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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


The submarine "K-420" was converted to test the "Meteorite" (SS-N-24) cruise missiles. The re-equipped submarine received the designation 667M (Yankee SSGN or Yankee Sidecar). The length and the width of the SSBN were increased up to 153 m and 15-16 m respectively. Outside of the pressure hull 12 launchers for the SS-N-24 missiles were located. The re-equipment began in December 1982 and the first launches of a cruise missile was conducted in December 1983.

Bellona reports [based on Jane's Fighting Ships 1995-96, 98th edition], that K-418, factory no. 431, was commissioned on September 22, 1970, and later rebuilt so as to be able to carry a different type of missile (Project 667 AR-Yankee Notch), and K-423, factory no. 442, was commissioned on November 13, 1971, and rebuilt later to carry a different type of missile (Project 667AR - Yankee Notch).

In 2004 Janes reported that the YANKEE NOTCH (GROSHA) Class (PROJECT 667AR/AT) conversion to SSN was first seen in 1983. The conversion took about two years and it seemed to be the intention to convert about 10 of the class until the programme fell victim to financial cuts in 1989-90. In spite of the removal of the ballistic missile section the overall length of the hull increased by 39.4ft (12m) with the insertion of a `notch waisted' central section. This new section houses three tubes amidships on each side and the magazine holds up to 35 SS-N-21s or additional torpedoes and mines. Brick Spit optronic mast. Diving depth, 1,050ft (320m). Based in the Northern Fleet at Saida Guba although there hade been no recent reports of activity. Two others hade paid off to reserve.

From 1982 to 1991 some Yankee I SSBNs were equipped with 20 up to 40 launchers of SS-N-21 "Grenade". They were designated as 667AT (Yankee Notch). Unlike the "K-420" that was converted to carry the SS-N-24 missiles, the shape of the deck behind the cabin was not altered. The displacement of the submarine was increased up to 11,500 tons and the body was lengthened to 140 meters. Between 1988 and 1994 most converted Yankee submarines were removed from operational status. Some reports suggest that K-395 [a Yankee Notch] may remain in service as of 2005.

In the 1970s in the United States, building on the progress made in creating miniature highly efficient air-jet engines, started to develop small subsonic strategic cruise missiles, air-and sea-based. The latter must be run from the standard gauge 533 mm torpedo tubes, flying at low altitude and engaging surface targets with nuclear warheads at a distance of up to 2000-2500 km with relatively high precision (CEB less than 200 m). The emergence of new, highly effective weapons might upset the balance between the powers already existing in the field of strategic nuclear weapons. This required the Soviet side search for an "adequate response".

Front line of Soviet science and industry evaluated the technical feasibility and desirability of creating strategic cruise missiles, similar American "Tomahawk". Analysis showed that the challenge can be met within five to six years, but whether the work was divided opinions of specialists, many thought the unnecessary creation of strategic SLCM as they will have to cede the ballistic missiles in the ability to overcome the enemy missiles, demanding a substantial public expenditure for the creation and development of infrastructure use. In particular, the SLCM needed the creation of digital maps of the area within the likely opponents and powerful computing centers for processing and issuance of missile guidance information on terrain along the routes of flight. In favor the program was the relative simplicity and cheapness of SLCMs, which can use a different (and not specially crafted) platforms, and which can overcome the enemy air defenses through small low-altitude flight profile and the visibility of the radar.

As a result, the leadership of the USSR in 1976 adopted the principle of developing strategic cruise missiles, air, sea and ground-based. With an offshore SLCM of two types - one a small subsonic missile, able to start from submarines, and the other a large supersonic, starting from a special vertical launch unit. The subsonic cruise missiles 3 m-10 (RK-55) "Pomegranate", which is the equivalent of American missiles "Tomahawk", was given to the "Novator" element sverdlovskyi NGOS, headed by L. Luljev. Development of SLCM was launched in 1976. In 1984, four years later than American counterpart ("Tomahawk"), was adopted.

