.Nenashev. With the head of the 45th CSIR Ivan Makarovich Penchukovym we read the first volume of projects which set out the objectives, key performance characteristics, terms and cost of creating the future systems. Ivan Makarovich identified subcommittees compositions and secured them a specific volume of preliminary designs. Place the plenary sessions identified a conference hall of the old building of the institute. The Sub-Commission have allocated space in a nearby two-story building. Defined time limit: plenary sessions held on Friday, if necessary - and the Sabbath. Other days - work in subcommittees. Working hours from 10.00 to 22.00. Everything is strictly warned about the secrecy. Discussion - only in the offices. Recording - in secret workbooks. Other records and documents from the premises not stand. The first plenary meeting of the Commission held in early September, was devoted to organizational matters and it was quiet. At the next meeting started to consider G.V.Kisunko projects, AL Mintz and YG Burlakov. The "Aurora" Grigoriya Vasilevicha Kisunko essentially represented a new missile defense system. Its members were to enter multi firing system with radar detection and guidance radar. Detection station had phased array antenna can detect and track a large number of targets and provide information multichannel missile guidance station. Aleksandr Lvovich Mints suggested that the missile defense system being developed by sectoral multifunction station "Don H" with a phased antenna array, which could carry as the detection of ballistic missiles, as well as guidance on their missiles. The third project presented Yuriy Grigorevich Burlakov . He proposed to use for the missile defense system broadband radar "Neman" with Luneberg lens, which, in his opinion, to detect and were selected warheads of ballistic missiles against the background noise and false targets. Grigory not very convincingly defended his project. AL Mintz "attacked." The situation escalated. Things came to a mutual insults. It became clear that further discussion of the draft in the presence of the temperamental G.V.Kisunko, exasperated AL Mintz and stubbornly defended his station JG Burlakov futile. After consulting with IM Penchukovym, I decided to hold a detailed discussion in the narrow part of the commission. Yet familiar with the status of missile defense systems and the SSP, I drew attention to the fact that the chief designers create local system and do not want to agree with each other technical issues. Each system works in its coordinate system. Moreover, Kisunko and Mintz are bitter rivals. I must say that the tactical and technical specifications issued in those years, the chief designer, had not expected to link in a single coordinate system. Before the necessity of this came later. However, the designers, in my opinion, yet deliberately avoided concerted action. For example, Grigoriy Vasilevich Kisunko in its missile defense system, applied computer Vsevolod Sergeyevich Burtsev. Aleksandr Lvovich Mints used computer chief designer Mikhail Alexandrovich Kartseva. And TSKKP Burtsev installed a new computer with floating point. There were no connections and other issues. My observations clearly confirmed in the course of the work of the Interdepartmental Commission. I realized that the situation must be corrected, and the sooner the better. " Describes the creation party systems "A", A-35 and A-135, veteran NIIRP Yu.A.Kamensky . "To participate in the defense of the project" Aurora " I was summoned from leave and put into a subcommittee review of nuclear and" near-nuclear "issues. Chairman of the subcommittee was my old friend General Staff Gen. R.A.Valiev . I was appointed his deputy. A member of the subcommittee was Yu .B.Hariton . One of the new phases of the system work was the so-called nuclear selection . This idea was considered in the United States, which in those years was carried out an underground test of a nuclear charge capacity of 5 Mt, designed for anti-missiles "Spartan". The project was a lot of other new proposals. Their implementation has been associated with the solution of very complex problems, and one day, after one of the subcommittee meetings, Yu.B.Khariton asked me: - Why Grigory gives such intractable promises? I said: It seems that this is the position of chief designer. Yuli Borisovich shrugged and said nothing. " He continues Y. Votintsev . "So: the first project proposed to use radar separation of functions, the second project - a multifunctional radar and the third project - target selection radar Commission worked two months of debate has been fierce, and at one point it seemed that it would not be the end of one night... , flushed with these disputes, I decided to write down all the main issues that needed to be sure to get an answer to move on and come, finally, to certain conclusions. questions turned twelve. in the morning I read their member Commission m. Having heard all agreed to end the chaotic discussion and focus on the systematic discussion of these issues. All three projects G.V.Kisunko, AL Mints and YG Burlakov were rejected, as, in our opinion, none of them does not solve the main problem -. breeding warheads of ballistic missiles in the background looking decoys in areas of high noise and nuclear explosions were necessary in the first place, the new radar, and secondly, the new computing means and, thirdly, new anti-missile and ordnance, founded ated on new physical principles. Kisunko we