By Charles S. Sheldon II*
1971-1975 / 1976-1980 / 1981-83
THE INTERKOSMOS PROGRAM
1. Overview of All International Orbital Flights
While the Soviet program of international cooperation in spaceflight started later than that of the United States , it has finally achieved fairly respectable scope. The principal organization for conducting shared experimentation has been the Interkosmos Office of Moscow , headed by Academician Boris N. Petrov. Most of these flights carry the designator Interkosmos, and are an extension of the scientific portion of the regular Kosmos series. For this reason, the table of Kosmos scientific flights, already presented, summarized in that context the experiments to the extent known of the Interkosmos flights as well.
Table 2-6 which follows puts these Interkosmos flights into the context of all the known international cooperative flights to give a clearer impression of their total scope. Another section in the web site will discuss the details of negotiation and operation of the cooperative programs, while this section is more concerned within the science and technology of Interkosmos, and there will follow in the next section similar details on other flights not carrying the Interkosmos label.
It will be noted from the table that Interkosmos originally used the B-l vehicle from Kapustin Yar. Then one time, for Interkosmos 6, it used the A-2 for a recoverable flight from Tyuratam, and by Interkosmos 8 added use of the Plesetsk launch site. Actually cooperative flights from Plesetsk had come earlier, but at that time Plesetsk was not open even to Soviet Bloc technicians, so the payloads were labeled Kosmos 261 and 348. Starting with Interkosmos 10, the C-l vehicle, with higher capabilities, displaced the smaller B-l, both from Plesetsk and Kapustin Yar.
2. Interkosmos Flights of the Period 1968-1970
Kosmos 261 was identified as a cooperative flight of seven Soviet Bloc countries to study the upper atmosphere and the nature of the northern lights, including study of electrons and protons, electronics of superthermal energy, and changes in the density of the atmosphere during auroral activity. This flight in late 1968, and its follow-on in 1970, called Kosmos 348, were from Plesetsk, and at the time, non-Soviet technicians or scientists were not allowed to be present for the launches.
When the more open program began in 1969, including introduction of the designator Interkosmos, the flights were from Kapustin Yar, and representatives of the cooperating countries were able to attend the launches, with their national flags displayed, presumably adding to the festive air.
Interkosmos 1 was launched on October 14, 1969 , with equipment from the German Democratic Republic, the Soviet Union , and Czechoslovakia . The countries additionally participating in readout of data were Bulgaria , Hungary , Poland , and Romania . All seven flags were flown. The purpose of the flight was to study solar ultraviolet and X-ray radiation and the effects of these on the structure of the Earth's upper atmosphere.
Interkosmos 2 followed on December 25, 1969 with instruments from Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia , the German Democratic Republic and the Soviet Union . Cuba joined the list of countries sharing in the read out. The flight studied the concentration of electrons and positive ions of the Earth's ionosphere, and electronic temperature near the payload, as well as mean electron concentration between the payload and the ground receiving stations. The principal tracking stations were 2 in Poland and 7 in the U.S.S.R.
Interkosmos 3 was launched on August 7, 1970 with Czechoslovakian and Soviet experiments. It studied the interactions between solar activity and the radiation belts of Earth, including the nature and spectrum of low frequency electromagnetic oscillations in the upper ionosphere.
Interkosmos 4 was launched on October 14, 1970 with equipment from the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia , and the Soviet Union . It was in effect a repeat of Interkosmos 1 but with more sensitive instruments to measure a wider range of energies.
3. Interkosmos 5
Interkosmos 5 was launched on December 2, 1971 at Kapustin Yar, using the B-l launch vehicle. It carried equipment built in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union in continuation of the work begun with Interkosmos 3. It studied the composition and variations in streams of charged particles over time; recorded and analyzed the spectrum of low frequency electromagnetic waves in the range of 70 Hz to 20 kHz. The work was coordinated with synoptic readings taken at ground stations in the cooperating countries of the Inter-kosmos agreement. Actual flight operations were jointly controlled by the Russians and the Czechs. Ground stations received data from the satellite in the Soviet Union , Czechoslovakia , and the German Democratic Republic. Where the predecessor payload had carried about 1,000 transistors and diodes, it had now been possible to simplify the circuits to only about 500.
