The IL-86 was the first domestic Soviet wide-bodied aircraft. The need for such aircraft in the Soviet Union was created in 1967, when Aeroflot has developed the requirements for the aircraft to 250-350 seats. In October 1967, was adopted by Government Decision USSR on the development of such aircraft. In September 1969, the Experimental Design Bureau n/a S.V.Ilyushin was commissioned to start the works on the development of an airplane of a greater passenger capacity. The order stipulated the aircraft operation based on the existing and available ground technical bases, runways and airports.
The requirements included the luggage transportation based on the "luggage with the passenger plus containers" principle, installation of three entrance doors equipped with the built-in boarding ramps thus excluding the necessity to use the airdrome facilities to ensure passengers boarding and debarkation. This "self-loading" concept with integral boarding stairs and below-deck luggage stores in addition to a below-deck midships galley is a unique feature of the aircraft, providing a quick landing and departure passengers regardless of airport ground services.
The new wide-body IL-86 airplane became the airplane that met all these requirements. Based on a comprehensive study, a fuselage to provide a range of nine seats with two passes was selected for the Ilyushin IL-86. The width of the walkway was more than the wide-bodied aircraft to foreign firms. The landing gear with three main pillars allows the aircraft to operate at a larger number of airports with a capacity to receive more aircraft. The plane Il-86 is designed for use on medium-length flights. Installation on a plane of modern equipment, coupled with multiple redundant main systems for high reliability and safety.
After appearing on transcontinental routes in 1970, the U.S. aircraft giant Boeing-747 and against the background of the completion of the first European Airbus A300 USSR Council of Ministers in March 1972 ordered the beginning of the first Soviet «aerobusom» Il-86. The plane was carrying 350 passengers on ranges up to 3500 km. The beginning of flight tests of the new liner was scheduled for 1976. In full accordance with a government job, IL-86 (USSR-86000) first took off from the Central airfield Frunze 22 December 1976. The test pilot of the airplane was E.I.Kuznetsov. On October 25, 1977 was a maiden flight of the first mass manufactured IL-86. The IL-86 is the first home certificated airplane.
In April 1978, the first technical flight on Il-86 en route from Moscow to Sochi. The same had been committed demonstration flights in Leningrad, Simferopol, Rostov-on-Don, mineral water. According to KB Ilyushin, in the late 1970's Il-86 first visited at first, but the official date of the first landing of Il-86 in «Tolmachevo» considered in February 1980. In September 1979, began operating test new ship (aircraft Soviet Union and Soviet-86003-86004) in Vnukovskom Production Association of Civil Aviation. In December 1980, the plane received a certificate of airworthiness and December 26 to make the first regular flight from Moscow to Tashkent. The following year, team creators IL-86 was awarded Lenin Prize, a master designer Henry Novozhilov «for outstanding achievements in creating a new aviation technology» was awarded a second gold medal of Hero of Socialist Labor.
In September-October 1981, at the Il-86 made a total of 17 [or 18] official world records in speed closed-circuit route length of 1000 km and 2000 with different amounts of cargo in the class of aircraft without limitation takeoff weight. During the flight record was achieved speed, consistency, 962.0 km / h and 975.3 km / h. These figures Il-86 have not been exceeded in 20 years.
In 1980, certification testing culminated in the GOSAVIAREGISTR of the USSR issuing Certificate of Airworthiness No.10-86. And in late December came the first scheduled flight. From December 1980, the IL-86 aircraft were operated on domestic and international routes with the most heavy passenger traffic flows. On 26 December 1980 Aeroflot put the Ilyushin Il-86 into service on its Moscow-Tashkent route. On 03 July 1981 the first international service with the Ilyushin Il-86 begins with an Aeroflot flight from Moscow to East Berlin, East Germany.
After 25 years from the first flight of the Il-86 remains the most reliable aircraft in the domestic civil aviation. The IL-86 aircraft operation proved that the airplane ensures the substantial reduction of the operational costs and significant fuel economy. The aircraft design features allowed to start its regular operations without expensive reconstruction of the existing airports.
The introduction of new aircraft-noise limits by the European Union as of 01 April 2002 could have a dramatic impact on Russia's tourism industry this season, particularly because the Ilyushin-86, a tourism workhorse, does not meet those requirements. While separate negotiations between Russia and several EU countries were in progress at that time, industry insiders said charter flights - the most popular form of foreign travel for Russians - to France, Greece, Italy and Spain aboard Il-86 planes most likely will still be allowed to land at airports in EU countries this season. Most Russian tourists fly to European and other foreign destinations aboard the 350-seat Il-86. If tour companies were to switch to the less noisy, 150-seat Tupolev-154, the cost of a round trip would rise by about $100 to $120 per passenger.
The Interstate Aviation Committee, or MAK, an aviation regulatory body for the Commonwealth of Independent States -- ruled 09 February 2003 that the crash of a Pulkovo Airlines Il-86 shortly after takeoff from Sheremetyevo Airport on 28 July 2003 may have been due to technical malfunction, Oleg Yermolov, MAK's deputy director, said Thursday. The crash -- which resulted in the deaths of 14 of the 16 crew -- was the first ever in the Il-86's 20-year history. No passengers were aboard. Russian carriers operate 41 Il-86s with a dozen more flying in other CIS states. The craft was considered the most reliable plane in service until the crash.
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