proposed the creation of the Balkhash proving ground sample multichannel firing system "Argun" , Mints - continue to develop the multi-station "Don H" made her a circular scan radar and reducing costs, Burlakov - complete construction of the landfill reduced sample station "Neman". Acts of working groups and the act of the committee were accepted by a majority of its members. However, representatives of the Ministry of Radio Industry issued dissenting opinions in support of projects. The commission's conclusions, I reported to the deputy chairman of the MIC Leonidu Ivanovichu Gorshkovu and head of the department of defense industry of missile defense, and PKO Viktoru Mihaylovichu Karetnikovu . Agreeing the issue with the commander of the Air Defense Forces, they presented the final document of the head department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Ivan Dmitrievich Serbin and the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In late October at a meeting of the military industrial complex it was to hear my report. G.V.Kisunko spoke after me, and strongly contested the conclusions. Only a firm position to LV Smirnov and L.I.Gorshkova allowed to adopt our report. It was taken. It was also decided that a five-year plan of research and development work. " Unofficially, in the discussion of problems in the inter-departmental commission Y. Votintseva was the conclusion of the first time agreed that at the present stage of development of science and technology to solve the task of defending the country from a massive nuclear missile attack is impossible . The construction of the missile defense European and Asian parts of the country would lead to the creation of systems of enormous complexity and cost, but they would not be able to defend the Soviet Union. However, officially to bring this to a conclusion of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee at the time no one dared. References: 1. "Aurora" territorial missile defense system 2. Missile Defense: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES ROJECT "TAR" The cost of military construction in the Soviet Union belonged to the category of classified information, the cost of construction of a missile defense - to the category of top secret. Traditionally, since the days of Stalin, reliable data had a small circle of top leaders, and only they, could they really be compared with figures of expenses for the development of other sectors of the economy. The most complete data are possessed only the head of state. Khrushchev was no exception and was well aware of the scale of the forthcoming work on missile defense. His grand plans were not frightened, but on the contrary, gave the energy of its exuberant nature. But one question he could not even find it an answer: where to get money to create defense systems across the country, the need of which he had no doubt? The main obstacle to the approval of the project of Kisunkon, with a gradual build-up of the A-35 system for the security capabilities of the USSR, was the contradiction between the huge cost of the complex to intercept a ballistic missile and the plans for the application of the United States of a massive nuclear strike on the Soviet Union, who were at the same time building up their strategic offensive arms. Khrushchev could not accept the idea that the head of a huge power, not denying anything for strengthening the security and defense might of the country, can not protect it from missile attack by an aggressor. It is said that Khrushchev was annoyed by the material before him and wondered why scientists and engineers, which the country provides everything they need may not come up with something cheaper. He was not used to hiding his emotions, and soon the interest of the head of state became known in the Ministry of Radio Industry, the Ministry of Defense and in the Military Industrial Commission. The experimental and combat systems of G.V.Kisunko were just as complex and, at times, dramatic, as the fate of their chief designer, yes, perhaps, as the fate of many inventions and their talented creators. At the end of 1960 funding for the system "A" was under threat of closure. Interception March 4, 1961, and saved the system "A" and the project A-35, and the most Kisunko. Project A-35 assumed an unprecedented scale deployment of production and construction. The success of the first interception took place, and instead of it emerged the frightening amount of costs. Kisunko started asking questions about whether its system to cope with the selection of complex ballistic targets, the development of which in the Soviet Union, and was carried out in full swing in the United States. He was advised to give up the expensive and cumbersome method of three distances. Sometimes he replied irrelevantly: "In such a huge speed setting can not be interference." Sometimes it was absolutely right: "On the basis of the available components, we cannot create other means of determining the exact coordinates of a ballistic missile." As it seemed the leadership of the USSR, Chelomei offered quite effective and relatively inexpensive defense system throughout the country. It was in April, Khrushchev approved Chelomey's proposal to establish a system of "Taran", and during the Summer began preliminary design study. The possibility of establishing a system to deflect the massive missile attack of the enemy stood on the agenda at the end of 1960, after the completion of the main phase of testing experimental