4. Interkosmos 6
Interkosmos 6 was launched on April 7, 1972 , for the only time in this program using the large A-2 launch vehicle, from Tyuratam, in order to carry a much greater weight and to permit recovery of the payload. The main purpose was to study cosmic rays, particularly pri-maries in the energy range of 1012 to 1013 electron volts, and to determine their chemical composition and energy spectrum. Additionally, the craft was to measure meteoritic particles in near-Earth space. In order to measure the cosmic rays, the payload carried a photoemulsion unit and an ionization calorimeter, weighing a total of 1,070 kilograms, manufactured in the Soviet Union to specifications developed in Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. The meteorite experiment, was developed and manufactured jointly in Hungary , the Soviet Union , and Czechoslovakia .
After launch, the payload was oriented to point toward the oncoming streams of particles. As the, flight proceeded, and data were received, the instrumentation was calibrated and adjusted to maximize the accuracy of the data recorded. After four days the flights was recalled to Earth, and recovered. The block of material was shipped to Dubna for detailed analysis. Later, it was a surprise when the trace of a 1,000-billion electron volt particle was found in the block.
A year later, more details were provided. The stack of nuclear photo-emulsion material had a volume of 45 liters, consisting of 805 layers each measuring 600 by 200 millimeters with a thickness of 450 um. Under the main stack were additional layers to measure electron-photon showers. Two spark chambers monitored the stack. The side walls of the stack had coordinate marks so that stereo-photographs could be taken of the path of any particles with an accuracy of 1 mm. A scintillation counter participated in the control of registry and indicated the charge of the entering particles, to distinguish among protons, alpha particles, and heavy nuclei. By having ten separate sections, it was possible to get some spatial resolution of the particles. An auxiliary scintillation counter helped distinguish between transiting primary particles and the shower of secondary particles. It took two months to develop the entire stack at Dubna.
5. Interkosmos 7
Interkosmos 7 was launched on June 30, 1972 in a continuation of the work begun by Interkosmos 1 and 4. The equipment was built in the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia , and the Soviet Union . All three countries shared in controlling the satellite in flight. The instrumentation measured short wave solar radiation in the range of 1.200 to 1,300 angstroms, which do not reach the surface of the Earth, being absorbed by molecules of oxygen. Other instruments measured hard X-rays from the Sun, which also typically are absorbed in the atmosphere. By measuring these, many solar flares were found that are missed by terrestrial observatories. Six Soviet Bloc countries carried out studies in parallel with the flight of Interkosmos 7.
6. Interkosmos 8
Interkosmos 8 was the first flight of flip Interkosmos name to be launched at Plesetsk, which occurred on December 1, 1972 . It carried equipment as follows: an ion trap and Langmuir probe from Bulgaria , a Mayak transmitter and recorder from the German Democratic Republic, a high frequency probe from Czechoslovakia , and an ionospheric gas discharge counter and oilier equipment from the Soviet Union . The equipment was designed to record streams of electrons with an energy in excess of 40 kiloelectron volts, and protons with an energy of more than one megaelectron volts. Specialists of all four countries were at the launch, signaling the greater openness about Plesetsk which has yet to be identified as a launch site in any Soviet public release.
7. Interkosmos—Kopemik 500
In honor of the 500th birthday of Copernicus, the number 9 was not associated with this payload, but the next in sequence became number 10 on its later launch. This ninth launch came April 19, 1973 at Kapustin Yar.
This payload carried equipment to measure solar radiation and the ionosphere. It was developed jointly by the Soviet Union and Poland . The telemetry system was Czechoslovakia . The instrumentation measured sporadic changes in radio waves of decameter range. (0.6 to 6.0 MHz). The radio spectrograph was built in Poland , and low frequency-high frequency ionospheric probes were built in the Soviet Union . Data were received at ground stations in the Soviet Union and in Czechoslovakia . Simultaneous ground observations were made in the participating Soviet Bloc countries.
