The major thrust of Project CHLOE is to evaluate, develop as required, and demonstrate at the prototype or critical technology level an alternative concept of providing persistent stand-off airborne MANPADS protection for all commercial aircraft within a designated geographic area. This effort will couple proven High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial Systems (HAE UAS) with counter-MANPADS technology solutions that prove to be the most promising in defeating the MANPADS threat to commercial aviation. The solutions sought are based on existing systems and component technologies. This program will not undertake the development of new technologies, but will likely require significant modifications of existing sensor technologies to meet the high altitude stand-off performance goals.
DHS S&T began the Emerging Counter-MANPADS Technologies (ECMT) program in 2006 to evaluate ground-based MANPADS detection and countermeasures solutions. The Project CHLOE BAA [HSARPA BAA07-04] represents a complimentary effort, the major thrust of which is to evaluate, develop as required, and demonstrate at the prototype or critical technology level an alternative concept of providing persistent stand-off airborne MANPADS protection for all commercial aircraft within a designated geographic area.
Named Project Chloe (after the character on the popular television show 24, though Chloe is also the name of DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff's golden retriever.), this project involves engagement with both industry and the military. The drones will be tested over the Patuxent River Naval Air Station outside Washington. They will be outfitted with missile-warning systems and possibly anti-missile lasers that could send plane-bound missiles veering off course. The anti-missile strategy is the latest to be tested by federal officials, in an effort to create a less expensive, more reliable solution to protect planes from shoulder-fired missiles. The tests follow four years of research on anti-missile laser systems that could be mounted on the bellies of planes for $1 million or more per plane. Those systems are being tested on nine Federal Express cargo planes to see how well they hold up.
This High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial System (HAE UAS)-Based Counter-MANPADS Technology Assessment effort will couple proven High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial Systems (HAE UAS) with counter-MANPADS technology solutions that prove to be the most promising in defeating the MANPADS threat to commercial aviation. The solutions sought are based on existing systems and component technologies. This program will not undertake the development of new technologies, but will likely require significant modifications of existing sensor technologies to meet the high altitude stand-off performance goals.
HAE UAS-based or hybrid systems must protect aircraft within the air space bounded by the threat envelope (defined as a 3-mile radius around each aircraft operating at or below 18,000 feel AGL) applied to standard approach and take off corridors of commercial aircraft (nominally extending up to 65 miles from airports (along all flight paths). The Government seeks to achieve very ambitious prototype performance and schedule goals. Performance goals focus on HAE UAS based solutions, though a hybrid of HAE UAS MWS and ground-based Counter-measure (CM) capability may be evaluated.
For purposes of HAE UAS-based systems, coverage shall be 360-degrees azimuth constant surveillance of a broad area around each airport including standard approach and departure corridors nominally extending up to 65 miles from the airport (along all flight paths). Detection and countermeasures coverage may encompass the entire geographic area or continuously cover the individual ground threat footprint for each commercial aircraft within that area (3-mile radius around each aircraft that is operating at or below 18,000 feet Above Ground Level (AGL)). This may be accomplished with one or more HAE UASs.
Integrated systems that detect and counter an attack of multiple simultaneously launched generation 1-through-3 MANPADS missiles across the MANPADS threat envelope of a commercial aircraft operating under normal conditions within the US. Probability of Success will provide 90% or better probability of success against an attack of multiple generation 1-through-3 MANPADS missiles over the susceptible envelope of a commercial aircraft. (Success means defeating a minimum of two simultaneously launched missiles such that neither strikes an aircraft.)
The focus of CHLOE is on a systems solution, i.e., a fully integrated system of relatively mature technologies that meets the stated technical and interoperability requirements. System-level demonstration is desired, though demonstration supported by test and evaluation may occur at the component or subsystem level.
