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Then out spake brave Horatius
The Captain of the Gate:
To every man upon this Earth
Death cometh soon or late.
And how can man die better
Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers
And the temples of his gods
.

"What is best in life?
To crush your enemies,
have them driven before you and
hear the lamentation of their women.
"
Conan the Barbarian


"One crowded hour of glorious life
Is worth an age without a name.
"
Thomas Osbert Mordaunt (17301809)

"We all end up dead,
it's just a question of how and why....
Every man dies, not every man really lives...
Fight and you may die,
Run, and you will live. At least for a while.
It's all for nothing if you don't have freedom..."
Alba gu brth! ["Scotland forever!"]
attributed to William Wallace



"War is essentially an evil thing. Its consequences are not confined to the belligerent states alone, but affect the whole world. To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime; it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole."
Judgment of the International Military Tribunal


Violence, naked force, has settled more issues in history than has any other factor, and the contrary opinion is wishful thinking at its worst.
"War is not violence and killing, pure and simple; war is controlled violence, for a purpose. The purpose of war is to support your government's decisions by force. The purpose is never to kill the enemy just to be killing him . . . but to make him do what you want him to do."
Robert A. Heinlein, Starship Troopers

The Review Conference of the Rome Statute, held in 2010 in Kampala (Uganda), adopted, inter alia, a set of amendments relating to the definition of the crime of aggression and the provisions for the exercise of the Court's jurisdiction. The Intrntaionl Criminal Court may exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression after 1 January 2017, once thirty States Parties have ratified the amendments, and subject to a decision by the Assembly to activate that jurisdiction.


The crime of aggression means the planning, preparation, initiation or execution, by a person in a position effectively to exercise control over or to direct the political or military action of a State, of an act of aggression which, by its character, gravity and scale, constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. An act of aggression means the use of armed force by a State against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of another State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations.

The World at War

Current Wars

worldwideWar on Drugs 1971 -->
AfghanistanPashtun Taliban Insurgency2001 -->
BrazilFavela War1980s-->
Central African RepublicPersistent State Failure1980s-->
China Uighur 1996 -->
Congo (Zaire) Congo War1998-->
EthiopiaEritrea War1998-2000, ++
European UnionOp Sophia2015-->
India Kashmir 1970s-->
India Naxalite Uprising 1967 -->
Iraq Civil War 2014 -->
Libya Civil War2014
MaliTuaregs / Islamists2012 -->
MexicoDrug War2006 -->
Middle East/
North Africa/
Central Asia
Arab Spring 2010 -->
NigeriaCivil Disturbances 1997 -->
NigeriaBoko Haram 2009 -->
PakistanKarachi Political Violence2007 -->
PakistanDeobandi Jihad2001 -->
PakistanPashtun Jihad2001 -->
PakistanBalochistan2004 -->
PhilippinesDuterte's Dirty War2016-->
Russia North Caucasus Insurgency 1992 -->
Somalia Civil War 1991-->
South Sudan Tribal Warfare2009-->
Sudan Darfur1983-->
SudanTwo Areas2011-->
SudanAbyei Area2011-->
SyriaSyria Revolution2011
ThailandIslamic Rebels2001 -->
TurkeyKurdistan1984 -->
UkraineRussian Agression 2014 -->
United StatesAfghanistan 1980 -->
United StatesDjibouti2001 -->
Yemen Civil War2011 -->
" ... war had been literally continuous, though strictly speaking it had not always been the same war. For several months during his childhood there had been confused street fighting in London itself, some of which he remembered vividly. But to trace out the history of the whole period, to say who was fighting whom at any given moment, would have been utterly impossible,... Oceania was at war with Eurasia and in alliance with Eastasia. In no public or private utterance was it ever admitted that the three powers had at any time been grouped along different lines....
Death is nothing, but
to live defeated and inglorious
is to die daily.
-- Napoleon Bonaparte

"How easily people can fool themselves
into believing wars can be won by some
wonderful invention rather than by
hard-fighting and superior leadership."
General George S. Patton

Other Conflicts

AlgeriaInsurgency 1992 -->
AngolaCabinda1975-2006?
AzerbaijanNagorno-Karabakh 1990s-201?
Burkina FasoPersistent State Failure 1966 -->
BurundiCivil War 2015 -->
ChinaSino-India Border Dispute1962 -->
China Senkaku Islands 1968 -->
China South China Sea 1988 -->
ColombiaInsurgencies1970s-2016
ComorosPersistent State Failure 1975 -->
Georgia Civil War1991-->
EthiopiaOromia1972-->
India Assam 1985 -->
India Kashmir 1947 -->
Indonesia Papua / West Irian1963-->
Israel Palestine 1967 -->
Israel Third Intifada ?2015 - ??
Korea Korean War1953 -->
Kyrgyzstan Civil Unrest2010 -->
Laos Hmong Insurgency2000 -->
Myanmar Insurgencies1945 -->
Namibia Caprivi Strip 1966-->
Pakistan Kashmir 1947 -->
PalestineCivil War2007-->
Peru Shining Path1970s-->
PhilippinesMaute Group 2017
United StatesPhilippines 1898 -->
UzbekistanCivil Disturbances2005 -->



