Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Information on Iraq's Biological Warfare Program Filename:008me.93d 12 November 1993 To: Dr. John Deutch, Under secretary of Defense for Acquisitions From: [ (b)(6) ] Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Subject: Information on Iraq's Biological Warfare Program 1. Prior to the Gulf War, Iraq was assessed to have a mature biological warfare (BW) program centered at the Salman Pak BW Facility. Agents assessed to have been produced and weaponized were botulinum toxin; Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of -anthrax; and Clostridium -perfrincens, the causative agent of gas gangrene. Agents suspected to he of interest to the Iraqis were Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague; Vibrio cholerae, Brucella species; a Rickettsia; and staphylococcal enterotoxins. Munitions available for BW delivery were missile warheads, aerial bombs, and commercial spray devices. 2. The Salman Pak BW facility was assessed to be the primary facility in the Iraqi BW program. other facilities were the Taji suspect BW facility; Abu Ghurayb BW Production facility Al Kindi; Abu Ghurayb Suspect BW facility; the Latifiyah suspect BW facility, and the Baghdad Nuclear Research center at Tuwaitha. Additional information on these facilities can be found in the attached documents. 3. During Desert Shield, several BW facilities were targeted for bombing (See Appendix I). Approximate dates of bombing are given in Appendix II. A map depicting site locations can be found in Enclosure l, page 2. 4. In addition to the confirmed and suspect production facilities listed above, a storage site at the Salman Pak BW Facility was bombed. The construction characteristics of the Salman Pak storage bunkers were used to locate several additional bunkers throughout the country which may have been air-conditioned or cooled indicating suitability for BW agent storage. These sites were listed as suspect BW storage facilities on the basis of their construction similarities to the Salman Pak BW storage Facility. several of these sites were also bombed. (See Enclosure 1, page 21 and page 25. 5. A list of salman. Pak BW targets and bomb damage assessment (BDA) is in Enclosure l, page 18. 6. No standardized biological warfare agents are known to produce brain tumors or other neoplasms. In general, carcinogenic substances require many months or years to produce tumors. Because of this delayed reaction, they are not regarded as useful for biological warfare. 7. After the war, [ (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4) ] Further evidence that BW agents or munitions were not present during allied bombing is the fact that no credible reporting of Iraqi disease or illness consistent with BW agent exposure, was received after the bombing. [ (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4) ] Enclosures: -Enclosure 1, The Iraqi Offensive Biological Warfare Program: Before, During and After the Gulf War Enclosure 2, Iraqi BW Capabilities , DDX-l610-8-91 Enclosure 3, The Status of Iraq's Facilities to Produce Weapons of Mass Destruction: A preliminary Post-War Assessment SW 91- 10011. Enclosure 4, Iraq's Potential for chemical and Biological Warfare [ (b)(2) ] APPENDIX I Salman Pak BW Facility 33-19-26N/O44-10-22E R&D, Storage and Production (Bacillus anthracis, botulinum toxin, Clostridium perfringens) Taji Suspect BW Production Facility 33-33-16n/044-17-46E Possible site of anthrax spore production Abu Ghurayb Vaccine Plant, Al Kindi 33-l8-28N/044-15-49E Probable site of botulinum toxin production Latifiyah 33-0O-56n/044-l3-l7E Possible Production (agent unknown) Abu Ghura-yb Suspect BW Facility. 33-19-26N/044-10-22E Possible Production and Munition filling Note: The Iraqis reportedly were not successful in filling artillery shells with BW agents at this site. APPENDIX II BW TARGETS ATTACKED DURING DESERT STORM Facility Geo Coords Date Salman Pak BW Research and Production (#) 3350N 04348E 1/17 Abu Ghurayb Suspect BW Production 3319N 04410E' 1/23 Abu Ghurayb BW Product ion 3318N 04412E 2/3* Taji Suspect BW Storage 3330N 04414E - 2/10* Taji Suspect BW Production 3333N 04418 2/8* Latifiyah Suspect BW Production 3301N 04413E 2/8* KEY: (#) Multiple Targets, Multiple Attack Dates * Approximate date of attack Note: 12-Frame Storage Bunkers bombed are denoted on DIA list "CBW Targets Attacked During Desert Storm" furnished to Dr. Deutch's office by [ (b)(6) ]