system "A", designed to intercept a single target, and began to develop the A-35 system, intended to deflect a group strike. In the winter 1960/1961 period were carried out so-called "Pokrovsky gatherings" or "meeting of the twelve apostles." At the Ministry of Radio Industry guesthouse, located in a picturesque forest of Pokrovsky, arrived twelve major and general constructors and twelve representatives of the customer in order to discuss the question of what should be the future missile defense system. Among the designers were A.A.Raspletin, P.D.Grushin, G.V.Kisunko, VN Chelomei, S.N.Hruschev, Yu.G.Burlakov and others. Customer group headed K.A.Trusov. After much debate, the participants came to a common conclusion: the creation of defenses against a massive missile attack was possible. The "Pokrovsky gatherings" inspired VN Chelomeya. In 1961 Chelomei he came out with a proposal to establish a medium-class rocket UR-100 (8K84) - one of his planned series of universal launchers. According to the plan, the UR-100 can be used as an intercontinental ballistic missile and missile interceptors like. Moreover, the general designer also proposed version of the missile UR-100M for placement on surface ships. This project was named "Scorpio" . April 17, 1962, on his birthday, NS Khrushchev was shown the documentary "System A", with the announcer's voice-over, like a mantra, repeatedly and emphatically repeating the magic phrase that all the success to establish a system is inextricably linked to using the method of the three ranges. Someone has already taken care of and put into the mouth of Khrushchev another phrase: "it is necessary to go to the single station method and make the system easier and cheaper." Easier and cheaper project looked to be VN Chelomey's "Taran" In 1962 Chelomei proposed project "Taran". "Taran" system was to protect the territory of the USSR in a massive missile attack of the enemy. Its structure was assumed to enter the station range detection SSC-P and station detection and tracking SSC-C A .L. Mintz, the UR-100 missile of V. Chelomey (direct development anticipated by DB-52 branches in Fili) close interception system C-225 A.A.Raspletina and other means. According to the plan, radar SSC-P located in the Arctic should detect a massive launch of an ICBM opponent and pass the information stations SSC-C rendered at a distance of about 500 kilometers from Moscow on the missile-direction toward Leningrad. Stations NOC-S made one goal interceptors UR-100. At long range and height above the northern borders of the Soviet Union, detonation of warheads with a capacity of 10 megatons would lead to disabling automatic detonation of nuclear warheads of ballistic missiles of the enemy. The "Taran" looked more or less attractive, provided that the Americans will launch a massive strike that all their missiles will fly just over the North Pole and arrive at the same time in the interception zone. How to reflect the group, salvo or single strokes? How to ward off the attack of ballistic missile submarines, the flight path which is not ran over the North Pole? How to reflect the impact ICBM trajectories that did not run over the North Pole? These and many other questions were no answers. In October 1962, a project to develop the A-35 system and proposals for the "Taran" was considered by the Commission, headed by Commander of Air Defense Forces, VA Sudets. Members of the committee supported G.V.Kisunko and made an uncertain opinion about V.N.Chelomey's offers. Then it was decided to convene a large commission Ministry of Radio Industry to determine the prospects for the development of missile defense systems. The Ministry of Radio Industry committee headed by the director of NIIDAR Fedor Viktorovich Lukin meeting again went to Pokrovskoye. It was to determine the effectiveness of the systems in use by the enemy means to overcome missile defense and high-altitude nuclear explosions, as well as to consider the possibility of establishing a territorial missile defense. Here is how this time he G.V.Kisunko in the book "The Secret Zone" : "The report of the commission F.V.Lukina System" Taran" A.A.Raspletin began with reports that academician VN Chelomei noticed that the trajectory US ICBM attack the Soviet Union, will pass through a small spatial region, that is, the focus in this area, which is thus the most convenient locus intercepting ballistic missile defense purposes means. this makes it possible to ensure the territorial compactness in placing missile defenses and defeat even more than one purpose by one superpower nuclear propellant th interceptors. Following this presentation, Rapporteur on the blackboard with chalk held two intersecting curved lines, depicting the trajectory of ballistic targets and UR-100 missiles to be used as interceptors. " Kisunko vigorously defended his project. Chelomey's performances were bright, but not convincing. From a technical point of view, the proposal was "lame" on both feet and not all members of the committee agreed with this project. However, proponents of Chelomey were confident that with the strong support of all problems will be solved in the future. For the development of radar systems and low intercept P-225 had decided to take a lot of weight and authority academics AL Mintz and A.A.Raspletin. Saving the A-35, F.V.Lukin proposed to use the system as an intermediate between the systems S-225 and "Taran". This opinion he continued to defend and further than angered Minister