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Severomorsk

Today, the Northern Fleet is the most powerful of all Russian fleets. The main location is ZATO Severomorsk. The Northern Fleet is the most powerful of all Russian military fleets. It consists of modern nuclear and diesel submarines, surface ships of various classes, aviation, military equipment. Russian Northern Fleet headquarters is located at Severomorsk along the northern edge of the Kola Peninsula. Severomorsk is also a major port and weapons handling facility. This coastline, which is ice-free all year due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream, provides the Northern Fleet unrestricted access to open water. This allows for near continuous year-round training exercises as well as the opportunity for response to political and military crises. The remainder of the Arctic coastline becomes icebound and virtually impassible each winter. Russian nuclear icebreakers are, however, active in the area, making progress especially against the spring and fall ice packs. This portion of Russia is subjected to long winter nights and in the Murmansk area the sun does not rise above the horizon from mid-November through mid-January. The headquarters building of the Red-Banner Kola Flotilla on the general plan of 1935 was listed as the Commander's House, and most likely Commander of the Northern Military Flotilla K.I.Dushenov expected to live there with his family. The headquarters building was built in 1937. Initially, it was intended not only for the deployment of the headquarters of the Northern Military Flotilla, but also served as housing for the commander's family. However, K.I. Dushenov (in 1935-37 - the commander of the Northern Military Flotilla, in 1937-38 - the commander of the Northern Fleet) decided to settle in one of the apartments of the "Circular" house, and completely give the headquarters building for office premises. With its location, the headquarters organically fit into the architectural complex. The headquarters of the Northern Fleet was located in the building until 1947. The headquarters of the Northern Fleet was located in a new building. A new fleet headquarters building was built in the Northern Fleet, and work on automation of control of the fleet forces was begun in the 5th Directorate of the Navy. The Northern Fleet had an intelligently designed and well-constructed new building for the fleet headquarters, of course, without any automated control systems, since they were not yet in the country. The system of automated control of the forces of the fleet, which some were thinking about back in 1964, appeared on the Navy only in 1980.

Northern Fleet Headquarters Northern Fleet Headquarters

Northern Fleet Headquarters Northern Fleet Headquarters

In May 1984, a five-day series of explosions at Shtyukozero (8 km NE of Severomorsk) reportedly destroyed up to one-third of the Northern Fleet's SAM stockpile, as well as other missiles and munitions. This site also housed nuclear missiles at the time of the fire. Luckily, the fire was extinguished before it spread to the nuclear missile storage areas.

Once emblematic of the Cold War threat to the United States, today Severomorsk and the Northern Fleet provide a stage for strong and growing relations between the U.S. and Russia. In August 1997 USS Estocin completed a three-day visit to Severomorsk, Russia, homeport of Russia's largest naval force, the Northern Fleet. Severomorsk is the second Russian port visit during this northern cruise for Estocin, a Naval Reserve Perry-class guided-missile frigate. As a participant in the recent BALTOPS 97 exercise, the ship went to the port of Baltysk, Russia.

Severomorsk, a Closed Administrational and Territorial District (ZATO - zakrytye administrativno-territorial'nye obrazovaniia), is situated on the coast of the Kola Bay in 26 km from Murmansk. It is called the capital of the Northern Navy of Russia. There are more 400 enterprises and institutions of the military industrial complex, housing economy, transport and communication, trade and the other branches of the economical activity. The essential place in economy of the town has small business undertakings. In Severomorsk operates the only professional naval folk dancing and singing ensemble above the Arctic Circle. You can visit in Severomorsk the Museum of local Lore, but it is not easy to get to the town, as visitors should have special pass.

The city of Severomorsk is on the Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea in the eastern part of the middle knee of the Kola Bay on the southern shore of the Vaenga Bay and the eastern coast of Varlamov Bay. The North Sea includes the water area adjacent to the Vaenga and Varlamova. The first mentions of Vaenga is found in the manuscript Books to the Great to the drawing": " ... and below the city of Cola 40 versts fell into the sea channel in Kola Vaenga River."

The indigenous inhabitants of the Kola Peninsula are Sami. They are among the first to come here and found large herds of deer and a small winding river full of fish. And they gave her the name Waeng. Researchers say that it came from the Sami vajazh - an important thing, which means "Baby Deer." The pre-war reference book says: Vaenga (Vaenga) - a village in the Polar region, Gryazno-Gubsky village council. At Vaenga lip in easternthe shore of the Kola Bay, 26 km from the city of Murmansk, formed in 1896-1897 settlement of Vaenga. " This settlement was founded by colonists, who lived in wooden chopped houses built from a local forest. They were engaged in hunting, fishing, and cattle breeding.