8. Interkosmos 10
Interkosmos 10 was the first to use the C-l class of launch vehicle in the Interkosmos series. It was launched at Plesetsk October 30, 1973 . It carried instrumentation to determine the concentration and temperature of ionospheric electrons, using equipment from the German Democratic Republic and Soviet Union; to measure magnetic field variation, electric fields in the range of 0.7 to 70 Hertz, and electron, ion, and neutral atom fluxes in the range of 0.05 to 20 kiloelectron volts with Soviet apparatus; and to study low frequency electric oscillations of plasma in the range of 20 to 22 kiloHertz (designed and built in Czechoslovakia). It carried a Czech telemetry system and Soviet tape recording systems. Ukrainian experiments also were carried.
B. N. Petrov saw the flight initiating a new stage beyond exploratory experiments to making a concentrated attack on complex issues. He said the synoptic recording of much data would increase the value of the results 100-fold. Flight of the satellite was coordinated with launches of German-Soviet weather rockets.
9. Interkosmos 11
Interkosmos 11 was launched May 17, 1974 as the first C-l Interkosmos launch at Kapustin Tar. It continued studies of the solar ultraviolet and X-ray radiation, and interactions with the upper atmosphere. The experiments were provided by the German Democratic Republic, the Soviet Union , and Czechoslovakia . Again, ground stations in Soviet Bloc nations made synoptic readings.
10. Interkosmos 12
Interkosmos 12 was launched October 31, 1974 at Plesetsk to continue studies of the atmosphere and ionosphere and flow of micrometeorites. Instruments were prepared in Bulgaria , Hungary , the Ger-man Democratic Republic, Romania , the Soviet Union , and Czechoslovakia . The participating nations sent representatives to the launch, and tracking was done in Bulgaria , the German Democratic Republic, Poland , and Czechoslovakia , as well as the Soviet Union . The equipment was further improved over those used in earlier flights. For example, the micrometeorites were not only counted but classified as to their physical character, energy, and destructive power, and more accurate measurements were made of the composition and structure of the neutral atmosphere.
Specifically, the micrometeorite analyzer experiment was prepared in Hungary, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia; the electron concentration was measured by a German instrument; the positive ions and electron temperature by Bulgarian and Russian equipment; the mass spectrometers by Russian and Czech scientists; the mass spectrometer calibrator in Romania; the memory unit in Germany, and the Mayak radio transmitter in Czechoslovakia.
11. Interksosmos 13
Interkosmos 13 was launched March 27, 1975 , to study dynamic processes in the magnetosphere and the polar ionosphere, carrying Soviet and Czechoslovak equipment. Coordinated ground observations were made by stations in Bulgaria , Hungary , the German Democratic Republic, the Soviet Union , and Czechoslovakia .
12. Interkosmos l4.
Flags of nine socialist states were flying at Plesetsk when Interkosmos 14 was launched on December 11, 1975 , with representatives of Bulgaria , Hungary , Czechoslovakia , and the U.S.S.R. present, since their experiments were being carried. The C-l vehicle was used to place the payload in an orbit 1,707 by 345 kilometers at an inclination of 74 degrees, and with a period of 105.3 minutes.
The purpose of the flight was to continue research on low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere, study the structure of the ionosphere, and measure micrometeoritic intensity.
On December 20 and 21, 1975, Perry and Dalberg picked up signals on 20.004 MHz from the Mayak ionosphere beacon transmitter. Failure to pick up further signals before the end of the year implies that this beacon operates "on command".
INTERKOSMOS 15—TEST OF THE NEW AUOS PAYLOAD
Interkosmos 15 was launched on June 19, 1976, from Plesetsk with a C-l vehicle. The satellite was placed in a 521 by 487 km orbit, inclined at 74°, with a period of 94.6 minutes. This mission tested a new payload called the automatic universal orbital station [AUOS] which carried a greater volume and weight of scientific equipment than previous Interkosmos payloads, and could be controlled at any point in its orbit, not just over the ground command stations. A new unified telemetric system [YeTMS], for digital data transmission, was also tested. The YeTMS used an advanced computer designed to process the data before it was transmitted to ground stations. (11) Hungary, Poland, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union jointly developed and produced the telemetric system. Data were received in Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, and later in Bulgaria and Cuba. (12) The AUOS and YeTMS introduced a new generation of Interkosmos satellites.