DHS S&T is soliciting proposals on these technology areas and operational concepts. Offerors may propose partial solutions in specific technical or operational areas (e.g. HAE UAS borne MWS, missile warning notification system, countermeasures study and roadmap, alternate mission employment, etc) or comprehensive solutions across the entire mission space (i.e. integrated detection and countermeasures). Proposals may include offeror-provided UAS or may request access to Government UAS services; however, any requirements for Government Furnished Services (GFS) will reduce the overall funding available for award under this BAA. Finally, a manned-surrogate high-altitude (capable of operating at greater than 50,000 ft) may be utilized for CHLOE payload demonstration in lieu of an HAE UAS for purposes of risk reduction or significant cost savings; however, the payload design and application must be suitable for employment aboard a Global Hawk or Predator B HAE UAS.
Technology approaches to counter-MANPADS other than self-protecting aircraft DIRCM systems are in various stages of development and maturity throughout DoD programs. DHS S&T is following such technologies and will make a formal technology readiness level (TRL) assessment of those technologies in terms of their potential application in the civil aviation environment. Non-aircraft-borne countermeasure technologies are estimated to be at TRL6 or TRL7 in accordance with the DHS TRL definitions and are being investigated through the Emerging Counter-MANPADS Technologies (ECMT) assessment. DIRCM and non-DIRCM technologies suitable for employment at the high altitudes and long ranges sought are less mature and estimated to be at a much lower TRL and are the focus of this assessment. This program will not directly assess ground-based systems developed under the ECMT, but may leverage ECMT technologies if a hybrid UAS Missile Warning System (MWS) coupled with a ground-based countermeasure solution emerges as a promising solution. This program is dependent on and will leverage but not assess or develop UAS platforms or technologies.
CHLOE is a Homeland Innovative Prototypical Solution (HIPS) program to demonstrate game changing leaps in payload technologies at the prototype level that can enable the defeat of MANPADS from a persistent, high altitude orbit. This program will determine system-level operational effectiveness, maturity of components, subsystems, software, system approach, and suitability for employing Counter-MANPADS technologies from HAE UAS to provide persistent, broad area protection of commercial aviation. CHLOE may also evaluate a hybrid concept of providing high altitude MANPADS warning networked to promising ground-based countermeasures technologies based on ECMT assessments.
In addition to the BAA effort, the CHLOE program will execute a parallel path for risk reduction and cost management to rapidly modify and prototype an existing two-color infrared (IR) MWS to support a late FY-07 flight demo and evaluation. This effort will modify an existing prototype two-color IR MWS and demonstrate MANPADS detection and warning capability from high altitude and long range. The goal is to demonstrate this sensor on a DoD Global Hawk, DHS Predator B, or manned surrogate by late FY-07 to establish baseline capability of that technology in the CHLOE operating environment. Data and analysis from this effort should be available to offerors selected under this BAA sometime in late FY-07.
A critical element in the demonstration and evaluation of the CHLOE concept will be the availability of and access to an HAE UAS or manned surrogate aircraft capable of operating near or above 60,000 feet. Initial investigation has identified several DoD and DHS platforms and several manned surrogate aircraft suitable for demonstrating the CHLOE concept and payload: Northrop Grumman Global Hawk (Navy and USAF variants), General Atomics Predator B (Customs and Border Protection), Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA ER-2 or WB-57 aircraft. DHS S&T will coordinate with these agencies to acquire UAS services and system integration engineering support as required.
Robert F. Dorr [firstname.lastname@example.org] reported in May 2007 that "William L.Ward, a Washington analyst who studies airline issues, says the idea of a countermanpad UAV is "pie in the sky." DHS officials, he says, "are living in a dream world." When the airlines are busy-say, mid-morning on a weekday - about 6,500 aircraft are plying domestic routes or landing or taking off at 429 principal airports. To be effective against a terrorist cell with even a single manpad, such as the U.S.-made FIM-92A Stinger or the former Soviet SA-14, dozens of UAVs would have to be on patrol at all times."
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