In 1926, a logging office was established in Murmansk. The Lumberjack Artel was sent to Vaenga. Forest managers with families arrived for logging. Part of the families liked these places and they stayed there for permanent residence. In 1932, a resolution of the Government of the USSR on the development andimprovement of the Northern Sea Route, and on December 17 formed General Directorate of the Northern Sea Route. This decision has stepped up infrastructure development in the North of the country. More actively began to develop settlements of the Kola Bay, including the Vaenga camp.

On April 15, 1933 by order of the People's Commissar of Defense of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was ordered to separate some of the ships from the Baltic Fleet and transferring them to the North (as part of the Special Purpose Expedition No. 1 and No. 2) for the formation of the Northern military flotilla. On July 22, 1933 a party and government delegation composed of I.V.Stain, S.M.Kirov, and K.E.Voroshilov inspected the construction sites of bases and fortifications formed flotilla from Murmansk to metro station Set-Navolok, having visited Rosta, settlement Vaenga and Catherine Harbor. Bay and settlement Vaenga wit had joining territory were designated for the construction of the rear base flotillas.

The main operational base of the fleet was built in accordance with the existing principles for the construction of naval bases. But, the limited water area of ??the Catherine harbor and deployment of flotillas into the fleet forced abandoning the placement of the Main fleet base in Polyarny and started a search for a new location for it. Such a place was found in Vaenga Bay. This then became the determining development of the village Vaenga (subsequently - the city of Severomorsk). In 1934, surveyors began to arrive to lay the Vaenga road to Murmansk. Recruitment of the first civilian employees started on Komsomol permits builders.

May 11, 1937 by order of the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSRThe Northern Flotilla was reorganized into the Northern Fleet. Deployment of the flotilla into the fleet necessitated organization of new places of basing fleet forces. One of the best places like this was recognized as Vaenga Bay. In the prewar years, the main naval base of the Northern Fleet in the Arctic was created by military builders. They built objects in uninhabited areas allowed to ensure the activities of sailors in the war. In parallel with military facilities, housing was built for military personnel, military builders and civilian staff. So, in 1938, military builders surrendered the streets of wooden two-story houses, called Bird Mountain (Upper Varlamovo). In 1939, the first two brick houses (houses No. 12 and 13) were commissioned that marked the beginning of the current Safonova street. In 1940, the Vaenga - Murmansk road began to function. Its construction was finally completed in 1942.

A severe test for the young Northern Fleet and for the working village of Vaenga was the Great Patriotic War. Under these conditions, the Northern Fleet reliably throughout the war covered the coastal flank of the 14th Army from landings and enemy attack ships, defended their maritime communications, continuous strikes on the enemys communications, violated his transportation and deprived him of initiative at sea.

Since June 3, 1945, the navy switched to peacetime, and the convoy system was canceled. The construction of Vaenga continued. Vaenga residents, military builders, sailors sought to make the village comfortable and beautiful. So, as the swampy lowland in the center began to fill with sand, they saved all the vegetation there. This further allowed to set up a city park - a favorite vacation spot for citizens. Military and civilian construction continued in Vaenga. Builders built up middle Vaenga with two-story houses Soviet, Pioneer, and Sports (now Golovko) streets. On the slopes of the hills were built one-story houses.

On November 16, 1945 the executive committee of the Polar City Council in connection with significant population growth, economic growth, rapid development and transformation of the Vaenga camp into the main naval base of the Northern Fleet, appealed to the Executive Committee of Murmansk Regional Council of Workers' Deputies with a request: to leave a petition before the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR on the transformation of the camp Vaenga of the Murmansk region to the city of regional subordination with the assignment of the name Severomorsk. On September 1, 1947 the headquarters and management of the Northern Fleetrelocated to the Vaenga camp. On April 18, 1951 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council RSFSR the working village of Vaenga was transformed into the city of regional subordination, given the name Severomorsk.

The third period of development of the city (early 70s - 1991) is also characterized by the further development of the citys infrastructure in connection with development of the Northern Fleet. During this period, the fleet arrived with basing in Severomorsk new aircraft carriers and missile cruisers, missile and anti-submarine ships, new aircraft and missile-carrying helicopters, reconnaissance and anti-submarine aircraft. Since 1991, the fourth period in the development of the city began. Unfortunately, in this period the Northern Fleet due to the lack of financing was fighting for its survival - for maintaining the combat core fleet. The entry of new ships into the fleet practically stopped. City ??residents witnessed a massive withdrawal of ships from combat composition. The North Sea moorings were almost empty.

On November 26, 1996 by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation the city of Severomorsk was converted to a ZATO (closed administrative-territorial association) with the inclusion of settlements: Safonovo, Roslyakovo, Safonovo-1, Severomorsk-3, and Shchukozero.




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