Interkosmos 16 was launched with a C-l vehicle on July 27, 1976, from Kapustin Yar into a 523 by 465 km orbit inclined at 50.6°, with a 94.4 minute period. The satellite continued studies of ultraviolet and x ray radiation from the Sun and the effect of this radiation on the Earth's upper atmosphere.
In addition to the Soviet Bloc countries, Sweden participated in this mission by providing equipment for research on the polarization of resonance lines in the far ultraviolet region. Equipment on Interkosmos 16 included: a multichannel photometer made in Czechoslovakia for research on solar flares in the energy region 0.3 to 60 KeV, a photometer made in east Germany to measure the concentration of molecular oxygen in the Earth's upper atmosphere, a spectropolarimeter made in Sweden for research on solar flares, and a Soviet made spectroheliograph for research on x ray linear spectrum flares and active formation on the Sun.(13) Simultaneous ground observations of the Sun were made by Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union.
Interkosmos 16 was the last in a series of launches for solar research, which had included Interkosmos 1, 4, 7, 11, 16, and Vertikal 4.
Interkosmos 17 was launched September 24, 1977, from Plesetsk.A C-l vehicle put the satellite into a 519 by 468 km orbit inclined at 83°, with a period of 94.4 minutes. Experiments on the satellite continued research begun on Interkosmos 3, 5, and 13 on the relationship between solar activity and the Earth's upper atmosphere. It carried equipment developed by the Soviet Union, Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia to study the distribution of energetic charged and neutral particles and micrometeorite streams in near-Earth space. (14)
Interkosmos 17 used the AUOS and YeTMS equipment tested on Interkosmos 15. Equipment included differential proton and electron detectors for registering weak cosmic rays, both made by the Soviet Union; a device for measuring the temperature of ionospheric electrons, made by the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia; a spectrometer for high energy electrons made by the Soviet Union and Romania; a device for measuring neutron streams with low-level energy made by the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia; and a device for measuring isotopes of solar streams captured by the Earth's radiation fields, made by Czechoslovakia. Other equipment gathered data relative to manned space flight including an electric analyzer made in the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia for measuring low energy protons and electrons, and two dosimeters developed by Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and the Soviet Union for measuring radiation absorption by different materials. (15)
INTERKOSMOS 18 AND MAGION
Interkosmos 18 was a dual launch of the Interkosmos 18 satellite plus the smaller Magion satellite developed by Czechoslovakia (see figure 12). The two spacecraft were launched on October 24, 1978, by a C-l launch vehicle from Plesetsk.
FIGURE 12.—The current Interkosmos satellite series (from Interkosmos-15 on) has used a standardized design consisting of eight deployable solar panels around a cylindrical core. They are either Earth-oriented with a gravity gradient boom, or are solar oriented as was Interkosmos-18, shown here. The small Czech subsatellite was separated on the 21st day in orbit.
The two satellites went into a 786 by 407 km orbit inclined at 83°, with a 96.4 minute period. Interkosmos 18, which used an AUOS bus and a YeTMS system, conducted studies of the electromagnetic relationships between the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere and of low-frequency radio waves in the circumterrestrial plasma. The onboard equipment included a three component SG-R magnetometer made in Romania and the Soviet Union; a charged particle electrostatic analyzer made in the Soviet Union to measure the energy spectra and the distribution of electrons and protons; a low-frequency analyzer made in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union to measure the components of electromagnetic fields; a Soviet-made plasma electric parameter analyzer; Langmuir probes made in East Germany to measure density and temperature of plasma electrons; a device made by the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia to measure electron temperatures; a flat ion trap made in East Germany to determine ion temperatures, concentration and mass composition; and a mass spectrometer made in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union.
