T-95 (Objekt 775 / Item 195)
Work on the creation of a new tank codenamed "Armata", which should become the main tank of the Armed Forces, began in 2010, together with the message on the termination of work on the "Object-195" (T-95)) from the Ministry of Defence.
It never had an official designation and is known as Object 195, or T-95. The T-95 was a prototype main battle tank; its design reportedly started at the end of the Cold War in 1988 under the project “Improving-88”. It was intended to replace the T-72, a tried-and-tested but still dated tank that required a major upgrade. The focus in the T-95 design was on heavier armour and crew survivability: to achieve this, the crew would be seated in the hull and not in the turret.
The unmanned turret would be fitted with a 30mm automatic cannon, the 2A82, as well as the Kord, a 12.7mm machine gun. Its most formidable feature, however, was to be a mammoth 152mm smoothbore gun, far outsizing those of American M1 Abrams tanks and of virtually every other NATO tank. However, to make up for its larger calibre weapon, the T-95 would probably have to have less ammunition or a bigger mass. Soviet tanks typically had lower profiles, but the T-95 was planned to have a tall turret, which would allow it to fire from the hull-down position (something than might come in handy in an urban environment or in hilly country, given that most Soviet tanks were designed for flat terrain).
In 2008 it was reported that in 2009, the Russian Army would get a new tank - the T-95 - far superior to existing models. This is an entirely new battle tank, with new running gear, power plant, armaments, fire control, reconnaissance and target identification facilities. The tank was said to be undergoing tests, expected to be completed in 2008. Its adoption for service was intended to bring the long-awaited unification to this sphere, but 2009 came and went and the T-95 was forgotten.
A new new Main Battle Tank, which was initially planned to enter service in 1994, remained in development due to financial restrictions. It is under development at the Uralvagonzavod Plant in Nizhniy Tagil [Potkin's bureau] which was responsible for all recent Russian tanks apart from the T-80. "URALVAGONZAVOD" (Ural Carriage-Building Plant) in Nizhny Tagil had manufactured a variety of products, ranging from universal type 8-axle rail cars and tanks of the highest quality to the T-34 tanks which had no rivals in World War II.
According to the information leaked into the Russian media in early 2008 this the last and the only version of the principally new tank, the project of which started nearly 25 years ago under a Soviet program "Molot" (hammer). The first design offered by the Leningrad based designers was called 477, but never came to life. State acceptance trials of the new tank started at the Kubinka Proving Ground in August or September of 1998. Very little information is publicly available concerning this vehicle, including the official designation, which is apparently still designated under the developmental "ob'ekt" nomenclature. The first official mention of this tank, which the media have dubbed the T-95, was made by Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev in March 2000.
This new tank was apparently in competition with the T-80UM2 "Black Eagle" modification, and may remain unable to secure production funding due to its higher cost and the potential for upgrading the existing T-80 inventory to the "Black Eagle" standard. The Omsk-made Black Eagle is another option of the same idea, however, it is highly unlikely that "Cherny Orel" will be ever commissioned too. Independent experts point out several outstanding technologies introduced on the Black Eagle: its shots are fixed to the gun like the cartridges of the machine gun, having used it the tank just "drops" it; its turret can carry a gun of any caliber, the shell are separated from the staff's compartment etc. However, because of the fate of Omsktransmash this project had little chance.
The only more or less viable project which can be regarded as a derivate of the product 477 is "product 195" of designed by Nizhny Tagil KBTM. Years ago the design of T-95 started under the same technical tasks as BTR-90, so most likely the dimensions / weight will be sacrificed to unification. However, T-95 will suit for placing practically kind of arms, guns or missiles.
By one account in 2008 The tank has a new multi layer armor, classical powder gun, active system of protection "Arena" in addition to the already "obligatory" passive dynamic protection. The crew would consist of 3 persons: the commander, aimer and driver. It will be placed in the forward part of the hull. Engine and transmission is behind. The gun is put outside, on the top part of the hull and can be of any caliber (basic version not less than 130 mm). The location of the ammunition will be, most likely, classical, like in T-72 and T?-90. However, the crew will be separated from them with a reinforced armor. The tank's weight, most likely, will exceed 50 tons.
It is suggested that this new tank will weigh about 50 tons, though with a lower silhouette than other recent Russian tanks. The primary armament is reportedly a 152mm smoothbore gun / ATGM launcher with an ammunition load of at least 40 rounds, which may be placed in an unmanned gun pod on top of the hull to lower the silhouette and increase survivability. The new design also places far greater emphasis on crew protection than in previous Russian tank designs through a unitary armored pod inside the hull.
In spite of all the work that went into this tank, development was not yet complete as of 2008. This may be due in part to the workload imposed by the T-90 export contracts on UVZ and the design bureau. It is reported that during the negotiations over the first contract for deliveries of T-90S tanks to India, Indian experts expressed a strong interest in the future Russian tank that was said to be at a high level of development at that time.
In January 2008 it was reported that the Chief of Arms of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and the Deputy Minister of Defense general Nikolay Makarov said that in 2008 Russia will start the tests of the principally new tank. According to the newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta the general meant the T-95. Allegedly he said that the new tank will be conceptually new, surpassing all existing samples. It will have new chassis, power-plant, control system of arms and aiming. Though, as has it was also declared by Nikolay Makarov, some enterprises of the Russian MIC are no more capable of making certain accessories.
In July 2008 Sergei Mayev, head of the Federal Service for Defense Contracts (Rosoboronzakaz) stated that- Russia's armed forces will start receiving new-generation tanks superior to the famed T-90 main battle tank (MBT) "after 2010". At that time there were over 25,000 MBTs in service with the Russian Ground Forces. However, relatively modern T-80 and T-90 models accounted for only 30 percent of the current fleet of tanks and even these tanks require constant upgrades to incorporate modern weaponry, protection and electronics systems. "The T-90 MBT will be the backbone of the armored units until 2025. T-72's and T-80's will not be modernized and will be eventually replaced by new-generation tanks, which will start entering service after 2010," Sergei Mayev told a news conference.
The new-generation MBT, which still did not have a designation, was said to feature better firepower, maneuverability, electronics and armor protection than the T-90 MBT. Its speed will increase from 30-50 kph to 50-65 kph (19-31 mph to 31-40 mph). Despite these ambitious goals, the T-95 project was suspended in 2010. By that time, only 3 prototypes had been built and tested by the military. Russia’s then-deputy defence minister said that the tank had become “morally obsolete”. However, it became a test bed for newer models of Russian tanks, and the remote-control turret and the high-output engine were later incorporated into the famed T-14 Armata.
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