For military use, equipped with extreme correlation guidance systems, the Soviet Navy established a Computing Center building digital maps for planned theaters and a flight tasks. Equipment control systems missiles, submarines and Coast computer center was developed by the Institute of aerospace Instrumentation (Director and Chief Designer Alexander Abramov).

The Technical project renovation of the 667 submarine (OL. 667AU ) in APKRRK under PR. 667AT (code "Pear") was developed by "Coral" MT ". Rubin Ship data type is used to launch attacks on military, industrial and administrative facilities in the enemy's strategic cruise missiles SNAKES subsonic-10 (RK-55) complex "Pomegranate". The Strategic cruise missile RK-55 "Garnet" had a launch weight of 1700 kg, length of 8.09 meters and diameter of 0.51 meters. It was equipped with turbojet engine thrust and solid Launch Accelerator. The SLCM had a nuclear warhead with a yield of 100 KT. Cruising speed is M = 0.7, maximum range is 3000 km, inertial guidance system - with extreme correlation terrain. Cruise missile 3M-10 had folded console the wing, docked and start Accelerator sealed thrust engine.

Initially as a platform "Garnet" intended the use of the second and third generation submarines 667, removed from service under the START-1 treaty.

The new missile, instead of clipping bays, inserted a block of two compartments in the rear of boat carrying eight on-board 533 mm (four on board, located at an angle to the centreline of the ship). On the latter instead of cutting out rocket sections with the launch tubes they put in a block of two sections, in the stern in which were located eight onboard 533- mm tubes (on four onboard, located at angle to the center-line plane of ship), shelves on 24 KR of the complex "Grenades" (with the general ammunition into 32 rockets) and devices of rapid recharging. The layout of mechanisms and equipment in other sections of durable housing remained without the changes, only in the forward torpedo compartment 400- mm tubes were replaced by 533- mm THAT, after bringing their total number to fourteen (in some sources it is discussed (most likely erroneously) the retention of torpedo armament 667- GO of project - four 533- mm torpedo tubes with the fire unit of 12 Torr of the type of 53-65[K] and [SET]-65, and also two 400- mm tubes (eight torpedoes [SET]-73)). The length of new block proved to be more than the cut out rocket sections. Length and displacement of ship as a result grew.

For the purpose of an increase in the enhancing operational sustainability and combat stability of boats on it they realized the complex of the measures, directed toward a decrease in the level of primary acoustic sginature. During modernization of ships were improved navigation system "Tobol-667 ATOM" and several other new or upgraded systems. Basic main general ship-based systems remained virtually unchanged.

Originally 667AT projectintended to re-equip and rehabilitate six APKR, the rest of 667[A], including on three at SRZ "star" in Vladivostok and on MP "asterisk" of Severodvinsk. Moreover new blocks had to be made respectively on [SSZ] [im]. of Leninist komsomol (Komsomol'sk-na-Amur) and on [SMP] (g. Of [severodvinsk]). The new units have been manufactured respectively by GCC. Leninskogo komsomola (Komsomolsk-na-Amure) and SMES (severodvinsk). The first of the project of 667[AT] became K-236 (Works number 153) with the delivery in 1985, but due to lack of funding to Svezda such extensive work were extremely slowly.

Simultaneously with the refurbishment of the ships came the testing of the "Garnet" complex (one of the submarines of Project 671RTM SF), which was successfully concluded in 1984. The plant [im]. Leninskogo komsomola produced two new secondary blocks for K -236 (Works number ? 153) and K -399 (Works number ? 151). Aboard the first ship even they welded the middle block and completely formed the housing. However, due to cessation of financing in March 1990 work ceased, and the nuclear submarines [PLA] were moved to long-term storage. K -408 (head of ? 416) - by third Pacific Ocean boat, which was being assumed to the re-equipment on the project of 667[AT], 17.07.1988 g. was excluded from the fighting strength of fleet. Any works were not conducted generally on it.

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