The 15 kilogram Magion satellite separated from Interkosmos 18 on November 14, 1978. Magion flew in a trajectory very close to the parent satellite and conducted similar studies of low-frequency electromagnetic fields in near-Earth space. Magion carried a new experiment called "MAGIK" (for MAGnetic InterKosmos). Comparisons between the measurements made by Interkosmos 18 and Magion allowed scientists to separate temporal factors from spatial factors. Magion was the first artificial satellite to be developed and built by Czechoslovakia; only the electric power and heat regulatory systems were built by the Soviets. (16) Transmissions from Magion at 137 MHz consisted of pulses which were interrupted by musical tones at times when the satellite was transmitting to ground stations in Czechoslovakia.
Interkosmos 19 was launched on February 27, 1979, carrying equipment developed in Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union. The satellite was launched by a C-l launch vehicle from Plesetsk into a 996 by 502 km orbit, inclined at 74°, with a period of 99.8 minutes. Experiments continued research on the Earth's ionosphere, wave processes and radio propagation in ionospheric plasma. Interkosmos 19 carried a Soviet designed ionospheric station and an instrument to study photoelectric pulses and electron showers, a Bulgarian optical spectrometer to record atmospheric glows in polar and equatorial regions, a Bulgarian instrument to study electron concentration and temperatures in the upper atmosphere, a Soviet Mayak transmitter, a Polish radio spectrometer, and a Soviet plasma analyzer. High and low frequency probes developed by Czechoslovakia for measuring electron temperatures and the distribution of thermal electrons were also carried.
Data from Interkosmos 19, Interkosmos 18, Magion, and two American satellites were jointly analyzed by scientists in the Soviet Union, the United States, and Japan. The Soviets combined the results from Interkosmos 18, Magion, and Interkosmos 19 in a program they called "International Investigations of the Magnetosphere.” (17)
From January to April 1979, the Soviet Union joined Sweden, France, and Austria in conducting the synchronous auroral multiple balloon observation [SAMBO] experiment for further magnetospheric research. The four countries launched balloons and rockets from Kiruna, in northern Sweden, and data from the satellites, balloons, and rockets were coordinated with ground observations for mapping the geophysical parameters of plasma, magnetic and electrical fields at different altitudes.
Interkosmos 20 was launched from Plesetsk on November 1, 1979, by a C-l vehicle into a 523 by 467 km orbit, inclined at 74°, with a period of 94.4 minutes. The primary mission was oceanographic research, and the spacecraft served as an information relay between buoys and platforms placed in various parts of the ocean, and the control center at Tarusa. Data was gathered on zones of biological productivity in the ocean and sea surface temperatures. The equipment was developed in Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union. Interkosmos 20 was the first applications satellite in the Interkosmos series. (18)
Significant Activities in Soviet Unmanned Flight Programs: 1981-83
EARTH ORBITAL SCIENCE
On February 6, 1981, the Soviet Union launched Interkosmos 21 carrying scientific equipment designed by Hungary, East Germany, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union. The satellite was placed in an orbit 520 by 475 km, with a period of 94.5 minutes and an inclination of 74°.
The satellite was designed to study the ocean and land masses while working in concert with land and sea based data collection stations (located in Berlin, Budapest, Moscow, the area around Moscow, Baku, Sebastopol, Vladivostok, and the Indian Ocean). Among the scientific areas of investigation were: studying the potential of using satellites to locate areas of high marine bioproductivity and pollution; studying the boundaries between land and water, water and ice, and snow cover; defining the optical thickness of the atmosphere in different spectral ranges; and obtaining data on thermodynamic temperatures of the ocean's surface. Equipment included the SGDD (experimental automatic system for gathering and disseminating scientific data); a multichannel spectrometer for measuring the absolute value of the brightness of ascending radiation flows in the spectral range 415-274 nm; a bipolar radiometer designed for measuring the atmospheric thermal intensity at 2.5 cm; and a three-component magnetometer for measuring the Earth's magnetic field. (20)
INTERKOSMOS 22/BULGARIA 1300
To celebrate the 1300th anniversary of the founding of Bulgaria, the Soviet Union launched the 22d Interkosmos mission, called Interkosmos-Bulgaria 1300. The satellite was launched on August 7, 1981, into a 906 by 825 km orbit, inclined at 81.2° with a period of 102 minutes.