radio V.D.Kalmykova and was soon forced to move from the Ministry of Radio Industry in Minelektronprom. After completing work on November 26, the commission was unable to reach a consensus on the appropriateness of the system "Taran". However, May 4, 1963 was adopted a decree of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers "On the development of anti-missile defense of the country." The unusual decision was the fact that the chief designer of "Ram" system was appointed VN Brow and head of the development of the preliminary design of the system, "Taran" -A.L. Mintz. The developer proposed to present a preliminary design of the system in the fourth quarter of 1963 and the first quarter of 1964 to develop an integrated preliminary design of a territorial missile defense system of the country based on the application of the system "Taran", and other means of missile defense. In June 1964, the financing system of the A-35 has been nearly eliminated, the construction of frozen, military engineers began to move to other places. AL Mints "revived" the station SSC-C, A.A.Raspletin boosted creating S-225 with the radar targeting "Program", and YG Burlakov Kartsev prepared a set of upgraded computers M-4M. Says veteran engineering NGOs V.G.Ivashin "Elaboration of pilot project carried out in our bureau at the end of 1962 - beginning of 1963 with the participation of specialists of KB-1 A.A.Raspletina, NII-885 M.S.Ryazanskogo, NII-944 VI Kuznetsov, RTI AL Mints , 2nd Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense and Minsredmash organizations." Participants in the Work came to a conclusion about the possibility of creating a missile defense system capable of providing highly efficient protection of the main part of the territory of the USSR. The structure of "Taran" system were to enter: firepower, including as a universal missile ballistic missile UR-100 nuclear warheads with high power; radar means for detection, target tracking and target designation firing means; complete management tool, designed to provide continuous operational readiness and battle management systems. The system "Taran" was to intercept warheads of intercontinental ballistic missiles, medium-range missiles, tactical missiles and satellites for military purposes Earth. The preliminary design performed later were considered: questions of construction and the principle of the creation of the country's territorial missile defense system; questions using the system "Taran" to deal with the satellites for military purposes; the results of the preliminary study of the possibility of using the UR-100 missiles in territorial missile defense system; initial data for the development of an integrated pilot project of territorial missile and anti-satellite defense of the country. " According to the plan, to ensure the radar "Taran" system was based on a system of multi-sectoral radar. As such radar station planned to use SSC-C (T) , which is a modification of the station SSC-C. Modification was associated with increased range and field of view, as well as with increased noise immunity. Station SSC-C (T) was based on the same type of modular structures (transmitting unit, receiving unit, the detection module, and other devices). The modular construction of the finished station functional units allowed to develop on the basis of these nodes simplified versions - Station SSC-C (Y). Later, at the stage of preliminary design had considered ways to reduce the cost of stations while maintaining its tactical characteristics. Soon, however, VN Chelomei became clear that without any simplification and cost reduction can be no question that SD-100 can not be used as an interceptor missile, and that missile defense project involves the deployment of the country's work, unprecedented in scale. In June 1964 G.V.Kisunko was invited to the Ministry of Defense and familiarized with the project of a new Resolution of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers, where he was appointed first deputy general designer of the system, "Taran" V. N. Chelomeya. G.V.Kisunko from the book "The Secret Zone" recounted: "Mentally, recording all the absurdity of the proposed document to me, I decided to talk with the generals to take me to keep strictly within me personally concerning the item on the appointment of first deputy general designer of the system," Taran "My answer was brief.: as a general designer of the system A-35 , I was not physically able to combine this with their work even more ambitious work, offered me, "Taran" system. "One of the generals said to me: Ministry of Defense Guidelines do not doubt that you will be able to unify the technical "Taran" system solutions based on the A-35 system principles. So instead of the two systems to establish a single system - "Big A-35", but under the name of "Ram". It is in your face we see the actual (though not de jure), chief designer of the system." References: 1. The creation of systems and complexes of A-35, IS, OS, PO FF-K and Duga, 1961-1964 2. STATION SELECTION ballistic targets "NEMAN" 3. Chelomey Vladimir Nikolaevich 1914-2984 4. PRO: OF EXPERIMENTAL By COMBAT 5. NGO ENGINEERING 6. volley "Aurora" WILL NOT 7. BEGINNING OF THE sYSTEMS AND PRO FFP 8. RADAR "DON-2H" 9. "ram" 10. sYSTEM-225 11. Creation of the first defense system

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    One Billion Americans: The Case for Thinking Bigger - by Matthew Yglesias

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