Project 1650 Amur class
Diesel-Electric Torpedo Submarine
The Project 1650 Amur, intended for export, is part of the same project and differ only in customer requirements and operational conditions. In 1989 the Rubin Marine Design Bureau in St. Petersburg was commissioned by the Russian Navy to design a new fourth-generation diesel-electric submarine. Rubin developed the fourth generation conventional submarines of the Amur class (Amur 1650 and Amur 950) based upon a multi-year experience of operating diesel-electric submarines of Projects 613 (Whiskey), 641 (Foxtrot), 641B (Tango) of Kilo class by Russian Navy and by Navies of other countries. Rubin completed design work on a whole family of the Amur diesel-electric submarines with a displacement of 550 to 1,850 tons.
The designers adopted essentially the same design and layout solutions for entire submarines and their separate subsystems, using unified or modified equipment. The Amur is intended to be the most advanced export design to date, incorporating many of the signature-reduction technologies proven on the Project 636 Kilo, notably anechoic tile coatings and a skewed seven-bladed propeller.
The Amur class would also include provisions for a fuel cell plant that can be installed during construction or modernisation to give air independent propulsion with oxygen/hydrogen and electric/ chemical generators. The air-independent propulsion plant with electrochemical generators would considerably increase submerged endurance and cruising range. The plant with stock of reagents is located in a special compartment module, which can be incorporated into the submarine during construction or repair / refit.
However, the first submarines of the type would not be powered with such a plant. The reason is high cost of air-independent power plants, as well as higher level of fire safety required to operate them. The submarines powered with air-indipendent power plants may appear in the market not earlier than by 2003-2004. According to estimates, Kristall-27E AIP system would increase the Amur Class submarines' submerged endurance by 15 to 45 days (the longer endurance is ensured by a short-term operation of the diesel engine in the snorkeling mode).
Compared to Kilo class submarines, the Amur 1650 submarine features a reduced displacement. The boat is distinguished by the capability of firing up to 6 missiles in a salvo against targets at sea and on shore, state-of-the-art electronic warfare systems and a sonar with a unique passive antenna to detect silent targets at a large range. Acoustic signature of the Amur 1650 submarine is several times lower compared to Kilo class submarines which are currently considered to be the most silent in the world. The submarine is equipped with electronic warfare systems of new generation based on the recent hi-tech solutions.
The submarine can be operated in any oceanic area, except for the regions with extensive ice fields, at any weather, and in shallow and deep waters. For the submarine, the equipment and weapons of Russian production, as well as by the Customer country, or by other countries can be used.
Compared to Kilo class submarines and the Amur 1650 submarine, the Amur 950 has a smaller displacement. The special feature of the submarine is 10 universal vertical Club S missile launchers which enables her to fire a ten- cruise missile salvo against sea- and land-based targets in no longer than 2 minutes. Small-size acoustic counteraction devices provided for self-defence are located in the launchers in the boat superstructure.
Two diesel-electric submarines of a new, fourth postwar generation have been laid down at the Admiralteiskiye Verfi state-owned shipyard in St. Petersburg. One submarine (Project 677 Lada), designated Sankt Peterburg, is being built for Russia's Navy, and the other (Amur-1650) is intended for export. Both submarines are part of the same project and differ only in customer requirements and operational conditions.
The construction of the Amur-1650 submarine was made possible owing to efforts of the Morskaya Tekhnika (Marine Equipment) financial and industrial group, which includes Admiralteiskie Verfi, the Rubin Central Marine Design Bureau, Incombank, and the Central Company of the Morskaya Tekhnika FIG. The financial and industrial group is funding research and development efforts and the purchase of materials and accessories.
"The participation of commercial structures in the funding of military-technical cooperation projects is not something new," the Director General of the Central Company of the Morskaya Tekhnika FIG Igor Bakhmetyev said. "We can recall the supply of MiG fighters abroad. Now our task is to organize optimum financial schemes to make it possible to conduct research and development and purchase the required equipment for the Amur's export version. On the whole, the pooling of budgetary and extra-budgetary funds for the construction of submarines of a new generation for the Russian Navy and for export will help save a lot of money."
At the laying-down ceremony, the privilege to embed the plaque on the Sankt Peterburg submarine was granted to the Commander-in-Chief of Russia's Navy Admiral Vladimir Kuroyedov and St. Petersburg Deputy Mayor Yuri Antonov. The plaque of the Amur-1650 submarine was laid down by the President of the Morskaya Tekhnika FIG, the General Designer and Head of the Rubin Central Marine Design Bureau Academician Igor Spassky, and a departmental head of the Rosvoorouzhenie State Corporation, Victor Kapustin.
The ceremony was also attended by the Head of the Department of Defense Strategic Programs of Russia's Ministry of Economics Oleg Yefimov, other officials, workers and engineers of Admiralteiskie Verfi and Rubin, numerous guests and reporters.
Foreign customers have shown high interest in Russia’s advanced Amur-1650 class submarine, state-run arms dealer Rosoboronexport said 13 March 2013. “Of the nine countries that are planning to modernize or develop their submarine fleets…three have already chosen the Amur-1650 project,” Rosoboronexport’s director Anatoly Isaikin said. He did not name the countries in question. The ongoing work on air-independent (closed cycle) propulsion systems for the submarine should further fuel the customers’ interest, he added. The Amur 1650 is one of several participants in a tender by the Indian Navy for six submarines with a total value of $11.8 billion. The Amur 1650 is up against the Scorpene (France), Type 214 (Germany) and S-80 (Spain), among others.
As of 2014 no customer had been found for the Amur 1650-class export submarine laid down at Admiralty Shipyard on 26 December 1997, as India had apparently decided it was not interested in the boat.
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