The main purpose of the satellite was ionospheric and magnetospheric studies, and it worked in concert with the Meteor-Priroda satellite which had been launched by the Soviets on July 10, 1981 (see chapter 4). In addition to Soviet experiments related to Earth resources sensing, the Meteor-Priroda spacecraft carried several Bulgarian-made experiments to provide data for use with those from Interkosmos-Bulgaria 1300, including: a multichannel spectrometer operating in the visible and near infrared wavelengths; a single channel microwave radiometer; and a computer system for recording and preliminary processing of the data.
The Interkosmos-Bulgaria satellite itself had four groups of instrumentation, and of the 15 instruments carried, 12 were built in Bulgaria. (21) One group included seven systems and instruments for studying electrons and ions in near-Earth space (measuring their concentration and temperature, and distribution according to energy and ion mass). A second group included a system for determining permanent and varying electric fields, and a highly sensitive magnetometer. The third group contained an electro-photometer for determining weak emissions of light in the upper atmosphere and a device for detecting and recording ultraviolet radiation. (22) Finally, there was an angular laser reflector for geodetic studies using ground-based lasers at 14 locations around the world.
Preliminary results from the program were published in the September-October 1983 issue of Kosmicheskiye Issledovaniya. Among the findings cited were the detection of small scale disturbances in the velocity of the ionospheric plasma at altitudes of about 900 km, where velocity was measured in excess of 4.5 kilometers per second; a marked longitudinal correlation between streams of charged particles and the maxima recorded in the area of the Brazilian anomaly (detected through earlier studies from the Salyut 6 space station); and the conclusion that large scale longitudinal currents can exist at any level of geomagnetic activity, and have a two-layer configuration in the morning and evening sectors.
(A) SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS, 1971-75, OVERVIEW, FACILITIES AND HARDWARE MANNED AND UNMANNED FLIGHT PROGRAMS, BIOASTRONAUTICS CIVIL AND MILITARY APPLICATIONS PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE PLANS, STAFF REPORT , THE COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE .SCIENCES, UNITED STATES SENATE, BY THE SCIENCE POLICY RESEARCH DIVISION CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, VOLUME – I, AUGUST 30, 1976, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON : 1976,
(A1.) SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS: 1976-80 (WITH SUPPLEMENTARY DATA THROUGH 1983), UNMANNED SPACE ACTIVITIES, PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF Hon. JOHN C. DANFORTH, Chairman, COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION, UNITED STATES SENATE, Part 3, MAY 1985, Printed for the use of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 99th Congress, 1 st. session, COMMITTEE PRINT, S. Prt. 98-235, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON: 1985
11. Izvestiya, Moscow, June 22, 1976, p. 4.
12. Pravda, Moscow, June 21, 1976, p. 1.
13. Yezhegodnik Bolshoy Sovetsky Entsiklopedii, 1977. Moscow. P. 495.
14. Krasnaya Zvezda, Sept. 27, 1977, p. 5.
15. Yezhegodnik Bolshoy Sovetskoy Entsiklopedii, 1978, p. 490
16. Izveztiya, Moscow, Nov. 16, 1978, p. 3.
17. Izvestiya, Moscow, Mar. 1, 1979, p. 3.
18. Izvestiya, Moscow, Nov. 3, 1979, p. 3.
A. SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS: 1976-80 (WITH SUPPLEMENTARY DATA THROUGH 1983), UNMANNED SPACE ACTIVITIES, PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF Hon. JOHN C. DANFORTH, Chairman, COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION, UNITED STATES SENATE, Part 3, MAY 1985, Printed for the use of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 99th Congress, 1 st. session, COMMITTEE PRINT, S. Prt. 98-235, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON: 1985
20. COSPAR Information Bulletin, No. 91, August 1981, pp. 67-68.
21. Pravda, Sept. 2, 1983, p. 3.
22. Serafimov, Kirill. Joint Research. Izvestiya, Aug. 12, 1981, p. 5.
*Charles S. Sheldon II[1917-1981], was Chief of the Science Policy Research Division of the Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service
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