"Perpetual peace is no empty idea,
but a practical thing which,
through its gradual solution,
is coming always nearer its final realization..."
IMMANUEL KANT

Stefan Lindemann defined armed conflict as "a civil war if: (a) the parties are politically and militarily organised, and they have publicly stated political objectives; (b) the government is a principal combatant; (c) the main insurgent organisation(s) are locally represented and recruit locally, though there may be additional external involvement and recruitment; (d) the conflict causes at least 500 to 1000 deaths during the first year or at least 1000 cumulative deaths in the next three years; (e) the conflict is characterised by sustained violence, with no three-year period having less than 500 deaths; and (f) the weaker party is able to mount effective resistance, measured by at least 100 deaths inflicted on the stronger party."

The Armed Conflict Database is an annual survey is published by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in London, the past few years have seen a considerable increase in the number of war victims. The number of war dead rose from 56,000 in 2008 to 180,000 in 2014, even though instead of 63 only 42 armed conflicts were counted. In 2013, for the first time since the end of the Second World War, more than 50 million people were refugees.

In 2015 Globally, conflict fatalities amounted to 167,000, which was less than the 180,000 documented in 2014. The last edition of the Armed Conflict Survey covered 42 conflicts around the world. This new edition deals with 37 conflicts, a slightly smaller figure.

The United Nations defines "major wars" as military conflicts inflicting 1,000 battlefield deaths per year. In 1965, there were 10 major wars under way. The new millennium began with much of the world consumed in armed conflict or cultivating an uncertain peace. As of mid-2005, there were eight Major Wars under way [down from 15 at the end of 2003], with as many as two dozen "lesser" conflicts ongoing with varrying degrees of intensity.

Most of these are civil or "intrastate" wars, fueled as much by racial, ethnic, or religious animosities as by ideological fervor. Most victims are civilians, a feature that distinguishes modern conflicts. During World War I, civilians made up fewer than 5 percent of all casualties. Today, 75 percent or more of those killed or wounded in wars are non-combatants.

Africa, to a greater extent than any other continent, is afflicted by war. Africa has been marred by more than 20 major civil wars since 1960. Rwanda, Somalia, Angola, Sudan, Liberia, and Burundi are among those countries that have recently suffered serious armed conflict.

War has caused untold economic and social damage to the countries of Africa. Food production is impossible in conflict areas, and famine often results. Widespread conflict has condemned many of Africa's children to lives of misery and, in certain cases, has threatened the existence of traditional African cultures.

Conflict prevention, mediation, humanitarian intervention and demobilization are among the tools needed to underwrite the success of development assistance programs. Nutrition and education programs, for example, cannot succeed in a nation at war. Billions of dollars of development assistance have been virtually wasted in war-ravaged countries such as Liberia, Somalia, and Sudan.

Globally, armed conflicts result in unprecedented waves of population displacement, both within and across borders. Armed conflicts are associated with direct consequences like deaths, diseases, stress, migration and environmental destruction; indirect socio-economic disruption in the form of institutional, infrastructural and human capital destruction; and opportunity costs like famine due to disruption of agriculture as well as poverty due to disruption of commerce and education.

Conflicts disrupt the socio-cultural set up of communities and destroy sources of people's livelihood. Post-conflict socio-economic reconstruction needs to encompass programs that restructure people's morals and values through counselling. HIV/AIDS prevention programming in post-conflict communities should deal with socio-cultural disruptions that emerged during conflicts. Some of the disruptions if not dealt with, could become normalized yet they are predisposing factors to high risk sexual behavior (HRSB).

Pervasive conflict and war often catalyze the disintegration of communities and families as well as the disruption of social norms governing people's sexual behaviour. Men who lose their status in their communities or families due to armed conflict are more likely to resort to alcohol abuse and to engage in HRSB.

Most women also become vulnerable given their increased dependence on men for physical or economic security. Since many displaced persons are forced to leave their homes, women may be forced to trade sex with armed men or other people supposed to protect them in exchange for food, water, shelter, protection and other basic commodities. Such "survival sex" might involve sex with men infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Women are also likely to suffer at the hands of boys and young men who become child soldiers and are forced to become violent and abusive as part of their training.

Living in IDP camps affected people. Cultural values and norms lost their sting. Children stopped respecting their elders. Dishonor of sexual sanctity through transactional sex and practices like incest mirror the consequence of exposure to conflict. Men lost their wives and daughters to soldiers. Soldiers took people's wives since they had more money. HRSB was associated with concentration of people in camps where idleness and unemployment were the norm. Reports of girls and women who had been victims of rape and defilement by men with guns are common. Signs of living in conflict include food insecurity, poor and overcrowded housing, learned helplessness, and apathy. Many people display persistent worries, hopelessness, abuse alcohol and suicidal ideas.








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